Kalinga is a landlocked province
Provinces of the Philippines
The Provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 80 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are autonomous from any provincial...

 of the Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 in the Cordillera Administrative Region
Cordillera Administrative Region
The Cordillera Administrative Region is a region in the Philippines composed of the provinces of Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga and Mountain Province, as well as Baguio City, the regional center. The Cordillera Administrative Region encompasses most of the areas within the Cordillera...

 in Luzon
Luzon is the largest island in the Philippines. It is located in the northernmost region of the archipelago, and is also the name for one of the three primary island groups in the country centered on the Island of Luzon...

. Its capital is Tabuk and borders Mountain Province
Mountain Province
Mountain Province is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bontoc and borders, clockwise from the south, Ifugao, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Abra, Kalinga, and Isabela.Mountain Province is sometimes incorrectly named Mountain in some...

 to the south, Abra
Abra province
Abra is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bangued, and it borders Ilocos Norte and Apayao on the north, Ilocos Sur and Mountain Province on the south, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur on the west, and Kalinga, and Apayao on the...

 to the west, Isabela
Isabela province
Isabela is the second largest province of the Philippines next to Palawan. It is located in the Cagayan Valley Region in Luzon. Its capital is Ilagan and borders, clockwise from the south, Aurora, Quirino, Nueva Vizcaya, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Kalinga, and Cagayan...

 to the east, Cagayan
Cagayan , the "Land of Smiling Beauty", is a province of the Philippines in the Cagayan Valley region in Luzon. Its capital is Tuguegarao City and is located at the northeastern corner of the island of Luzon. Cagayan also includes the Babuyan Islands to the north. The province borders Ilocos Norte...

 to the northeast, and Apayao to the north. Prior to 1995, Kalinga and Apayao used to be a single province named Kalinga-Apayao
During the Counter-Insurgency under the Japanese Occupation since 1942 to 1945 after the Japanese Invasion, many local Igorot and Cordilleran guerrillas was the fighting siege and invasions around the plains in Kalinga-Apayao in Mountain Province from the few months and three years and aiding the...

, until they were split into two to better service the needs of individual native tribes in the provinces.


Kalinga is subdivided into 1 city and 7 municipalities. Tabuk was proclaimed a component city in 2007, but in November 2008 the Supreme Court of the Philippines ruled that its cityhood was unconstitutional. However, Tabuk had its city status reinstated by the Supreme Court on December 22, 2009.


  • Balbalan
    Balbalan, Kalinga
    Balbalan is one of the eight municipalities of the Province of Kalinga in the Philippines. It is subdivided into 14 barangays, namely: Ababa-an, Balantoy, Balbalan Proper, Balbalasang, Buaya, Dao-angan, Gawa-an, Mabaca, Maling, Pantikian, Poblacion , Poswoy, Talalang, and Tawang...

  • Lubuagan
    Lubuagan, Kalinga
    Lubuagan is a 4th class municipality in the province of Kalinga, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 10,183. According to the 2000 census there are 1,764 households...

  • Pasil
    Pasil, Kalinga
    Pasil is a 5th class municipality in the province of Kalinga, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 10,084 people in 1,576 households.-Barangays:Pasil is politically subdivided into 14 barangays.* Ableg* Balatoc...

  • Pinukpuk
    Pinukpuk, Kalinga
    Pinukpuk is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Kalinga, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 27,783 people in 4,586 households.It is located in the northern part of Kalinga province which is a gate entering to Tuao, Cagayan to COnner,...

  • Rizal
    Rizal, Kalinga
    Rizal is a 4th class municipality in the province of Kalinga, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 14,614 people in 2,594 households.-Barangays:...

  • Tanudan
    Tanudan, Kalinga
    Tanudan is a 4th class municipality in the province of Kalinga, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 8,119 people in 1,472 households...

  • Tinglayan
    Tinglayan, Kalinga
    Tinglayan is a 4th class municipality in the province of Kalinga, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 11,619 people in 2,550 households.-Barangays:Tinglayan is politically subdivided into 20 barangays.* Ambato Legleg...

  • The topography of Kalinga province is rugged and sloping with mountain peaks ranging from 1,500 to 2,500 meters in height. The province’s geographic feature on the western portion is characterized by sharp crested interlinking peaks of steep slopes, isolated flatlands, plateaus and valleys. The eastern portion is generally rolling and gradually sloping foothills.

    The province is drained mainly by the Chico River with headwater originating from Mt. Province and empties into the Cagayan River.The Chico River has several tributaries: Bunog River in Tinglayan in the south, the Tanudan and Biga Rivers in the east, Pasil River in the middle, Mabaca and Saltan Rivers in the north. Several small lakes can also be found in Kalinga. These water resources if to be tapped could provide abundant sources for power generation, fishing, irrigation and for domestic use, but would destroy rice terraces, villages, livelihoods, and complete indigenous cultures.

    The province enjoys an average temperature ranging from 17 to 22 degrees Celsius and Type 3
    Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration
    The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration is a Philippine national institution dedicated to provide flood and typhoon warnings, public weather forecasts and advisories, meteorological, astronomical, climatological, and other specialized information and...

     weather patterns. The dry season extends from November to April. The rest of the year is considered rainy. The heaviest rains usually occur in the months of July to October.

    Large portion of the lower regions of the province are open grassland suitable for pasture, but the highlands have extensive areas of tropical rainforest and at higher elevation in the west, pine. Rizal and Tabuk with their flatlands are the biggest rice producers. Next in rice production are the mountainous areas – the rice terraces of Balbalan, Lubuagan, Pasil, Pinukpuk, Tinglayan, and Tanudan.


    There are many sub tribes in the province. The strong sense of tribal membership and filial loyalty results in frequent tribal unrest and occasional outright war. Due to the mountainous terrain and warrior-culture of the people, the Kalingas were able to maintain their culture despite the attempted occupation of the Spaniards, Japanese, and Americans. Unknown to many, the last stand of President Emilio Aguinaldo (First President of the Philippines) was in this province, in Lubuagan, which he proclaimed the national capital, and where the Aguinaldo museum commemorates him and those events.

    The people of Kalinga are the most extensive rice farmers of the Cordillera peoples, having been blessed with some of the most suitable land for both wet and dry rice farming. Like the Ifugaos, the Kalingas are one of the extensive terrace builders in the country. The Kalingas are also skilled potters with pot making concentrated in the lower Chico River Valley. They are also excellent in basket and loom weaving and metal works.


    Based on the 2000 census survey, 64.4% of the population are Kalinga and Ilocanos
    Ilocano people
    The Ilocano or Ilokano people are the third largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group. Aside from being referred to as Ilocanos, from "i"-from, and "looc"-bay, they also refer to themselves as Samtoy, from the Ilocano phrase "sao mi ditoy", meaning 'our language here.' The word "Ilocano" came from...

     are 24% of the province population. Other ethnic groups living in the province are the Kankana-ey 2.5%, Ibontoc 1.6%, Tagalog
    Tagalog people
    The Tagalog people are an ethnic group in the Philippines. The name Tagalog comes from either the native term tagá-ilog, meaning 'people living along the river', or another native term, tagá-alog, meaning 'people living along the ford', a ford being a shallow part of a river or stream where people,...

     1.3% and Applai 1%.

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