Landscape architect
A landscape architect is a person involved in the planning, design and sometimes direction of a landscape, garden, or distinct space. The professional practice is known as landscape architecture
Landscape architecture
Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor and public spaces to achieve environmental, socio-behavioral, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic investigation of existing social, ecological, and geological conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions...


The term "landscape designer" is sometimes used to refer to those who are not officially qualified or licensed as landscape architects. Others individuals who practice landscape design, but have yet to attain professional licensure (if it is available under a particular state or jurisdiction) refer to themselves as garden artisans, planting designers, environmental designers, or site planners. Landscape architecture was not commonly recognized in developed nations as a distinct profession until the early twentieth century. The term landscape architect has different meaning depending on location; however, in general the title (like architect
An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...

 or engineer
An engineer is a professional practitioner of engineering, concerned with applying scientific knowledge, mathematics and ingenuity to develop solutions for technical problems. Engineers design materials, structures, machines and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality,...

) is usually protected, and to practice landscape architecture one requires licensure or registration. This varies by location, for example some U.S. states offer "practice acts" and some offer "title acts". Each refers to the limitations placed on persons who are and are not licensed.


The Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

n Institute of Landscape Architects states that "Landscape Architects research, plan, design and advise on the stewardship, conservation and sustainability of development of the environment and spaces, both within and beyond the built environment". This definition of the profession of landscape architect is based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations, International Labour Office, Geneva
Geneva In the national languages of Switzerland the city is known as Genf , Ginevra and Genevra is the second-most-populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandie, the French-speaking part of Switzerland...


To become a recognised professional landscape architect in Australia, the first requirement is to obtain a degree in landscape architecture accredited by the Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA). After at least two years of recognised professional practice, graduates may submit for further assessment to obtain full professional recognition by the AILA.

United Kingdom

The Landscape Institute
Landscape Institute
The Landscape Institute is a British professional body for landscape architects. Founded in 1929 as the Institute of Landscape Architects, it was granted a Royal Charter in 1997. The Institute aims to promote landscape architecture, and to regulate the profession with a code of conduct that...

  is the recognised body relating to the field of Landscape architecture throughout the UK. To become a recognised landscape architect in the UK takes approximately 7 years. To begin the process, one has to study an accredited course by the Landscape Institute to obtain a Bachelors degree in Landscape Architecture or a similar field. Following this one must progress onto a Postgraduate Diploma in the field of Landscape Architecture covering the subject in far greater detail such as mass urban planning, construction and planting. Following this, the trainee must complete the Pathway to Chartership, a challenging but very rewarding program set out by the Landscape Institute. Following this, one is awarded a full Landscape Architect title and becomes a Chartered Member of the Landscape Institute (CMLI.)

United States

The United States is the founding country of the formal profession named landscape architecture. The actual activities however are common to most human cultures around the globe for several millennia. Meanwhile, in the U.S. a need to formalize the practice and name were resolved in 1899 with the formation of the American Society of Landscape Architects
American Society of Landscape Architects
The American Society of Landscape Architects is the national professional association representing landscape architects, with more than 17,000 members in 48 chapters, representing all 50 states, U.S. territories, and 42 countries around the world, plus 68 student chapters...

. A few of the many talented and influential landscape architects that have been based in The United States are: Frederick Law Olmsted
Frederick Law Olmsted
Frederick Law Olmsted was an American journalist, social critic, public administrator, and landscape designer. He is popularly considered to be the father of American landscape architecture, although many scholars have bestowed that title upon Andrew Jackson Downing...

, Beatrix Farrand
Beatrix Farrand
Beatrix Jones Farrand was a landscape gardener and landscape architect in the United States. Her career included commissions to design the gardens for private residences, estates and country homes, public parks, botanic gardens, college campuses, and the White House.Farrand was one of the founding...

, Jens Jensen
Jens Jensen
Jens August Jensen was an Australian politician and Minister for the Navy.Jensen was born in Ballarat, Victoria and educated at Ballarat, leaving school at 11. He became a rabbit-hawker and miner at Beaconsfield, Tasmania. In July 1885 he married Elizabeth Frances Broadhurst; she died in 1894...

, Ian McHarg
Ian McHarg
Ian L. McHarg was born in Clydebank, Scotland and became a landscape architect and a renowned writer on regional planning using natural systems. He was the founder of the department of landscape architecture at the University of Pennsylvania in the United States. His 1969 book Design with Nature...

, Thomas Church
Thomas Dolliver Church
Thomas Dolliver Church , called "Dolliver" by his family and "Tommy" by his friends, was a landscape architect.- Life :...

, and Lawrence Halprin
Lawrence Halprin
Lawrence Halprin was an influential American landscape architect, designer and teacher.Beginning his career in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, in 1949, Halprin often collaborated with a local circle of modernist architects on relatively modest projects. These figures included William...

. Robert Royston
Robert Royston
Robert N. Royston was one of America’s most distinguished landscape architects, based in the San Francisco Bay Area of California in the United States. His design work and university teaching in the years following World War II helped define and establish the California modernism style in the...

 summed up one American theme:

"landscape architecture practices the fine art of relating the structure of culture to the nature of landscape, to the end that people can use it, enjoy it, and preserve it.”

Salaries for landscape architects in the United States generally range from about $36,000 to $68,000 a year with a mean of roughly $42,511. Corporate landscape architects generally make more than those working for governmental agencies. Those in this field work both to create an aesthetically pleasing setting and also to protect and preserve the environment in an area.

Scope of work

The following is an outline of the landscape architect's typical scope of service:
  1. Developing new or improved theories, policy and methods for landscape planning, design and management at local, regional, national and multinational levels.
  2. Developing policies and plans and implementing and monitoring proposals for conservation and recreation areas such as national parks.
  3. Developing new or improved theories and methods to promote environmental awareness and undertaking planning, design, restoration, management and maintenance of cultural and/or historic landscapes, parks, sites and gardens.
  4. Planning, design, management, maintenance and monitoring functional and aesthetic layouts of built environment in urban, suburban, and rural areas including private and public open spaces, parks, gardens, streetscapes, plazas, housing developments, burial grounds, memorials; tourist, commercial, industrial and educational complexes; sports grounds, zoos, botanic gardens, recreation areas and farms.
  5. Contributing to the planning, aesthetic and functional design, location, management and maintenance of infrastructure such as roads, dams, wind farms and other energy and major development projects.
  6. Undertaking landscape assessments including environmental and visual impact assessments to prepare policies or inform new developments.
  7. Inspecting sites, analysing factors such as climate, soil, flora, fauna, surface and subsurface water and drainage; and consulting with clients and making recommendations regarding methods of work and sequences of operations for projects related to the landscape and built environment.
  8. Identifying and developing appropriate solutions regarding the quality and use of the built environment in urban, suburban and rural areas and making designs, plans and working drawings, specifications of work, cost estimates and time schedules.
  9. Monitoring the realisation and inspecting the construction of proposals to ensure compliance with plans, specifications of work, cost estimates and time schedules.
  10. Conducting research, preparing scientific papers and technical reports, developing policy, teaching, and advising on aspects regarding landscape architecture such as the application of geographic information systems, remote sensing, law, landscape communication, interpretation and landscape ecology.
  11. Project management of large scale landscape planning and design projects including management of other consultants such as engineers, architects and planners.
  12. Acting as an expert witness in Development and Environment Courts

Further reading

  • Kerb 15. Landscape Urbanism. Launched by Charles Waldheim, April 2007. Content includes articles and interviews from Charles Waldheim, Mohsen Mostafavi, Alejandro Zaera-Polo (FOA), Kathryn Gustafson, Bart Brands and Richard Weller.

See also

  • List of landscape architects
  • Landscape design software
    Landscape design software
    Landscape design software can be used by Landscape architects, landscape designers and homeowners to plot the layout of plants and hardscape features before constructing a landscape....

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.