Label
Overview
 
A label is a piece of paper
Paper
Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon, drawing or for packaging. It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets....

, polymer
Polymer
A polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating structural units. These subunits are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds...

, cloth, metal
Metal
A metal , is an element, compound, or alloy that is a good conductor of both electricity and heat. Metals are usually malleable and shiny, that is they reflect most of incident light...

, or other material affixed to a container
Packaging and labelling
Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport,...

 or article, on which is print
Printing
Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing....

ed a legend, information concerning the product, addresses, etc. A label may also be printed directly on the container or article.

Labels have many uses: product
Product (business)
In general, the product is defined as a "thing produced by labor or effort" or the "result of an act or a process", and stems from the verb produce, from the Latin prōdūce ' lead or bring forth'. Since 1575, the word "product" has referred to anything produced...

 identification, name tags, advertising, warnings, and other communication. Special types of labels called digital
Digital
A digital system is a data technology that uses discrete values. By contrast, non-digital systems use a continuous range of values to represent information...

 labels (printed through a digital printing) can also have special constructions such as RFID tags, security printing
Security printing
Security printing is the field of the printing industry that deals with the printing of items such as banknotes, passports, tamper-evident labels, product authentication, stock certificates, postage stamps and identity cards...

, and sandwich
Sandwich
A sandwich is a food item, typically consisting of two or more slices of :bread with one or more fillings between them, or one slice of bread with a topping or toppings, commonly called an open sandwich. Sandwiches are a widely popular type of lunch food, typically taken to work or school, or...

 process labels.
Labels can be attached by:
  • Heat activated adhesives: for example, "in-mold labeling" can be part of blow molding
    Blow molding
    Blow molding is a manufacturing process by which hollow plastic parts are formed. In general, there are three main types of blow molding: extrusion blow molding, injection blow molding, and stretch blow molding. The blow molding process begins with melting down the plastic and forming it into a...

     containers and employs heat activated adhesives.
Encyclopedia
A label is a piece of paper
Paper
Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon, drawing or for packaging. It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets....

, polymer
Polymer
A polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating structural units. These subunits are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds...

, cloth, metal
Metal
A metal , is an element, compound, or alloy that is a good conductor of both electricity and heat. Metals are usually malleable and shiny, that is they reflect most of incident light...

, or other material affixed to a container
Packaging and labelling
Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport,...

 or article, on which is print
Printing
Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing....

ed a legend, information concerning the product, addresses, etc. A label may also be printed directly on the container or article.

Labels have many uses: product
Product (business)
In general, the product is defined as a "thing produced by labor or effort" or the "result of an act or a process", and stems from the verb produce, from the Latin prōdūce ' lead or bring forth'. Since 1575, the word "product" has referred to anything produced...

 identification, name tags, advertising, warnings, and other communication. Special types of labels called digital
Digital
A digital system is a data technology that uses discrete values. By contrast, non-digital systems use a continuous range of values to represent information...

 labels (printed through a digital printing) can also have special constructions such as RFID tags, security printing
Security printing
Security printing is the field of the printing industry that deals with the printing of items such as banknotes, passports, tamper-evident labels, product authentication, stock certificates, postage stamps and identity cards...

, and sandwich
Sandwich
A sandwich is a food item, typically consisting of two or more slices of :bread with one or more fillings between them, or one slice of bread with a topping or toppings, commonly called an open sandwich. Sandwiches are a widely popular type of lunch food, typically taken to work or school, or...

 process labels.

Attachment

Labels can be attached by:
  • Heat activated adhesives: for example, "in-mold labeling" can be part of blow molding
    Blow molding
    Blow molding is a manufacturing process by which hollow plastic parts are formed. In general, there are three main types of blow molding: extrusion blow molding, injection blow molding, and stretch blow molding. The blow molding process begins with melting down the plastic and forming it into a...

     containers and employs heat activated adhesives. Hot melt adhesives are also used.
  • Pressure sensitive adhesive
    Pressure sensitive adhesive
    Pressure sensitive adhesive is adhesive which forms a bond when pressure is applied to marry the adhesive with the adherend...

    s (also called PSA or self-stick) are applied with light pressure without activation or heat. PSA labels often have release liner
    Release liner
    A Release liner is a paper or plastic based carrier web material, which is coated on one or two sides with a release agent, which provides a release effect against any type of a sticky material such as an adhesive or a mastic. Release liner are available in different colors, with or without...

    s which protect the adhesive and assist label handling.
  • Rivet
    Rivet
    A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener. Before being installed a rivet consists of a smooth cylindrical shaft with a head on one end. The end opposite the head is called the buck-tail. On installation the rivet is placed in a punched or pre-drilled hole, and the tail is upset, or bucked A rivet...

    s used to attach information plates to industrial equipment
  • Shrink wrap
    Shrink wrap
    Shrink wrap, also shrinkwrap or shrink film, is a material made up of polymer plastic film. When heat is applied it shrinks tightly over whatever it is covering. Heat can be applied with a hand held heat gun or the product and film can pass through a heat tunnel on a conveyor.-Composition:The...

     for printed shrinkable labels placed over packages and then heated to shrink them
  • Sewing
    Sewing
    Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a needle and thread. Sewing is one of the oldest of the textile arts, arising in the Paleolithic era...

     for clothing, tents, mattresses, industrial sacks, etc.
  • Wet glue (starch
    Starch
    Starch or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined together by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by all green plants as an energy store...

    , dextrin
    Dextrin
    Dextrins are a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch or glycogen. Dextrins are mixtures of polymers of D-glucose units linked by α- or α- glycosidic bonds....

    , , etc.) or water moistenable gummed adhesive
  • Yarn or twine, so as to tie on the label

PSA Adhesive types

Pressure sensitive label adhesives are commonly made from water based acrylic adhesives, with a smaller volume made using solvent based adhesives and hotmelt adhesives. The most common adhesive types are:
  • Permanent – Typically not designed to be removed without tearing the stock, damaging the surface, or using solvents. The adhesion strength and speed can also be varied. For example, full adhesion can be nearly instant, or the label can be almost removable for a short period with full adhesion developing in minutes or hours (known as respositionable adhesives).
  • Peelable – Adhesion is fairly strong and will not fall off in normal circumstances, but the label can be removed relatively easily without tearing the base stock or leaving adhesive behind on the old surface. The adhesive is usually strong enough to be applied again elsewhere. This type is frequently known as 'removable'. There are many different types of removable adhesives, some are almost permanent, some are almost 'ultra peelable'.
  • Ultra-peelable – Designed principally for use on book covers and glass, when removed these adhesives labels do not leave any residue whatsoever. Adhesion is weak and only suitable for light duty applications. Normally these labels have very little adhesion to anything once they've been removed.
  • Freezer or Frost fix – Most permanent and peelable adhesives have a service temperature limit of -10 degrees Celsius, whereas freezer (otherwise known as frost fix) adhesives have a service temperature -40 degrees Celsius and are suitable for deep freeze use.
  • High Tack – A type of permanent adhesive that exhibits a high initial grab to the application surfaces, and is commonly used at higher coat weights to enable labels to adhere strongly to difficult, rough or dirty surfaces.
  • Static Cling – This is not actually an adhesive at all. The material (usually PVA) has a static charge to enable its adhesion to flat, smooth surfaces such as glass. It is not sticky as such and is commonly used for window advertising, window decorations, oil change labels, etc.

Stock types

The "label stock" is the carrier which is commonly coated on one side with adhesive and usually printed on the other side. Label stocks can be a wide variety of papers, films, fabric, foils, etc.
  • Litho – one of the most common base stocks
  • Latex – a litho stock with some added latex
    Latex
    Latex is the stable dispersion of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium. Latexes may be natural or synthetic.Latex as found in nature is a milky fluid found in 10% of all flowering plants . It is a complex emulsion consisting of proteins, alkaloids, starches, sugars, oils, tannins, resins,...

     allows the label to be much more flexible and form around certain curved objects more easily than standard litho.
  • Various plastic
    Plastic
    A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids used in the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular mass, and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce production costs...

    s
    such as acetate
    Cellulose acetate
    Cellulose acetate , first prepared in 1865, is the acetate ester of cellulose. Cellulose acetate is used as a film base in photography, as a component in some adhesives, and as a frame material for eyeglasses; it is also used as a synthetic fiber and in the manufacture of cigarette filters and...

    , vinyl
    Vinyl
    A vinyl compound is any organic compound that contains a vinyl group ,which are derivatives of ethene, CH2=CH2, with one hydrogen atom replaced with some other group...

    , and PET film
    PET film (biaxially oriented)
    BoPET is a polyester film made from stretched polyethylene terephthalate and is used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, reflectivity, gas and aroma barrier properties and electrical insulation.A variety of companies manufacture boPET and other...

     allow a variety of features, such as greater strength
    Strength of materials
    In materials science, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied stress without failure. The applied stress may be tensile, compressive, or shear. Strength of materials is a subject which deals with loads, deformations and the forces acting on a material. A load applied to a...

    , , transparency, resistance to tearing, etc. They typically require special equipment and printing
    Printing
    Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing....

     methods (ultra-violet curing is common) as they do not normally print well with conventional ink
    Ink
    Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments and/or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing and/or writing with a pen, brush, or quill...

    . A bumper sticker
    Bumper sticker
    A bumper sticker is an adhesive label or sticker with a message, intended to be attached to the bumper of an automobile and to be read by the occupants of other vehicles - although they are often stuck onto other objects...

     is usually a vinyl label with a very strong, durable adhesive and lightfast inks. Embossing tape
    Embossing tape
    Embossing tape is a labelling medium usually of hard plastic. Embossing tape is used with embossing machines, often handheld.- Method :The machine features a wheel with raised characters, similar to a daisy wheel. The user turns the wheel to align the desired character with the tape and presses a...

     is "printed" by pressing raised elements similar to printing type
    Sort (typesetting)
    In typesetting by hand compositing, a sort is a piece of type representing a particular letter or symbol, cast from a matrix mould and assembled with other sorts bearing additional letters into lines of type to make up a forme from which a page is printed.-See also:* History of western typography*...

     onto it, which produces raised glyphs that look white due to discoloration of the plastic. A type known as 'Destructible Vinyl' is commonly used for asset labels. It combines a very thin frangible face stock with a very strong high tack adhesive, thus making the label impossible to remove without damaging it. Engraved multi-layer Traffolyte
    Traffolyte
    Traffolyte, sometimes spelled Traffolite, was a brand name for multi-layered phenolic plastic sheets suitable for engraving. Each layer was a different colour so engraved letters or shapes would be a different colour from the unengraved portions...

     labels are frequently used in industrial situations due to their durability.
  • Foil – has the shiny properties of a metal foil
    Foil (chemistry)
    A foil is a very thin sheet of metal, usually made by hammering or rolling a piece of metal. Foils are most easily made with malleable metals, such as aluminium, copper, tin, and gold. Foils usually bend under their own weight and can be torn easily. The more malleable a metal, the thinner foil can...

    .
  • Thermal – direct thermal label stock will change color
    Color
    Color or colour is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, green, blue and others. Color derives from the spectrum of light interacting in the eye with the spectral sensitivities of the light receptors...

     (usually black
    Black
    Black is the color of objects that do not emit or reflect light in any part of the visible spectrum; they absorb all such frequencies of light...

    ) when heated. A heating element in the shape of letters
    Letter (alphabet)
    A letter is a grapheme in an alphabetic system of writing, such as the Greek alphabet and its descendants. Letters compose phonemes and each phoneme represents a phone in the spoken form of the language....

     or image
    Image
    An image is an artifact, for example a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person.-Characteristics:...

    s can be used to create an image on the label. Custom labels can be easily be made on location in this way. A disadvantage is durability, because another heat source can ruin or obscure the image, or it may fade completely over time.
  • Thermal Transfer for applications that cannot use Thermal (Thermal Direct) label material because of heat source proximity or short label life, a more widely used material is Thermal Transfer Label printer
    Label printer
    A label printer is a computer printer that prints on self-adhesive label material and/or card-stock . Label printers with built-in keyboards and displays, for stand-alone use , are often called label makers...

    . This material has the advantage of a much longer readable life and does not fade with time or heat. Most major manufacturers of Thermal Printers can be used for either Thermal Transfer (TT) or Thermal (DT) labels. A thermal transfer ribbon will be required to print the labels. The cost of the ribbons + TT labels is similar to that of the DT labels on their own.

  • None – labels can be printed directly on adhesive without using a substrate
    Substrate (printing)
    Substrate is a term used in converting process such as printing and Lamination or coating as a more general term to describe the base material onto which e.g. images will be printed and to be laminated as per the packing specification required for the product...

    . Labels made in this manner are extremely fragile, however, and have been rendered virtually obsolete by other printing methods such as silk screen
    Screen-printing
    Screen printing is a printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink-blocking stencil. The attached stencil forms open areas of mesh that transfer ink or other printable materials which can be pressed through the mesh as a sharp-edged image onto a substrate...

    .
  • Thermal Transfer Ribbon Types
    • Wax is the most popular with some smudge resistance, and is suitable for matte and semi-gloss paper labels.
    • Wax / Resin is smudge resistant, suitable for semi-gloss paper and some synthetic labels.
    • Resin is scratch and chemical resistant, suitable for coated synthetic labels.


The stock type will affect the types of ink that will print well on them.

Corona treating or flame treating some plastics makes them more receptive to inks and adhesives by reducing surface tension.

Application and use

Labels can be supplied:
  • separately
  • on a roll
  • on a sheet


Many labels are pre-printed by the manufacturer. Other have printing applied manually or automatically at the time of application.

Some labels have protective overcoats, laminates, or tape to cover them after the final print is applied. This is sometimes before application and sometimes after.

Labels are often difficult to peel and apply. Most companies use a Label dispenser
Label dispenser
Label dispensers and label applicators are machines built to simplify the process of removing a label from its liner or backing tape. Some are bench-top for dispensing the labels while others include the application of the label to the item .Label dispensers are designed with varying sizes and...

 to speed up this task.

Specialized high speed application equipment is available for certain uses.

Color

Ink and base stock color choices commonly conform to the Pantone
Pantone
Pantone Inc. is a corporation headquartered in Carlstadt, New Jersey, USA. The company is best known for its Pantone Matching System , a proprietary color space...

 Matching System (PMS) colors. The Pantone system is very dominant in the label printing industry. Additionally specialty inks such as metallic, UV ink, magnetic ink, and more are available. Ink is usually transparent however it can be made opaque. It has been known for certain companies to patent "their own" color. http://glossary.ippaper.com/default.asp?req=knowledge/article/236#specialtyink. Digital labels use process colors to replicate Pantone solid colors.

Specialized labels

  • Piggyback labels are made from combining two layers of adhesive substrate http://www.selfadhesivelabels.com/glossary.html#p. The bottom layer forms the backing for the top. The label can be applied to any object as normal, the top layer can be a removable label that can be applied elsewhere, which may change the message or marking on the remaining label underneath. Often used on Express mail envelopes.Other applications include price change labels where when being scanned at the till the till assistant can peel back the price-reduction label and scan the original barcode enabling stock flow management. Also, as the retained label is adhesive free it prevents customers from re-applying the cheaper priced labels to premium products. you can view an example of this http://adaptultra.co.uk/Products/DryPeel
  • Smart label
    Smart label
    Smart Label, also called Smart Tag, is an extremely flat configured Transponder under a conventional print-coded label, which includes chip, antenna and bonding wires as a so-called inlay...

    s have RFID chips embedded under the label stock.
  • Asset Labels / Tags are used for marking fixed and non-fixed assets. They are usually tamper-evident, permanent or frangible and usually contain a barcode for electronic identification using readers.
  • Blockout labels are not see-through at all, concealing what lies underneath with a strong gray adhesive.
  • Radioactive labels The use of radioactive isotopes of chemical elements, such as carbon-14
    Carbon-14
    Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with a nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons. Its presence in organic materials is the basis of the radiocarbon dating method pioneered by Willard Libby and colleagues , to date archaeological, geological, and hydrogeological...

    , to allow the in vivo
    In vivo
    In vivo is experimentation using a whole, living organism as opposed to a partial or dead organism, or an in vitro controlled environment. Animal testing and clinical trials are two forms of in vivo research...

     tracking of chemical compounds.
  • Laser Labels are generally die cut on 8.5" x 11" sheets(US letter) and a4 size, and come in many different shapes, sizes http://www.iidsolutions.co.uk/templates/uploads/documents/products/2152780_1.pdfhttp://www.iidsolutions.co.uk/labels-tickets/, and materials. Laser label material is a nonporous stock made to withstand the intense heat of laser printers and copiers. A drawback of laser labels is that the entire sheet needs to be printed before any labels are used; once labels have been removed the sheet cannot be put through the printer again without damaging the printing mechanism.
  • Inkjet Labels are generally die cut on 8.5" x 11" sheets (US letter) and a4 size, and come in many different shapes, sizes, and materials. Inkjet label material is a porous stock made to accept ink and dye from your inkjet printer. One of the more modern inkjet label material stocks is waterproof printable inkjet material commonly used for soap or shower gel containers.
  • Security Labels are used for anti-counterfeit
    Counterfeit
    To counterfeit means to illegally imitate something. Counterfeit products are often produced with the intent to take advantage of the superior value of the imitated product...

    ing, brand protection, tamper-evident
    Tamper-evident
    Tamper-evident describes a device or process that makes unauthorized access to the protected object easily detected. Seals, markings or other techniques may be tamper indicating.-Tampering:...

     seals, anti-pilferage seals
    Package pilferage
    Pilferage is the theft of part of the contents of a package. It may also include theft of the contents but leaving the package, perhaps resealed with bogus contents. Small packages can be pilfered from a larger package such as a shipping container...

    , etc. These combine a number of overt and covert features to make reproduction difficult. The use of security printing
    Security printing
    Security printing is the field of the printing industry that deals with the printing of items such as banknotes, passports, tamper-evident labels, product authentication, stock certificates, postage stamps and identity cards...

    , holography
    Holography
    Holography is a technique that allows the light scattered from an object to be recorded and later reconstructed so that when an imaging system is placed in the reconstructed beam, an image of the object will be seen even when the object is no longer present...

    , embossing, barcode
    Barcode
    A barcode is an optical machine-readable representation of data, which shows data about the object to which it attaches. Originally barcodes represented data by varying the widths and spacings of parallel lines, and may be referred to as linear or 1 dimensional . Later they evolved into rectangles,...

    s, RFID chips, custom printing, weak (or weakened) backings, etc. is common. They are used for authentication
    Authentication
    Authentication is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a datum or entity...

    , theft reduction, and protection against counterfeit and are commonly used on ID cards, credit cards, packaging, and products from CDs to electronics to clothing.
  • AntiMicrobial Labels With the growth in hospital acquired infections such as MRSA and E-Coli the use of Antimicrobial labels in infection sensitive areas of hospitals are helping in combating these types of microbes.

Product label

Permanent product identification by a label is common. These labels need to be able to bond securely to the surface for its intended life and under in-use conditions. For example a label on an automobile engine needs to be resistant to the heat and oils encountered and to be secure for many years of use.

Removable product labels need to hold until they must be removed. For example, a label on a new refrigerator
Refrigerator
A refrigerator is a common household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room...

 has installation and usage information: the label needs to be able to be removed cleanly and easily from the unit once installed.

An eco-label is used on consumer products (including foods) to identify products that may be less damaging to the environment and/or to humankind than other related products.

Asset labeling

In industrial environments, asset labeling is used to clearly identify assets for maintenance and operational purposes. Such labels are frequently made of engraved Traffolyte
Traffolyte
Traffolyte, sometimes spelled Traffolite, was a brand name for multi-layered phenolic plastic sheets suitable for engraving. Each layer was a different colour so engraved letters or shapes would be a different colour from the unengraved portions...

 or a similar material.

Textile labeling

In certain clothing articles, a label or other affixed instructions that report how a product should be refurbished. This type of label is required by the FTC, Federal Trade Commission
Federal Trade Commission
The Federal Trade Commission is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act...

, for certain clothing items in the United States of America.

A label including a tax identification number and material content list may also be required for certain textile items.

The common textile labels used on garments can be classified into four main groups – Woven labels, Leather labels, PVC/Plastic Labels, and Embroidered Labels. It is one of the primary tools used to establish brand identity.

Package label

Packaging often has labels attached to (or integral with) the package. These communicate pricing, barcodes, UPC
Universal Product Code
The Universal Product Code is a barcode symbology , that is widely used in North America, and in countries including the UK, Australia, and New Zealand for tracking trade items in stores. Its most common form, the UPC-A, consists of 12 numerical digits, which are uniquely assigned to each trade item...

 identification, usage guidance, addresses, advertising, recipes, and so on. They also may be used to help resist or indicate tampering or pilferage. Often high speed label printer applicator
Label printer applicator
thumb|right|Label printer applicator applying a label to adjacent panels of a [[corrugated box]].thumb|right|Label printer applicatorLabel printer applicators are basic robots that automatically print and apply pressure sensitive labels to various products...

s are used to apply labels to packages.

Mailing label

Letters and packages need labels to identify the addressee and the sender. Many software packages such as word processor
Word processor
A word processor is a computer application used for the production of any sort of printable material....

 and contact manager
Contact manager
A contact manager enables users to easily store and find contact information, such as names, addresses and telephone numbers. They are contact-centric databases that provide a fully integrated approach to tracking of all information and communication activities linked to contacts...

 programs produce standardized mailing labels from a data set
Data set
A data set is a collection of data, usually presented in tabular form. Each column represents a particular variable. Each row corresponds to a given member of the data set in question. Its values for each of the variables, such as height and weight of an object or values of random numbers. Each...

 that comply with postal standards. These labels may also include routing barcodes and special handling requirements to expedite delivery.

Environmental considerations

Labels can aid in recycling
Recycling
Recycling is processing used materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution and water pollution by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse...

 and reuse
Reuse
To reuse is to use an item more than once. This includes conventional reuse where the item is used again for the same function, and new-life reuse where it is used for a different function. In contrast, recycling is the breaking down of the used item into raw materials which are used to make new...

 by communicating the material content of the item, instructions for disassembly, recycling directions, etc.

Based on the solid waste hierarchy
Waste hierarchy
The waste hierarchy refers to the 3 Rs of reduce, reuse, recycle, or and [ which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability. The Rs are meant to be a hierarchy, in order of importance...

, the quantity and size of labels should be minimized without reducing necessary functionality. Material content of a label should comply with applicable regulations. Life cycle assessment
Life cycle assessment
A life-cycle assessment is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from-cradle-to-grave A life-cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts...

s of the item being labeled and of the label itself are useful to identify and improve possible environmental effects. For example, reuse or recycling are sometimes aided by a label being removable from a surface. If a label remains on an item during recycling, a label should be chosen which does not hinder the recyclability of the item.
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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