Krka (company)
Krka, d.d., Novo mesto is an international generic pharmaceutical
Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs...

A corporation is created under the laws of a state as a separate legal entity that has privileges and liabilities that are distinct from those of its members. There are many different forms of corporations, most of which are used to conduct business. Early corporations were established by charter...

 with headquarters in Novo Mesto
Novo Mesto
Novo Mesto is a city and municipality in southeastern Slovenia, close to the border with Croatia. The town is traditionally considered the economic and cultural centre of the historic Lower Carniola region.-Geography:...

, Slovenia
Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

. It is one of the leading generic
Generic drug
A generic drug is a drug defined as "a drug product that is comparable to brand/reference listed drug product in dosage form, strength, route of administration, quality and performance characteristics, and intended use." It has also been defined as a term referring to any drug marketed under its...

 pharmaceutical companies in the world. In 2010, the Krka Group’s total sales were worth EUR
The euro is the official currency of the eurozone: 17 of the 27 member states of the European Union. It is also the currency used by the Institutions of the European Union. The eurozone consists of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,...

 1,010.0 million. Over the past five years, average annual sales growth has been 12.8%. Krka’s products are sold in over 70 countries
State (polity)
A state is an organized political community, living under a government. States may be sovereign and may enjoy a monopoly on the legal initiation of force and are not dependent on, or subject to any other power or state. Many states are federated states which participate in a federal union...

. Having numerous companies and representative offices abroad, Krka also has its own production and distribution centres in the Russian Federation
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

, Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

 and Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. Krka employed 8,823 workers in late June 2011.


Founded in 1954, Krka’s pharmaceutical laboratory made its way to a production plant two years later. Krka registered its first pharmaceuticals on the domestic market and made inroads into foreign markets in 1960s. During this time, Krka supplemented its offer with licence products, obtaining its first FDA registration for antibiotics production.

At the beginning of 1980s, Krka focused on the development of own generic products with additional value.

Krka had been throughout and constantly increasing its production capabilities and investing in research and development activities. In 1980s, Krka started to develop its marketing network and significantly strengthened its position on European markets.

By placing its shares on the Ljubljana Stock Exchange
Ljubljana Stock Exchange
-About the Ljubljana Stock Exchange:The core business of the Ljubljana stock exchange is to ensure a secure, efficient and successful operation of the regulated segment of the Slovene capital market, in accordance with the law and other regulations.LJSE performs the following business activities:*...

 in 1997, Krka was transformed into a public limited company
Public limited company
A public limited company is a limited liability company that sells shares to the public in United Kingdom company law, in the Republic of Ireland and Commonwealth jurisdictions....

. In 2007, Krka acquired its first company abroad. Krka is today one of the leading generic pharmaceutical companies in the world.

Activities and products

Krka’s business is founded on pharmaceutical
Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs...

 and chemical activities. Prescription pharmaceuticals remain its main product group, with an 82% share of Krka Group’s total sales. They are followed in sales volume by self-medication products (11%), animal health products (3%) and cosmetic products (1%). The company’s activities are supplemented by health-resort and tourist services of the Terme Krka Group, with its sales volume amounting to 3%.

Prescription pharmaceuticals

When developing a range of its products, Krka follows indication areas or diseases which one most frequently suffers from.

The most important Krka’s therapeutic groups include pharmaceuticals for treating the following key areas: cardiovascular diseases
Cardiovascular disease
Heart disease or cardiovascular disease are the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels . While the term technically refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system , it is usually used to refer to those related to atherosclerosis...

, the alimentary tract
ICD-10 Chapter XI: Diseases of the digestive system
- Diseases of oral cavity, salivary glands and jaws :* Disorders of tooth development and eruption** Anodontia***Hypodontia***Oligodontia** Supernumerary teeth** Abnormalities of size and form of teeth***Concrescence***Tooth fusion...

 and metabolism diseases, and the central nervous system diseases
Central nervous system
The central nervous system is the part of the nervous system that integrates the information that it receives from, and coordinates the activity of, all parts of the bodies of bilaterian animals—that is, all multicellular animals except sponges and radially symmetric animals such as jellyfish...

. They are followed by the medicines for the systemic treatment of infections, the medicines for the treatment of diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, and the medicines for the urinary tract diseases
ICD-10 Chapter XIV: Diseases of the genitourinary system
- Glomerular diseases :** Chronic pyelonephritis*** Nonobstructive reflux-associated chronic pyelonephritis*** Chronic obstructive pyelonephritis*** Other chronic tubulo-interstitial nephritis*** Chronic tubulo-interstitial nephritis, unspecified...

 as well as the medicines for the respiratory system
Respiratory system
The respiratory system is the anatomical system of an organism that introduces respiratory gases to the interior and performs gas exchange. In humans and other mammals, the anatomical features of the respiratory system include airways, lungs, and the respiratory muscles...


The key products among the medicines for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases include pharmaceuticals for the treatment of high blood pressure
Blood pressure
Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital signs. When used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the arterial pressure of the systemic circulation. During each heartbeat, BP varies...

 (ACE inhibitors – enalapril
Enalapril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension and some types of chronic heart failure. ACE raises blood pressure by constricting blood vessels. ACE inhibitors like enalapril prevent this effect. Enalapril has been shown to lower the death rate in...

, perindopril; sartans – losartan, valsartan, telmisartan), for the treatment of high cholesterol
Cholesterol is a complex isoprenoid. Specifically, it is a waxy steroid of fat that is produced in the liver or intestines. It is used to produce hormones and cell membranes and is transported in the blood plasma of all mammals. It is an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes...

 (simvastatin, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin), for the treatment of blood clots (clopidogrel), and several others.

Proton pump inhibitors for the treatment of ulcers and reflux
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
Gastroesophageal reflux disease , gastro-oesophageal reflux disease , gastric reflux disease, or acid reflux disease is chronic symptoms or mucosal damage caused by stomach acid coming up from the stomach into the esophagus...

 are the key group among the medicines for the treatment of the alimentary tract and metabolism diseases (lansoprazol, pantoprazol, esomeprazol).

In the group of medicines for the treatment of the central nervous system diseases, Krka produces antidepressives (venlafaxine), antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine), as well as medicines for the treatment of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.

An important indication area also includes anti-microbial products (clarithromycin
Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia , skin and skin structure infections...

). Krka’s range of products additionally includes analgesics
An analgesic is any member of the group of drugs used to relieve pain . The word analgesic derives from Greek an- and algos ....

, medicines for the treatment of diseases of the respiratory system, benign prostatic
The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals....

 hyperplasia, and type-2 diabetes
Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced...


Self-medication and cosmetic products

Krka’s self-medication products are aimed at preventing diseases and treating minor illnesses which do not require medical attention. They include products with an effect on the mouth cavity and pharynx (Septolete), vitamin and mineral products (Pikovit and Duovit), medicines for cough and cold (Herbion syrups), the medicine for improved memory and concentration (Bilobil), and the analgesic (Nalgesin S).

Fitoval dermatological shampoo is the key cosmetic brand and claims to offer a comprehensive approach to eliminating the most common hair and scalp problems: hair loss, dandruff and damaged hair.

Animal health products

Krka’s animal health products by therapeutic groups include general anti-infectives, antiparasites and insecticides
An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against the eggs and larvae of insects respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and the household. The use of insecticides is believed to be one of the major factors behind...

, products for the alimentary tract and metabolism, and antiseptics and disinfectants. Lately, Krka devotes its increased attention to products for the treatment of pet animals
Animals are a major group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their life. Most animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and...


Health-resort and tourist services

Krka’s basic line of business is supplemented by health-resort and tourist services of the subsidiary, the Terme Krka Group. It unites the business units of the spa complexes and hotels Terme Dolenjske Toplice
Dolenjske Toplice
Dolenjske Toplice is a settlement and municipality near Novo Mesto in southeastern Slovenia. The area is part of the traditional region of Lower Carniola. The municipality is now included in the Southeast Slovenia statistical region. The town lies on the Sušica River, which joins the Krka...

, Terme Šmarješke Toplice, the coastal centre Talaso Strunjan
Strunjan is a settlement in the Piran Municipality in the Littoral region of Slovenia.-Overview:The Strunjan Nature Reserve, located along a 4 km stretch of Adriatic coast to the north of the settlement, is the longest section of unspoilt coastline in the entire Gulf of Trieste.The Parish...

, Hoteli Otočec with the hotel in the only Slovenian castle, and the business Hotel Krka. Terme Krka’s basic line of business is the medical rehabilitation
-Mental health:* Drug rehabilitation* Rehabilitation , the rehabilitation of criminal behavior.* Rehabilitation , therapy aimed at improving neurocognitive function that has been lost or diminished by disease or traumatic injury...

 after cardiovascular and respiratory system diseases, and disturbances in motivity.

Markets and business network

Krka is an international company – as many as 90% of its products are sold in more than 70 countries. It has its own subsidiaries and representation offices in the most important markets, while its production capacity is also located in the Russian Federation, Poland, Croatia and Germany.

Region Central Europe has been the Krka Group’s largest market sales region, representing 29% of total sales. It is followed by Region East Europe with 26% of total sales and Region West Europe and Overseas Markets with 21% of total sales. In addition, Krka also sells its products in Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the Far East. Krka achieved 14% of total sales in Region South-East Europe. Krka sells 10% of its products and services in Slovenia, being the leading pharmaceutical producer there.

Krka’s markets extend from Vladivostok to Lisbon. Krka has 19 subsidiaries and 18 representatives offices abroad which employ more than 48% of all workers. Krka’s international presence is additionally strengthened by its own production and distribution centres in the Russian Federation, Poland, Croatia and Germany.

Research and development

In 2010, Krka registered 99 trademarks in Slovenia, and submitted 73 international applications, and 9 applications in individual countries.

Krka’s generic pharmaceuticals mostly include active ingredients acquired with own biosynthesis and chemical synthesis
Chemical synthesis
In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions to get a product, or several products. This happens by physical and chemical manipulations usually involving one or more reactions...


In 2010, marketing authorisation was acquired for 24 new products in 49 dosage forms and strengths.

In 2010, a total of 72 procedures were carried out for 26 products in various dosage forms and strengths via the most demanding European marketing authorisation procedures: centralised procedures (CPs), decentralised procedures (DCPs), and mutual recognition procedures (MRPs).

In addition, Krka acquired marketing authorisation for 925 products in 1,891 pharmaceutical forms and strengths in 58 countries in 2010.

Krka uses patent
A patent is a form of intellectual property. It consists of a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or their assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for the public disclosure of an invention....

 applications to protect the results of its development work in key areas. In 2010, Krka submitted patent applications for 15 new inventions
An invention is a novel composition, device, or process. An invention may be derived from a pre-existing model or idea, or it could be independently conceived, in which case it may be a radical breakthrough. In addition, there is cultural invention, which is an innovative set of useful social...

, and 14 international patent applications on the basis of prioritised applications from 2009.
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