Kola (town)
Overview
 
Kola is a town and the administrative center of Kolsky District
Kolsky District
Kolsky District is an administrative and municipal district , one of the five in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northwestern part of the Kola Peninsula and borders with the Barents Sea in the north and Finland in the west. The area of the district is . Its administrative center is...

 of Murmansk Oblast
Murmansk Oblast
Murmansk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia , located in the northwestern part of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Murmansk.-Geography:...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, located at the confluence
Confluence
Confluence, in geography, describes the meeting of two or more bodies of water.Confluence may also refer to:* Confluence , a property of term rewriting systems...

 of the Kola
Kola River
Kola is a river on the Kola Peninsula i Murmansk Oblast, Russia. It is 83 km long, with a drainage basin of 3,850 km². The river flows out of Lake Kolozero north into the Kola Bay of the Barents Sea, some 10 km south of Murmansk. The neighbouring Tuloma River has its mouth just one...

 and Tuloma River
Tuloma River
The Tuloma River is a river in Murmansk Oblast in Russia. With a drainage basin of 21,500 km² and an average discharge at 255 m³/s, the Tuloma is one of the biggest rivers in northern Fennoscandia....

s, 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) south of Murmansk
Murmansk
Murmansk is a city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast, Russia. It serves as a seaport and is located in the extreme northwest part of Russia, on the Kola Bay, from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russia's borders with Norway and Finland...

 and 24 kilometres (14.9 mi) southwest of Severomorsk
Severomorsk
Severomorsk is a closed town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located about north of Murmansk along the Kola Bay. Population: This is the main administrative base of the Russian Northern Fleet. Severomorsk has the largest drydock on the Kola Peninsula....

. It is the oldest town of the Kola Peninsula
Kola Peninsula
The Kola Peninsula is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia. Constituting the bulk of the territory of Murmansk Oblast, it lies almost completely to the north of the Arctic Circle and is washed by the Barents Sea in the north and the White Sea in the east and southeast...

. Population: 11,060 (2002 Census
Russian Census (2002)
Russian Census of 2002 was the first census of the Russian Federation carried out on October 9 through October 16, 2002. It was carried out by the Russian Federal Service of State Statistics .-Resident population:...

);
The district of Kolo was first attested in Russian chronicles in 1264. The first documented mention of the town itself dates to 1565— the area was settled by the Pomors
Pomors
Pomors or Pomory are Russian settlers and their descendants on the White Sea coast. It is also term of self-identification for the descendants of Russian, primarily Novgorod, settlers of Pomorye , living on the White Sea coasts and the territory whose southern border lies on a watershed which...

, who built the fort of Kola.

Over time, Sweden extracted the Kola Peninsula from both Russia and Denmark-Norway in a series of wars and resulting treaties.
Encyclopedia
Kola is a town and the administrative center of Kolsky District
Kolsky District
Kolsky District is an administrative and municipal district , one of the five in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northwestern part of the Kola Peninsula and borders with the Barents Sea in the north and Finland in the west. The area of the district is . Its administrative center is...

 of Murmansk Oblast
Murmansk Oblast
Murmansk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia , located in the northwestern part of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Murmansk.-Geography:...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, located at the confluence
Confluence
Confluence, in geography, describes the meeting of two or more bodies of water.Confluence may also refer to:* Confluence , a property of term rewriting systems...

 of the Kola
Kola River
Kola is a river on the Kola Peninsula i Murmansk Oblast, Russia. It is 83 km long, with a drainage basin of 3,850 km². The river flows out of Lake Kolozero north into the Kola Bay of the Barents Sea, some 10 km south of Murmansk. The neighbouring Tuloma River has its mouth just one...

 and Tuloma River
Tuloma River
The Tuloma River is a river in Murmansk Oblast in Russia. With a drainage basin of 21,500 km² and an average discharge at 255 m³/s, the Tuloma is one of the biggest rivers in northern Fennoscandia....

s, 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) south of Murmansk
Murmansk
Murmansk is a city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast, Russia. It serves as a seaport and is located in the extreme northwest part of Russia, on the Kola Bay, from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russia's borders with Norway and Finland...

 and 24 kilometres (14.9 mi) southwest of Severomorsk
Severomorsk
Severomorsk is a closed town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located about north of Murmansk along the Kola Bay. Population: This is the main administrative base of the Russian Northern Fleet. Severomorsk has the largest drydock on the Kola Peninsula....

. It is the oldest town of the Kola Peninsula
Kola Peninsula
The Kola Peninsula is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia. Constituting the bulk of the territory of Murmansk Oblast, it lies almost completely to the north of the Arctic Circle and is washed by the Barents Sea in the north and the White Sea in the east and southeast...

. Population: 11,060 (2002 Census
Russian Census (2002)
Russian Census of 2002 was the first census of the Russian Federation carried out on October 9 through October 16, 2002. It was carried out by the Russian Federal Service of State Statistics .-Resident population:...

);

History

The district of Kolo was first attested in Russian chronicles in 1264. The first documented mention of the town itself dates to 1565— the area was settled by the Pomors
Pomors
Pomors or Pomory are Russian settlers and their descendants on the White Sea coast. It is also term of self-identification for the descendants of Russian, primarily Novgorod, settlers of Pomorye , living on the White Sea coasts and the territory whose southern border lies on a watershed which...

, who built the fort of Kola.

Over time, Sweden extracted the Kola Peninsula from both Russia and Denmark-Norway in a series of wars and resulting treaties. However, in the later Treaty of Täysinä in 1595, Sweden acknowledged Russian rights in Kola. Claims from Denmark-Norway remained, however, and in 1582, a Russian voivode was appointed to Kola to provide for better defenses of the peninsula. The voivode governed the territory which became known as Kolsky Uyezd
Kolsky Uyezd
Kolsky Uyezd was an administrative division of the Tsardom of Russia and later of the Russian Empire.-16th–17th centuries:Russian expansion to the Kola Peninsula can be traced to the early 16th century when the Russian monk Trifon founded an Orthodox monastery at Pechenga...

.

During the Russo-Swedish War of 1590–1595, the Swedes failed to capture the fort. In the 17th century, it prospered as a starting point for naval expeditions of the Pomors to Spitsbergen
Spitsbergen
Spitsbergen is the largest and only permanently populated island of the Svalbard archipelago in Norway. Constituting the western-most bulk of the archipelago, it borders the Arctic Ocean, the Norwegian Sea and the Greenland Sea...

 and Novaya Zemlya
Novaya Zemlya
Novaya Zemlya , also known in Dutch as Nova Zembla and in Norwegian as , is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in the north of Russia and the extreme northeast of Europe, the easternmost point of Europe lying at Cape Flissingsky on the northern island...

. The brethren of the Pechenga Monastery
Pechenga Monastery
The Pechenga Monastery was for many centuries the northernmost monastery in the world. It was founded in 1533 at the influx of the Pechenga River into the Barents Sea, 135 km west of modern Murmansk, by St...

 moved there as well.

Although it was incorporated as a town in 1784, Kola declined after Russia gained access to the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea is a brackish mediterranean sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. It is bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Øresund, the Great Belt and...

, and was used by the Tsarist government as a place of exile. Kola was destroyed and reduced to ashes during a twenty-hour shelling rampage in 1854 by Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

 sloop HMS Miranda
HMS Miranda
Three ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Miranda. was a screw sloop launched in 1851. She was redesignated a corvette in 1862 and scrapped in 1869. was an sloop launched in 1879 and sold in 1892. was a M-class destroyer launched in 1914 and sold in 1921....

, at the time of Crimean War
Crimean War
The Crimean War was a conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. The war was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining...

. As a consequence, Kolsky Uyezd was abolished and merged into Kemsky Uyezd. Kola, while retaining its town rights, lost the status of the center of the uyezd to Kem. The ruined town was later eclipsed by nearby Murmansk
Murmansk
Murmansk is a city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast, Russia. It serves as a seaport and is located in the extreme northwest part of Russia, on the Kola Bay, from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russia's borders with Norway and Finland...

, of which it is now commonly considered to be a satellite
Satellite town
A satellite town or satellite city is a concept in urban planning that refers essentially to smaller metropolitan areas which are located somewhat near to, but are mostly independent of, larger metropolitan areas.-Characteristics:...

.

On October 16, 1925—when the Murmansk Governorate Commission meeting initiated work on compiling the lists of the urban and rural localities—Murmansk, Alexandrovsk
Polyarny
Polyarny is a closed town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, situated on the outermost western side of the Kola Bay. Population: -History:It was founded in 1896 and named Alexandrovsk in honor of Tsar Alexander III. Town status was granted to it on , 1899...

, and Kola were categorized as urban; however, a recommendation was sent to the All-Russian Central Executive Committee
All-Russian Central Executive Committee
All-Russian Central Executive Committee , was the highest legislative, administrative, and revising body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Although the All-Russian Congress of Soviets had supreme authority, in periods between its sessions its powers were passed to VTsIK...

 (VTsIK) to demote the latter two to rural localities due to economic conditions, sparse population, low trade volume, lack of industrial enterprises and "general regression". On March 15, 1926, the VTsIK approved the recommendation, and Alexandrovsk and Kola were re-categorized as rural localities; Kola was re-classified as an urban locality by the VTsIK Resolution of August 20, 1935, when it was granted work settlement
Urban-type settlement
Urban-type settlement ; , selyshche mis'koho typu ) is an official designation for a type of locality used in some of the countries of the former Soviet Union...

 status. It retained this status until 1965.

Landmarks

Although earthen ramparts and ditches of the original fortress still survive, Kola's main landmark is the Annunciation Cathedral (1800–1809), which may have been the first stone building constructed in the Kola Peninsula. Other sights include the Museum of Pomor Way of Life and Murmashi
Murmashi
Murmashi is an urban locality in Kolsky District of Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located on the Kola Peninsula on the lower Tuloma River, southwest of Murmansk. Population: It was founded as a work settlement around 1930....

, the northernmost spa
Destination spa
A destination spa is a short term residential/lodging facility with the primary purpose of providing individual services for spa-goers to develop healthy habits. Historically many such spas were developed at the location of natural hot springs or sources of mineral waters...

in Russia.

External links

Kola entry at Mojgorod.ru
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