List of international trade topics
This is a list of international trade
International trade
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories. In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product...

  • Absolute advantage
    Absolute advantage
    In economics, principle of absolute advantage refers to the ability of a party to produce more of a good or service than competitors, using the same amount of resources...

  • Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
    Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
    The Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights is an international agreement administered by the World Trade Organization that sets down minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property regulation as applied to nationals of other WTO Members...

  • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
    Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
    Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim countries that seeks to promote free trade and economic cooperation throughout the Asia-Pacific region...

  • Autarky
    Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient. Usually the term is applied to political states or their economic policies. Autarky exists whenever an entity can survive or continue its activities without external assistance. Autarky is not necessarily economic. For example, a military autarky...

  • Balance of trade
    Balance of trade
    The balance of trade is the difference between the monetary value of exports and imports of output in an economy over a certain period. It is the relationship between a nation's imports and exports...

  • Barter
    Barter is a method of exchange by which goods or services are directly exchanged for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money. It is usually bilateral, but may be multilateral, and usually exists parallel to monetary systems in most developed countries, though to a...

  • Bilateral Investment Treaty
    Bilateral Investment Treaty
    A bilateral investment treaty is an agreement establishing the terms and conditions for private investment by nationals and companies of one state in another state. This type of investment is called foreign direct investment . BITs are established through trade pacts...

  • Bimetallism
    In economics, bimetallism is a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit is defined as equivalent both to a certain quantity of gold and to a certain quantity of silver; such a system establishes a fixed rate of exchange between the two metals...

  • Branch plant economy
    Branch plant economy
    The branch plant economy is the phenomenon of United States companies building factories in Canada, primarily to sell products in the Canadian market. In the period between the American Civil War and World War I, U.S. companies began to look to Canada as a new market. The branch plants built in...

  • Bretton Woods conference
    United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference
    The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, commonly known as the Bretton Woods conference, was a gathering of 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations at the Mount Washington Hotel, situated in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, to regulate the international monetary and financial order after...

  • Bretton Woods system
    Bretton Woods system
    The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the world's major industrial states in the mid 20th century...

  • British timber trade
    British timber trade
    The British timber trade was importation of timber from the Baltic, and later North America, by the British. During the Middle Ages and Stuart period, Great Britain had large domestic supplies of timber, especially valuable were the famous British oaks...

  • Cash crop
    Cash crop
    In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for profit.The term is used to differentiate from subsistence crops, which are those fed to the producer's own livestock or grown as food for the producer's family...

  • Central European Free Trade Agreement
    Central European Free Trade Agreement
    The Central European Free Trade Agreement is a trade agreement between non-EU countries in Southeast Europe.-Members:As of 1 May 2007, the parties of the CEFTA agreement are: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia and UNMIK on behalf of Kosovo.Former...

  • Comparative advantage
    Comparative advantage
    In economics, the law of comparative advantage says that two countries will both gain from trade if, in the absence of trade, they have different relative costs for producing the same goods...

  • Cost, Insurance and Freight (CIF)
  • Council of Arab Economic Unity
    Council of Arab Economic Unity
    The Council of Arab Economic Unity was established by Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Tunisia, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen on 3 June 1957...

  • Currency
    In economics, currency refers to a generally accepted medium of exchange. These are usually the coins and banknotes of a particular government, which comprise the physical aspects of a nation's money supply...

  • Customs broking
    Customs broking
    Customs brokerage is a profession that involves the 'clearing' of goods through customs barriers for importers and exporters...

  • Customs union
    Customs union
    A customs union is a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff. The participant countries set up common external trade policy, but in some cases they use different import quotas...

  • David Ricardo
    David Ricardo
    David Ricardo was an English political economist, often credited with systematising economics, and was one of the most influential of the classical economists, along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith, and John Stuart Mill. He was also a member of Parliament, businessman, financier and speculator,...

  • Doha Development Round (Of World Trade Organization
    World Trade Organization
    The World Trade Organization is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1, 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade , which commenced in 1948...

  • Dominican Republic – Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA)
  • Enabling clause
    Enabling clause
    In 1979, as part of the Tokyo Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade , the enabling clause was adopted in order to permit trading preferences targeted at developing and least developed countries which would otherwise violate Article I of the GATT...

  • European Union
    European Union
    The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

  • Export documents
  • ATA Carnet
    ATA Carnet
    The ATA Carnet is an international customs document that allows the holder to temporarily import goods without payment of normally applicable duties and taxes, including value-added taxes. The Carnet eliminates the need to purchase temporary import bonds. So long as the goods are re-exported...

  • ATR.1 certificate
    ATR.1 certificate
    The ATR.1 Certificate is a customs document used in trade between EU members and Turkey, to benefit from cheaper rates of duty. The legal basis for the use of the certificate is the EU-Turkey Customs Union. It is important to remember that not all products are included in the customs union....

  • Certificate of origin
    Certificate of origin
    A Certificate of Origin is a document used in international trade. It traditionally states from what country the shipped goods originate, but "originate" in a CO does not mean the country the goods are shipped from, but the country where the goodtion problem in cases where less than 100% of the...

  • EUR.1 movement certificate
    EUR.1 movement certificate
    EUR.1 is the name for a form, which is used in international commodity traffic. The application of this form is based on application of various bi- and multilateral agreements within the Pan-European preference system ....

  • Form A
  • Form B
  • TIR Carnet
  • European Free Trade Association
    European Free Trade Association
    The European Free Trade Association or EFTA is a free trade organisation between four European countries that operates parallel to, and is linked to, the European Union . EFTA was established on 3 May 1960 as a trade bloc-alternative for European states who were either unable to, or chose not to,...

  • Exchange rate
    Exchange rate
    In finance, an exchange rate between two currencies is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another. It is also regarded as the value of one country’s currency in terms of another currency...

  • Factor price equalization
    Factor price equalization
    Factor price equalization is an economic theory, by Paul A. Samuelson , which states that the relative prices for two identical factors of production in the same market will eventually equal each other because of competition. The price for each single factor need not become equal, but relative...

  • Fair trade
    Fair trade
    Fair trade is an organized social movement and market-based approach that aims to help producers in developing countries make better trading conditions and promote sustainability. The movement advocates the payment of a higher price to producers as well as higher social and environmental standards...

  • Foreign direct investment
    Foreign direct investment
    Foreign direct investment or foreign investment refers to the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor.. It is the sum of equity capital,other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in...

  • Foreign exchange option
    Foreign exchange option
    In finance, a foreign-exchange option is a derivative financial instrument that gives the owner the right but not the obligation to exchange money denominated in one currency into another currency at a pre-agreed exchange rate on a specified date.The FX options market is the deepest, largest and...

  • Foreign Sales Corporation
    Foreign Sales Corporation
    Foreign Sales Corporations was a means formerly provided by United States taxation law for US companies to receive a reduction in US federal income taxes for profits derived from exports, through the use of an offshore subsidiary .The European Union launched proceedings against these provisions...

    s (FSCs)
  • Forfaiting
    In trade finance, forfaiting involves the purchasing of receivables from exporters. The forfaiter takes on all risks involved with the receivables.Where are the independent and verifiable cites for this? Links? The forfaiting operation is a transaction-based operation involving the sale of one of...

  • Free Trade Area of the Americas
    Free Trade Area of the Americas
    The Free Trade Area of the Americas , , ) was a proposed agreement to eliminate or reduce the trade barriers among all countries in the Americas but Cuba. In the last round of negotiations, trade ministers from 34 countries met in Miami, United States, in November 2003 to discuss the proposal...

  • Free On Board
    Free On Board
    FOB is an initialism which pertains to the shipping of goods. Depending on specific usage, it may stand for Free On Board or Freight On Board. FOB specifies which party pays for which shipment and loading costs, and/or where responsibility for the goods is transferred...

  • Free trade
    Free trade
    Under a free trade policy, prices emerge from supply and demand, and are the sole determinant of resource allocation. 'Free' trade differs from other forms of trade policy where the allocation of goods and services among trading countries are determined by price strategies that may differ from...

  • Free trade area
    Free trade area
    A free trade area is a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free trade agreement , which eliminates tariffs, import quotas, and preferences on most goods and services traded between them. If people are also free to move between the countries, in addition to FTA, it would also be...

  • Free trade zone
    Free trade zone
    A free trade zone or export processing zone , also called foreign-trade zone, formerly free port is an area within which goods may be landed, handled, manufactured or reconfigured, and reexported without the intervention of the customs authorities...

  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
    The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade was negotiated during the UN Conference on Trade and Employment and was the outcome of the failure of negotiating governments to create the International Trade Organization . GATT was signed in 1947 and lasted until 1993, when it was replaced by the World...

  • Generalized System of Preferences
    Generalized System of Preferences
    The Generalized System of Preferences, or GSP, is a formal system of exemption from the more general rules of the World Trade Organization ,...

  • Geographical pricing
    Geographical pricing
    Geographical pricing, in marketing, is the practice of modifying a basic list price based on the geographical location of the buyer. It is intended to reflect the costs of shipping to different locations.There are several types of geographic pricing:...

  • Giant sucking sound
    Giant sucking sound
    The "giant sucking sound" was United States Presidential candidate Ross Perot's colorful phrase for what he believed would be the negative effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement , which he opposed.- History :...

     (a colorful phrase by Ross Perot
    Ross Perot
    Henry Ross Perot is a U.S. businessman best known for running for President of the United States in 1992 and 1996. Perot founded Electronic Data Systems in 1962, sold the company to General Motors in 1984, and founded Perot Systems in 1988...

  • Global financial system
    Global financial system
    The global financial system is the financial system consisting of institutions and regulators that act on the international level, as opposed to those that act on a national or regional level...

  • Globalization
    Globalization refers to the increasingly global relationships of culture, people and economic activity. Most often, it refers to economics: the global distribution of the production of goods and services, through reduction of barriers to international trade such as tariffs, export fees, and import...

  • Gold standard
    Gold standard
    The gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed mass of gold. There are distinct kinds of gold standard...

  • Gravity model of trade
    Gravity model of trade
    The gravity model of trade in international economics, similar to other gravity models in social science, predicts bilateral trade flows based on the economic sizes of and distance between two units. The model was first used by Tinbergen in 1962...

  • Gresham's law
    Gresham's Law
    Gresham's law is an economic principle that states: "When a government compulsorily overvalues one type of money and undervalues another, the undervalued money will leave the country or disappear from circulation into hoards, while the overvalued money will flood into circulation." It is commonly...

  • Heckscher-Ohlin model
    Heckscher-Ohlin model
    The Heckscher–Ohlin model is a general equilibrium mathematical model of international trade, developed by Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin at the Stockholm School of Economics. It builds on David Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage by predicting patterns of commerce and production based...

     (H-O model)
  • Horizontal integration
    Horizontal integration
    In microeconomics and strategic management, the term horizontal integration describes a type of ownership and control. It is a strategy used by a business or corporation that seeks to sell a type of product in numerous markets...

  • Import
    The term import is derived from the conceptual meaning as to bring in the goods and services into the port of a country. The buyer of such goods and services is referred to an "importer" who is based in the country of import whereas the overseas based seller is referred to as an "exporter". Thus...

  • Import substitution industrialization (ISI)
  • International factor movements
    International factor movements
    In international economics, international factor movements are movements of labor, capital, and other factors of production between countries. International factor movements occur in three ways: immigration/emigration, capital transfers through international borrowing and lending, and foreign...

  • International law
    International law
    Public international law concerns the structure and conduct of sovereign states; analogous entities, such as the Holy See; and intergovernmental organizations. To a lesser degree, international law also may affect multinational corporations and individuals, an impact increasingly evolving beyond...

  • International Monetary Market
    International Monetary Market
    The International Monetary Market , a spin-off from the old Chicago Mercantile Exchange and largely the creation of Leo Melamed, is today one of three divisions of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange , the largest futures exchange in the United States and the second largest in the world after Eurex,...

  • International Monetary Fund
    International Monetary Fund
    The International Monetary Fund is an organization of 187 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world...

  • International trade of genetically modified foods
    International trade of genetically modified foods
    The European Union and the United States have strong disagreements over the EU's regulation of genetically modified food. The US claims these regulations violate free trade agreements, the EU counter-position is that free trade is not truly free without informed consent.In Europe, a series of...

  • International Trade Organization
    International Trade Organization
    The Bretton Woods Conference of 1944 recognized the need for a comparable international institution for trade to complement the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank...

  • Internationalization
    In economics, internationalization has been viewed as a process of increasing involvement of enterprises in international markets, although there is no agreed definition of internationalization or international entrepreneurship...

  • Internationalization and localization
    Internationalization and localization
    In computing, internationalization and localization are means of adapting computer software to different languages, regional differences and technical requirements of a target market...

  • ISO 4217
    ISO 4217
    ISO 4217 is a standard published by the International Standards Organization, which delineates currency designators, country codes , and references to minor units in three tables:* Table A.1 – Current currency & funds code list...

     (international standard
    International standard
    International standards are standards developed by international standards organizations. International standards are available for consideration and use, worldwide...

     for currency codes)
  • Leontief paradox
    Leontief paradox
    Leontief's paradox in economics is that the country with the world's highest capital-per worker has a lower capital/labor ratio in exports than in imports....

  • Linder hypothesis
    Linder hypothesis
    The Linder hypothesis is a economics conjecture about international trade patterns: The more similar the demand structures of countries, the more they will trade with one another...

  • List of tariffs and trade legislation
  • Maquiladora
    A maquiladora or maquila is a concept often referred to as an operation that involves manufacturing in a country that is not the client's and as such has an interesting duty or tariff treatment...

  • Mercantilism
    Mercantilism is the economic doctrine in which government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the prosperity and security of the state. In particular, it demands a positive balance of trade. Mercantilism dominated Western European economic policy and discourse from...

  • Merchant bank
    Merchant bank
    A merchant bank is a financial institution which provides capital to companies in the form of share ownership instead of loans. A merchant bank also provides advisory on corporate matters to the firms they lend to....

  • Money market
    Money market
    The money market is a component of the financial markets for assets involved in short-term borrowing and lending with original maturities of one year or shorter time frames. Trading in the money markets involves Treasury bills, commercial paper, bankers' acceptances, certificates of deposit,...

  • Most favoured nation
    Most favoured nation
    In international economic relations and international politics, most favoured nation is a status or level of treatment accorded by one state to another in international trade. The term means the country which is the recipient of this treatment must, nominally, receive equal trade advantages as the...

  • Nearshoring
    Nearshoring is "the transfer of business or IT processes to companies in a nearby country, often sharing a border with your own country", where both parties expect to benefit from one or more of the following dimensions of proximity: geographic, temporal , cultural, linguistic, economic, political,...

  • New Trade Theory
    New Trade Theory
    New Trade Theory is a collection of economic models in international trade which focuses on the role of increasing returns to scale and network effects, which were developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s....

  • North American Free Trade Agreement
    North American Free Trade Agreement
    The North American Free Trade Agreement or NAFTA is an agreement signed by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America. The agreement came into force on January 1, 1994. It superseded the Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement...

  • Offshore outsourcing
    Offshore outsourcing
    Offshore outsourcing is the practice of hiring an external organization to perform some business functions in a country other than the one where the products or services are actually developed or manufactured. It can be contrasted with offshoring, in which the functions are performed in a foreign...

  • Offshoring
    Offshoring describes the relocation by a company of a business process from one country to another—typically an operational process, such as manufacturing, or supporting processes, such as accounting. Even state governments employ offshoring...

  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is an international economic organisation of 34 countries founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade...

  • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
    OPEC is an intergovernmental organization of twelve developing countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. OPEC has maintained its headquarters in Vienna since 1965, and hosts regular meetings...

  • Outsourcing
    Outsourcing is the process of contracting a business function to someone else.-Overview:The term outsourcing is used inconsistently but usually involves the contracting out of a business function - commonly one previously performed in-house - to an external provider...

  • Purchasing power parity
    Purchasing power parity
    In economics, purchasing power parity is a condition between countries where an amount of money has the same purchasing power in different countries. The prices of the goods between the countries would only reflect the exchange rates...

  • Rules of origin
    Rules of origin
    Rules of origin are used to determine the country of origin of a product for purposes of international trade. There are two common types of rules of origin depending upon application, the preferential and non-preferential rules of origin...

  • Safeguard
    In the technical language of the World Trade Organization system, a safeguard is used to restrain international trade in order to protect a certain home industry from foreign competition. A member may take a “safeguard” action In the technical language of the World Trade Organization (WTO)...

  • South Asia Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA)
  • Special Drawing Rights
    Special Drawing Rights
    Special Drawing Rights are supplementary foreign exchange reserve assets defined and maintained by the International Monetary Fund . Not a currency, SDRs instead represent a claim to currency held by IMF member countries for which they may be exchanged...

  • Special Economic Zone
    Special Economic Zone
    A Special Economic Zone is a geographical region that has economic and other laws that are more free-market-oriented than a country's typical or national laws...

  • Tariff
    A tariff may be either tax on imports or exports , or a list or schedule of prices for such things as rail service, bus routes, and electrical usage ....

  • Tax, tariff and trade
    Tax, tariff and trade
    The tax, tariff and trade laws of a political region, state or trade bloc determine which form of consumption and production tend to be encouraged or discouraged...

  • Terms of trade
    Terms of trade
    In international economics and international trade, terms of trade or TOT is /. In layman's terms it means what quantity of imports can be purchased through the sale of a fixed quantity of exports...

  • Tobin tax
    Tobin tax
    A Tobin tax, suggested by Nobel Laureate economist James Tobin, was originally defined as a tax on all spot conversions of one currency into another...

  • Trade
    Trade is the transfer of ownership of goods and services from one person or entity to another. Trade is sometimes loosely called commerce or financial transaction or barter. A network that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and...

  • Trade barrier
    Trade barrier
    Trade barriers are government-induced restrictions on international trade. The barriers can take many forms, including the following:* Tariffs* Non-tariff barriers to trade** Import licenses** Export licenses** Import quotas** Subsidies...

  • Trade bloc
    Trade bloc
    A trade bloc is a type of intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization, where regional barriers to trade, are reduced or eliminated among the participating states.-Description:...

  • Trade facilitation
    Trade facilitation
    Trade facilitation looks at how procedures and controls governing the movement of goods across national borders can be improved to reduce associated cost burdens and maximise efficiency while safeguarding legitimate regulatory objectives...

  • Trade Facilitation and Development
    Trade Facilitation and Development
    Success in export markets for developed and developing country firms is increasingly affected by the ability of countries to support an environment which promotes efficient and low cost trade services and logistics...

  • Trade finance
    Trade finance
    Trade finance is related to international trade.While a seller can require the purchaser to prepay for goods shipped, the purchaser may wish to reduce risk by requiring the seller to document the goods that have been shipped. Banks may assist by providing various forms of support...

  • Trade pact
    Trade pact
    A trade pact is a wide ranging tax, tariff and trade pact that often includes investment guarantees. The most common trade pacts are of the preferential and free trade types are concluded in order to reduce tariffs, quotas and other trade restrictions on items traded between the signatories.-By...

  • Trade sanctions
  • Trade war
    Trade war
    A trade war refers to two or more states raising or creating tariffs or other trade barriers on each other in retaliation for other trade barriers...

  • Transfer pricing
    Transfer pricing
    Transfer pricing refers to the setting, analysis, documentation, and adjustment of charges made between related parties for goods, services, or use of property . Transfer prices among components of an enterprise may be used to reflect allocation of resources among such components, or for other...

  • Transfer problem
    Transfer problem
    The 'transfer problem' is a subject of debate between Keynes and Bertil Ohlin in the 1920s. The reversal of capital flows force countries to go from a current account deficit to a current account surplus....

  • United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference
    United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference
    The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, commonly known as the Bretton Woods conference, was a gathering of 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations at the Mount Washington Hotel, situated in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, to regulate the international monetary and financial order after...

  • Uruguay Round
    Uruguay Round
    The Uruguay Round was the 8th round of Multilateral trade negotiations conducted within the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade , spanning from 1986-1994 and embracing 123 countries as “contracting parties”. The Round transformed the GATT into the World Trade Organization...

     (Of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
    The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade was negotiated during the UN Conference on Trade and Employment and was the outcome of the failure of negotiating governments to create the International Trade Organization . GATT was signed in 1947 and lasted until 1993, when it was replaced by the World...

  • Wage insurance
    Wage insurance
    Wage insurance is a form of proposed insurance that would provide workers with compensation if they are forced to move to a job with a lower salary. The idea is usually proposed as a response to outsourcing and the effects of globalization, although it could equally be proposed as a response to job...

  • World Intellectual Property Organization
    World Intellectual Property Organization
    The World Intellectual Property Organization is one of the 17 specialized agencies of the United Nations. WIPO was created in 1967 "to encourage creative activity, to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world"....

  • World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty
    World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty
    The World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty, abbreviated as the WIPO Copyright Treaty, is an international treaty on copyright law adopted by the member states of the World Intellectual Property Organization in 1996...

     (WIPO Copyright Treaty)
  • World Trade Organization
    World Trade Organization
    The World Trade Organization is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1, 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade , which commenced in 1948...


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