Judo
Overview
 
is a modern
Gendai Budo
, meaning "modern martial way", are modern Japanese martial arts which were established after the Meiji Restoration . Koryū are the opposite: ancient martial arts established before the Meiji Restoration.-Scope and tradition:...

 martial art and combat sport
Combat sport
A Combat sport, also known as a Fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport where two combatants fight against each other using certain rules of engagement , typically with the aim of simulating parts of real hand to hand combat...

 created in Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 in 1882 by Jigoro Kano. Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the object is to either throw
Throw (grappling)
A throw is a martial arts term for a grappling technique that involves off-balancing or lifting an opponent, and tossing them to the ground in Japanese martial arts referred to as nage-waza, 投げ技, "throwing technique"...

 or takedown
Takedown (grappling)
A takedown is a martial arts and combat sports term for a technique that involves off-balancing an opponent and bringing him or her to the ground, typically with the combatant performing the takedown landing on top. The process of quickly advancing on an opponent and attempting a takedown is known...

 one's opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue one's opponent with a grappling maneuver, or force an opponent to submit by joint lock
Joint lock
A Joint lock is a grappling technique involving manipulation of an opponent's joints in such a way that the joints reach their maximal degree of motion....

ing or by executing a strangle hold or choke
Chokehold
A chokehold or choke is a general term for grappling hold that critically reduces or prevents either air or blood from passing through the neck of an opponent. The restriction may be of one or both and depends on the hold used and the reaction of the victim...

. Strikes
Strike (attack)
A strike is an attack with an inanimate object, such as a weapon, or with a part of the human body intended to cause an effect upon an opponent or to simply cause harm to an opponent. There are many different varieties of strikes...

 and thrusts by hands and feet as well as weapons defences are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms (kata
Kata
is a Japanese word describing detailed choreographed patterns of movements practised either solo or in pairs. The term form is used for the corresponding concept in non-Japanese martial arts in general....

) and are not allowed in judo competition or free practice (randori
Randori
is a term used in Japanese martial arts to describe free-style practice. The term literally means "chaos taking" or "grasping freedom," implying a freedom from the structured practice of kata. Randori may be contrasted with kata, as two potentially complementary types of training.The exact meaning...

).

The philosophy and subsequent pedagogy developed for judo became the model for other modern Japanese martial arts that developed from .
Encyclopedia
is a modern
Gendai Budo
, meaning "modern martial way", are modern Japanese martial arts which were established after the Meiji Restoration . Koryū are the opposite: ancient martial arts established before the Meiji Restoration.-Scope and tradition:...

 martial art and combat sport
Combat sport
A Combat sport, also known as a Fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport where two combatants fight against each other using certain rules of engagement , typically with the aim of simulating parts of real hand to hand combat...

 created in Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 in 1882 by Jigoro Kano. Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the object is to either throw
Throw (grappling)
A throw is a martial arts term for a grappling technique that involves off-balancing or lifting an opponent, and tossing them to the ground in Japanese martial arts referred to as nage-waza, 投げ技, "throwing technique"...

 or takedown
Takedown (grappling)
A takedown is a martial arts and combat sports term for a technique that involves off-balancing an opponent and bringing him or her to the ground, typically with the combatant performing the takedown landing on top. The process of quickly advancing on an opponent and attempting a takedown is known...

 one's opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue one's opponent with a grappling maneuver, or force an opponent to submit by joint lock
Joint lock
A Joint lock is a grappling technique involving manipulation of an opponent's joints in such a way that the joints reach their maximal degree of motion....

ing or by executing a strangle hold or choke
Chokehold
A chokehold or choke is a general term for grappling hold that critically reduces or prevents either air or blood from passing through the neck of an opponent. The restriction may be of one or both and depends on the hold used and the reaction of the victim...

. Strikes
Strike (attack)
A strike is an attack with an inanimate object, such as a weapon, or with a part of the human body intended to cause an effect upon an opponent or to simply cause harm to an opponent. There are many different varieties of strikes...

 and thrusts by hands and feet as well as weapons defences are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms (kata
Kata
is a Japanese word describing detailed choreographed patterns of movements practised either solo or in pairs. The term form is used for the corresponding concept in non-Japanese martial arts in general....

) and are not allowed in judo competition or free practice (randori
Randori
is a term used in Japanese martial arts to describe free-style practice. The term literally means "chaos taking" or "grasping freedom," implying a freedom from the structured practice of kata. Randori may be contrasted with kata, as two potentially complementary types of training.The exact meaning...

).

The philosophy and subsequent pedagogy developed for judo became the model for other modern Japanese martial arts that developed from . The worldwide spread of judo has led to the development of a number of offshoots such as Sambo
Sambo (martial art)
Sambo is a Russian martial art and combat sport. The word "SAMBO" is an acronym for SAMooborona Bez Oruzhiya, which literally translates as "self-defense without weapons". Sambo is relatively modern since its development began in the early 1920s by the Soviet Red Army to improve their hand to hand...

 and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is a martial art, combat sport, and a self defense system that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting...

. Practitioners of judo are called judoka.

Early life of the founder

The early history of judo is inseparable from its founder, Japanese
Japanese people
The are an ethnic group originating in the Japanese archipelago and are the predominant ethnic group of Japan. Worldwide, approximately 130 million people are of Japanese descent; of these, approximately 127 million are residents of Japan. People of Japanese ancestry who live in other countries...

 polymath
Polymath
A polymath is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas. In less formal terms, a polymath may simply be someone who is very knowledgeable...

 and educator , born . Kano was born into a relatively affluent family. His father, Jirosaku, was the second son of the head priest of the Shinto
Shinto
or Shintoism, also kami-no-michi, is the indigenous spirituality of Japan and the Japanese people. It is a set of practices, to be carried out diligently, to establish a connection between present day Japan and its ancient past. Shinto practices were first recorded and codified in the written...

 Hiyoshi
Hiyoshi Shrine
, also known as or Hie jinja, is a Shinto shrine located at Ōtsu in Shiga Prefecture, Japan.The shrine became the object of Imperial patronage during the early Heian period. In 965, Emperor Murakami ordered that Imperial messengers were sent to report important events to the guardian kami of Japan...

 shrine in Shiga Prefecture
Shiga Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan, which forms part of the Kansai region on Honshu Island. The capital is the city of Ōtsu.- History :Shiga was known as Ōmi Province or Gōshū before the prefectural system was established...

. He married Sadako Kano, daughter of the owner of Kiku-Masamune sake brewing company and was adopted by the family, changing his name to Kano, and ultimately became an official in the Bakufu government.

Jigoro Kano had an academic upbringing and, from the age of seven, he studied English, and the under a number of tutors. When he was fourteen, Kano began boarding at an English-medium school, Ikuei-Gijuku in Shiba, Tokyo
Shiba, Tokyo
Shiba is a district of Minato, Tokyo, Japan, located near Hamamatsucho and Tamachi Stations on the Yamanote Line and Mita Station on the Toei Mita Line....

. The culture of bullying endemic at this school was the catalyst that caused Kano to seek out a at which to train.

Early attempts to find a jujutsu teacher who was willing to take him on met with little success. With the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the , was a feudal regime of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city, Edo, which is now called Tokyo, after the name was...

 in the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
The , also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, Reform or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868...

 of 1868, jujutsu had become unfashionable in an increasingly westernised Japan. Many of those who had once taught the art had been forced out of teaching or become so disillusioned with it that they had simply given up. Nakai Umenari, an acquaintance of Kanō's father and a former soldier, agreed to show him kata, but not to teach him. The caretaker of his father's second house, Katagiri Ryuji, also knew jujutsu, but would not teach it as he believed it was no longer of practical use. Another frequent visitor to Kanō's father's house, Imai Genshiro of school of jujutsu, also refused. Several years passed before he finally found a willing teacher.

In 1877, as a student at the Tokyo-Kaisei school (soon to become part of the newly-founded Tokyo Imperial University
University of Tokyo
, abbreviated as , is a major research university located in Tokyo, Japan. The University has 10 faculties with a total of around 30,000 students, 2,100 of whom are foreign. Its five campuses are in Hongō, Komaba, Kashiwa, Shirokane and Nakano. It is considered to be the most prestigious university...

), Kano learned that many jujutsu teachers had been forced to pursue alternative careers, frequently opening . After inquiring at a number of these, Kano was referred to Fukuda Hachinosuke (c.1828–1880), a teacher of the of jujutsu, who had a small nine mat dojo where he taught five students. Fukuda is said to have emphasized technique over formal exercise, sowing the seeds of Kano's emphasis on in Judo.

On Fukuda's death in 1880, Kano, who had become his keenest and most able student in both randori and , was given the of the Fukuda dojo. Kano chose to continue his studies at another Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū school, that of Iso Masatomo (c.1820–1881). Iso placed more emphasis on the practice of kata, and entrusted randori instruction to assistants, increasingly to Kano. Iso died in June 1881 and Kano went on to study at the dojo of Iikubo Tsunetoshi (1835–1889) of . Like Fukuda, Iikubo placed much emphasis on randori, with Kitō-ryū having a greater focus on .

Founding of the Kodokan

In February 1882, Kano founded a school and dojo at the , a Buddhist
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 temple in what was then the Shitaya ward of Tokyo (now the Higashi Ueno district of Taitō
Taito, Tokyo
is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. In English, it calls itself Taito City.As of April 1, 2011, the ward has an estimated population of 168,909, with 94,908 households, and a population density of 16,745.86 persons per km². The total area is 10.08 km².-History:The ward was founded...

 ward). Iikubo, Kano's Kitō-ryū instructor, attended the dojo three days a week to help teach and, although two years would pass before the temple would be called by the name , and Kano had not yet received his in Kitō-ryū, this is now regarded as the Kodokan founding.

The Eisho-ji dojo was a relatively small affair, consisting of a twelve mat training area. Kano took in resident and non-resident students, the first two being Tsunejiro Tomita
Tsunejiro Tomita
, born , was the earliest disciple of judo. His name appears in the first line of the enrollment book of the Kōdōkan. Tomita, together with Saigō Shirō, became first in history of judo to be awarded black belt grade by the founder of judo Kanō Jigorō, who established the ranking system...

 and Shiro Saigo
Shiro Saigo
was one of the earliest disciples of Judo. Saigo, together with Tsunejiro Tomita, became first in history of judo to be awarded black belt grade by the founder of judo Jigoro Kano, who established the kyu-dan ranking system.-Biography:...

. In August, the following year, the pair were granted grades, the first that had been awarded in any martial art.

Judo versus Jujutsu

Central to Kano's vision for Judo were the principles of and . He illustrated the application of seiryoku zen'yō with the concept of :
Kano realised that seiryoku zen'yō, initially conceived as a Jujutsu concept, had a wider philosophical application. Coupled with the Confucianist
Confucianism
Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius . Confucianism originated as an "ethical-sociopolitical teaching" during the Spring and Autumn Period, but later developed metaphysical and cosmological elements in the Han...

-influenced jita kyōei, the wider application shaped the development of Judo from a to a . Kano rejected techniques that did not conform to these principles and emphasised the importance of efficiency in the execution of techniques. He was convinced that practice of Jujutsu while conforming to these ideals was a route to self-improvement and the betterment of society in general. He was, however, acutely conscious of the Japanese public's negative perception of Jujutsu:
Kano believed that "Jūjutsu" was insufficient to describe his art: although means "art" or "means", it implies a method consisting of a collection of physical techniques. Accordingly, he changed the second character to , meaning way, road or path, which implies a more philosophical context than jutsu and has a common origin with the Chinese concept of tao
Tao
Dao or Tao is a Chinese word meaning 'way', 'path', 'route', or sometimes more loosely, 'doctrine' or 'principle'...

. Thus Kano renamed it .

Judo waza (techniques)

There are three basic categories of in Judo: , and . Judo is most known for nage-waza and katame-waza.

Judo practitioners typically devote a portion of each practice session to , in order that nage-waza can be practiced without significant risk of injury. Several distinct types of ukemi exist, including ; ; ; and

The person who performs a waza is known as and the person to whom it is performed is known as .

Nage waza (throwing techniques)

Nage waza include all techniques in which tori attempts to throw or trip uke, usually with the aim of placing uke on his back. Each technique has three distinct stages:, the initial balance break;, the act of turning in and fitting into the throw;, the execution and completion of the throw.

Nage waza are typically drilled by the use of , repeated turning-in, taking the throw up to the point of kake.

Traditionally, nage waza are further categorised into , throws that are performed with tori maintaining an upright position, and , throws in which tori sacrifices his upright position in order to throw uke.

Tachi-waza are further subdivided into , in which tori predominantly uses his arms to throw uke; throws that predominantly use a lifting motion from the hips; and , throws in which tori predominantly utilises his legs.

throwing techniques

standing techniques

hand techniques

hip techniques

foot and leg techniques

sacrifice techniques

rear sacrifice techniques

side sacrifice techniques

Katame-waza (grappling techniques)

Katame-waza is further categorised into , in which tori traps and pins uke on his back on the floor; , in which tori attempts to force a submission by choking or strangling uke; and , in which tori attempts to submit uke by painful manipulation of his joints.

A related concept is that of , in which waza are applied from a non-standing position.

Kansetsu-waza is currently limited, outside of kata, to elbow joint manipulation.

grappling techniques

holding or pinning techniques

strangulation techniques

Joint techniques (locks)

Atemi-waza (striking techniques)

Atemi-waza are techniques in which tori disables uke with a strike to a vital point. Atemi-waza are not permitted outside of kata.

Randori (free practice)

Judo pedagogy emphasizes . This term covers a variety of forms of practice, and the intensity at which it is carried out varies depending on intent and the level of expertise of the participants. At one extreme, is a compliant style of randori, known as , in which neither participant offers resistance to their partner's attempts to throw. A related concept is that of , in which an experienced judoka allows himself to be thrown by his less-experienced partner. At the opposite extreme from yakusoku geiko is the hard style of randori that seeks to emulate the style of Judo seen in competition. While hard randori is the cornerstone of Judo, over-emphasis of the competitive aspect is seen as undesirable by traditionalists if the intent of the randori is to "win" rather than to learn.

Randori is usually limited to either tachi waza (standing techniques) or ne waza (ground work) and, when one partner is thrown in tachi waza randori, practice is resumed with both partners on their feet.

Kata (forms)

are pre-arranged patterns of techniques and in judo, with the exception of the Seiryoku-Zen'yō Kokumin-Taiiku
Seiryoku Zen'yo Kokumin Taiiku no Kata
Seiryoku Zen'yo Kokumin Taiiku no Kata is a set of physical exercises that are part of judo.Its purpose is to promote the development of strong, healthy minds and bodies in an interesting and useful way....

, they are all practised with a partner. Their purposes include illustrating the basic principles of judo, demonstrating the correct execution of a technique, teaching the philosophical tenets upon which judo is based, allowing for the practice of techniques that are not allowed in randori, and to preserve ancient techniques that are historically important but are no longer used in contemporary judo.

There are ten kata that are recognized by the Kodokan today:
, comprising two kata:
} Fifteen throws, practiced both left- and right-handed, three each from the five categories of nage waza: te waza, koshi waza, ashi waza, ma sutemi waza and yoko sutemi waza.
}. Fifteen techniques in three sets of five, illustrating the three categories of katame waza: osaekomi waza, shime waza and kansetsu waza.. Twenty techniques, illustrating the principles of defence in a combat situation, performed from kneeling and standing positions. Attacks are made unarmed and armed with a dagger and a sword. This kata utilises atemi waza, striking techniques, that are forbidden in randori.. The most recent recognised kata, comprising twenty-one techniques of defence against attack from an unarmed assailant and one armed with a knife, stick and pistol. This kata incorporates various jujutsu techniques such as wrist locks and atemi waza.. Fifteen techniques, arranged in three sets of five, demonstrating the principle of and its correct use in offence and defence.. One of the oldest kata, comprising ten forms that illustrate the efficient use of force and resistance. Now rarely practiced.. An advanced kata, illustrating the principle of seiryoku zen'yō and the movements of the universe.. Derived from Kitō-ryū Jujutsu, this kata was originally intended to be performed wearing armour. Kano chose to preserve it as it embodied the principles of Judo.. A series of exercises designed to develop the physique for Judo.

In addition, there are a number of commonly practiced kata that are not recognised by the Kodokan. Some of the more common kata include:
A kata of counter techniques developed at Waseda University
Waseda University
, abbreviated as , is one of the most prestigious private universities in Japan and Asia. Its main campuses are located in the northern part of Shinjuku, Tokyo. Founded in 1882 as Tokyo Senmon Gakko, the institution was renamed "Waseda University" in 1902. It is known for its liberal climate...

 in Tokyo
Tokyo
, ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family...

, popularised in the West by Mikonosuke Kawaishi
Mikonosuke Kawaishi
was a master of Japanese Judo and Jujutsu, reaching for the life of the 7th Dan, who led the development of Judo in France and much of Europe. The application of belt colors associated with different degrees of learning resulted in a very effective teaching approach for the development of martial...

. Another kata of counter techniques, created by Kyuzo Mifune
Kyuzo Mifune
has been categorized as one of the greatest exponents of the art of judo after the founder, Kanō Jigorō. He is considered by many to be the greatest judo technician ever, after Kanō.-Early life:...

. Yet another, kata of counters, attributed to Yukio Tani
Yukio Tani
was a Japanese jujutsu instructor and professional challenge wrestler.The precise details of Tani's early jujutsu training in Japan are unclear, but he is known to have studied at two Fusen-ryu dojo as well as at the "Handa School of Jiujitsu" in Osaka...


History of competitive Judo

is a vitally important aspect of Judo. Early examples include the Kodokan and the biannual , both of which started in 1884 and continue to the present day.

In 1899 a committee of the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai
Dai Nippon Butoku Kai
is a Japanese martial arts organization established in 1895 in Kyoto, Japan, under the authority of the Ministry of Education and sanction of the Emperor Meiji. Its purpose, at that time, was to standardize martial disciplines and systems throughout Japan. This was the first official martial arts...

 chaired by Jigoro Kano drew up the first formal set of rules for Judo contests. Wins were by two ippons, awarded for throwing the opponent onto his back or by pinning them on their back for a "sufficient" amount of time or by submission. Submissions could be achieved via shime-waza or kansetsu-waza. Finger, toe and ankle locks were prohibited. Contests were set at 15 minutes long. In 1900, these rules were adopted by the Kodokan with amendments made to prohibit all joint locks for kyu grades and added wrist locks to the prohibited kansetsu-waza for dan grades. It was also stated that the ratio of tachi-waza to ne-waza should be between 70% to 80% for kyu grades and 60% to 70% for dan grades.

In 1916, additional rulings were brought in to further limit kansetsu waza with the prohibition of ashi garami and neck locks, as well as do jime. These were further added to in 1925, in response to , which concentrated on ne waza at the expense of tachi waza. The new rules banned all remaining joint locks except those applied to the elbow and prohibited the dragging down of an opponent to enter ne waza.

The were first held in 1930 and have been held every year, with the exception of the wartime period between 1941 and 1948, and continue to be the highest profile tournament in Japan.

Judo's international profile was boosted by the introduction of the World Judo Championships
World Judo Championships
The World Judo Championships are the highest level of international judo competition, along with the Olympic judo competition. The championships are held once every year by the International Judo Federation, and qualified judoka compete in their respective categories as representatives of their...

 in 1956. The championships were initially a fairly small affair, with 31 athletes attending from 21 countries in the first year. Competitors were exclusively male until the introduction of the Women's Championships in 1980, which took place on alternate years to the Men's Championships. The championships were combined in 1987 to create an event that takes place annually, except for the years in which Olympic games are held. Participation has steadily increased such that, in the most recent championships in 2011, 871 competitors from 132 countries took part.

The first time judo was seen in the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...

 was in an informal demonstration hosted by Kano at the 1932 Games
1932 Summer Olympics
The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was a major world wide multi-athletic event which was celebrated in 1932 in Los Angeles, California, United States. No other cities made a bid to host these Olympics. Held during the worldwide Great Depression, many nations...

. However, Kano was ambivalent about Judo's potential inclusion as an Olympic sport:

Nevertheless, Judo became an Olympic
Olympic Games
The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...

 sport for men in the 1964 Games
1964 Summer Olympics
The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan in 1964. Tokyo had been awarded with the organization of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but this honor was subsequently passed to Helsinki because of Japan's...

 in Tokyo
Tokyo
, ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family...

. The Olympic Committee initially dropped judo for the 1968 Olympics, meeting protests. Dutchman Anton Geesink
Anton Geesink
Antonius "Anton" Johannes Geesink was a Dutch 10th-dan judoka from Utrecht. He was a three-time World Judo Champion , Olympic Gold Medalist and won 21 European championships...

 won the first Olympic gold medal in the open division of judo by defeating Akio Kaminaga
Akio Kaminaga
was a judoka who competed in the 1964 Summer Olympics.-Biography:Kaminaga was born in Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture, and began learning judo during high school; a considerably late start for a top competitor. Kaminaga improved his techniques at a quick pace, and took a dan rank exam at the Kodokan...

 of Japan. The women's event was introduced at the Olympics in 1988 as a demonstration event, and an official medal event in 1992. Paralympic judo
Paralympic Judo
Paralympic judo is an adaptation of the Japanese martial art of judo for visually impaired competitors. The rules of the sport are only slightly different from regular judo competitions...

 has been a Paralympic
Paralympic Games
The Paralympic Games are a major international multi-sport event where athletes with a physical disability compete; this includes athletes with mobility disabilities, amputations, blindness, and Cerebral Palsy. There are Winter and Summer Paralympic Games, which are held immediately following their...

 sport (for the visually impaired) since 1988; it is also one of the sports at the Special Olympics
Special Olympics World Games
The Special Olympics World Games are an international sporting competition for athletes with intellectual disabilities, organized by Special Olympics....

.

Current international contest rules


The traditional rules of judo are intended provide a basis under which to test skill in Judo, while avoiding significant risk of injury to the competitors. Additionally, the rules are also intended to enforce proper .

Penalties may be given for being inactive during the match, or for using illegal techniques. Fighting must be stopped if a participant is outside the designated area on the mat (tatami). If the referee and judges need to discuss something during groundwork, the referee will call sono-mama (used in the sense "do not move", literally "as-is") and both fighters must stop in the position they are in. When they are done, the referee says yoshi and the match continues.

All scores and penalties are given by the referee. The judges can make a decision that changes the score or penalty given by the referee.

There are slight differences to IJF rules to accommodate blind judo
Paralympic Judo
Paralympic judo is an adaptation of the Japanese martial art of judo for visually impaired competitors. The rules of the sport are only slightly different from regular judo competitions...

.

Competition scoring

A throw that places the opponent on his back with impetus and control scores , winning the contest. A lesser throw, where the opponent is thrown onto his back, but with insufficient force to merit an ippon, scores . Two scores of waza-ari equal ippon. A throw that places the opponent onto his side scores . No amount of yukos equal a waza-ari, they are only considered in the event of an otherwise tied contest.

Ippon is scored in ne-waza for pinning an opponent on his back with a recognised osaekomi-waza for 25 seconds or by forcing a submission through shime-waza or kansetsu-waza. A submission is signalled by tapping the mat or the opponent at least twice with the hand or foot, or by saying . A pin lasting for less than 25 seconds, but more than 20 seconds scores waza-ari and one lasting less than 20 seconds but more than 15 seconds scores yuko.

Formerly, there was an additional score that was lesser to yuko, that of . This has since been removed.

If the scores are identical at the end of the match, the contest is resolved by the Golden Score rule. Golden Score is a sudden death situation where the clock is reset to match-time, and the first contestant to achieve any score wins. If there is no score during this period, then the winner is decided by Hantei, the majority opinion of the referee and the two corner judges.

Representation of scores

Judo scoreboards show the number of waza-ari and yuko scores scored by each player. (A score of koka was also displayed until its use was abandoned in 2009.) Often an ippon is not represented on the scoreboard, because upon award of an ippon the match is immediately terminated. Some computerized scoreboards will briefly indicate that an ippon has been scored.

Scoreboards normally also show the number of penalties imposed on each player, and sometimes the number of medical visits for each. (Only two "medical" attentions are allowed for each competitor during a match—most often for minor bleeds.)

Electronic scoreboards also usually include timers for measuring both competition time and osaekomi time.

Weight divisions

There are currently seven weight divisions, subject to change by governing bodies, and may be modified based on the age of the competitors:
Men
Under 60 kg 60–66 kg 66–73 kg 73–81 kg 81–90 kg 90–100 kg Over 100 kg
Women
Under 48 kg 48–52 kg 52–57 kg 57–63 kg 63–70 kg 70–78 kg Over 78 kg

Penalties

The first penalty is a warning, which is noted on the scoreboard. The second penalty is scored as "yuko" for the opponent.
The third penalty is scored as "waza-ari". The fourth penalty is called "hansoku make," and is scored as an "ippon" for the opponent. With a "hansoku make" the match ends permanently.
One can also get a direct "hansoku make" for serious rule violations. In this case, the player who got "hansoku make" is disqualified from the tournament.

Related arts and derivatives

Kano Jigoro's Kodokan judo is the most popular and well-known style of judo, but is not the only one. The terms judo and jujutsu were quite interchangeable in the early years, so some of these forms of judo are still known as jujutsu or jiu-jitsu either for that reason, or simply to differentiate them from mainstream judo. From Kano's original style of judo, several related forms have evolved—some now widely considered to be distinct arts:
  • Olympic judo: This is the predominant form of Kodokan judo.
    • Paralympic judo
      Paralympic Judo
      Paralympic judo is an adaptation of the Japanese martial art of judo for visually impaired competitors. The rules of the sport are only slightly different from regular judo competitions...

      : modified for blind and visually impaired competitors.
  • Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ)
    Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu
    Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is a martial art, combat sport, and a self defense system that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting...

    : In 1914, Mitsuyo Maeda
    Mitsuyo Maeda
    ,a Brazilian naturalized as Otávio Maeda,was a Japanese judōka and prizefighter in no holds barred competitions. He was also known as Count Combat or Conde Koma in Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese, a nickname he picked up in Spain in 1908...

     introduced judo to Brazil
    Brazil
    Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

    . Maeda taught judo to Carlos Gracie
    Carlos Gracie
    Carlos Gracie was the first Gracie to learn Judo from Otávio Mitsuyo Maeda. Based on this judo training, Carlos and his brothers founded the martial art of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu...

     (1902–1994) and others in Brazil. Gracie named their development of judo 'Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu' (one view is that at the time, in both Japan and Brazil, judo was sometimes known as 'Kano Jiu-Jitsu'). Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, considering itself independent of judo, did not follow later changes in international judo rules that were added to emphasize the standing phase of the fight, nor those rules that were introduced to ban the more dangerous techniques. Further, it evolved to greatly emphasize the ground aspect of judo, Judo Newaza, while disassociating itself with karate (see Gichin Funakoshi
    Gichin Funakoshi
    was the creator of Shotokan karate, perhaps the most widely known style of karate, and is attributed as being the 'father of modern karate.' Following the teachings of Anko Itosu, he was one of the Okinawan karate masters who introduced karate to the Japanese mainland in 1921...

    's friendship with Jigoro Kano) and various other forms of striking or attacking a vital point in favor of takedowns from both Judo and later from universal grappling moves such as double legs and virtually any form of takedown to get to the judo-newaza technique variations outlined by the Gracie family. Maeda had other students in Brazil, e.g. Luis Franca who did not receive their black belts from any Gracie family member and who practised a very similar if not identical version of Judo, but certainly the art has been popularized internationally by the Gracie family.
  • Judo-do: In Austria
    Austria
    Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

    , Julius Fleck and others developed a system of throwing intended to extend judo that they called "judo-do".
  • Kawaishi-ryū jujutsu: Teaching in France
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

    , Mikonosuke Kawaishi
    Mikonosuke Kawaishi
    was a master of Japanese Judo and Jujutsu, reaching for the life of the 7th Dan, who led the development of Judo in France and much of Europe. The application of belt colors associated with different degrees of learning resulted in a very effective teaching approach for the development of martial...

     developed Kawaishi-ryū jujutsu as an alternative approach to instruction that continued to teach many techniques banned in modern Olympic/Kodokan judo competition.
  • : As a sub-style of Kodokan judo that became popularized in early 20th century Japanese inter-scholastic competition, Kosen style has the same range of techniques but greater latitude is permitted for ground technique. This style of judo—noticeably similar to BJJ groundwork—is closer to the original early 1900s judo than current Olympic judo is.
  • Russian judo: This distinctive style of judo was influenced by Sambo. It is represented by well-known coaches such as Alexander Retuinskih
    Alexander Retuinskih
    Russian Cossack General Alexander Ivanovich Retuinskih is the President of the International and All-Russian Federation of Russian Martial Art, who served as Special Representative to Russian President Vladimir Putin during his election campaign....

     and Igor Yakimov
    Igor Yakimov
    Igor Yakimov is a world Judo champion, as well a world sport sambo champion and a medallist at the Combat Sambo world championships. He is the author of the Russian Judo video series and for his Sambo Leglocks video series.-Biography:...

    , and mixed martial arts
    Mixed martial arts
    Mixed Martial Arts is a full contact combat sport that allows the use of both striking and grappling techniques, both standing and on the ground, including boxing, wrestling, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, muay Thai, kickboxing, karate, judo and other styles. The roots of modern mixed martial arts can be...

     fighters such as Igor Zinoviev
    Igor Zinoviev
    Igor Zinoviev is a Russian former mixed martial artist. He competed in the Extreme Fighting organization, holding the middleweight title until their demise, then moved to the Ultimate Fighting Championship. Most recently, he coached the Chicago Red Bears in the International Fight League.-Early...

    , Fedor Emelianenko
    Fedor Emelianenko
    Fedor Vladimirovich Emelianenko) is a Russian heavyweight mixed martial artist. He has won numerous tournaments and accolades in multiple sports, most notably the Pride 2004 Grand Prix and the World Combat Sambo championship on four occasions, as well as medaling in the Russian national Judo...

     and Karo Parisyan
    Karo Parisyan
    Karapet Parisyan is an Armenian-American mixed martial artist. From his days as a UFC mainstay Karo holds notable wins over Ryo Chonan, Shonie Carter, Drew Fickett, Matt Serra, Nick Thompson, Chris Lytle, Nick Diaz and Antonio McKee.- Early life:...

    . In turn, Russian judo has influenced mainstream judo, with techniques such as the flying armbar being accepted into Kodokan judo.
  • Sambo
    Sambo (martial art)
    Sambo is a Russian martial art and combat sport. The word "SAMBO" is an acronym for SAMooborona Bez Oruzhiya, which literally translates as "self-defense without weapons". Sambo is relatively modern since its development began in the early 1920s by the Soviet Red Army to improve their hand to hand...

    (especially Sport Sambo): Vasili Oshchepkov was the first European judo black belt under Kano. Oshchepkov went on to contribute his knowledge of Judo as one of the three founders of Sambo, which also integrated various international and Soviet bloc wrestling styles and other combative techniques. Oshchepkov died during the political purges
    Great Purge
    The Great Purge was a series of campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin from 1936 to 1938...

     of 1937 for refusing to deny his education and dan-rank in Japanese judo under Kano. In their History of Sambo, Brett Jacques and Scott Anderson wrote that in Russia "judo and SOMBO were considered to be the same thing"—albeit with a different uniform and some differences in the rules.
  • Daido Juku
    Daido Juku
    is the organization for the martial art , founded in 1981 by Takashi Azuma. Azuma, originally a Kyokushin karate 1977 full contact karate champion, resigned from the Kyokushin organization to form Daido Juku in Sendai city, located in northern Honshū, Japan....

    : A hybrid mixed martial art which incorporates elements of both judo and Kyokushin
    Kyokushin
    is a style of stand-up, full contact karate, founded in 1964 by Korean-Japanese karate master, who was born under the name Choi Young-Eui . Kyokushinkai is Japanese for "the society of the ultimate truth". Kyokushin is rooted in a philosophy of self-improvement, discipline and hard training...

    .

Safety and reported deaths

In Japan, 114 child judo deaths have been reported in a 27-year period between 1983 and 2010. Adult competitive judo has a higher incidence of injuries compared to non-collision or non-contact ball-sports for example, but similar to other competitive contact sports. In Judo, a majority of the time Judoka are taught to fall properly, although not many players actually use breakfalls in competitive judo (at a competition) as it is basically slamming your hand on the mat indicating to the referee that there has been an ippon scored.

Chokes

Although chokes are potentially lethal techniques, a properly applied choke hold, if released soon enough after submission or unconsciousness, causes no injury. Judo chokes are generally taught to the more experienced Judoka to help ensure the safety of the students. There is ample data demonstrating the safety of applying chokeholds, and training includes emergency care and resuscitation (kappo).

Throws

A properly applied throw performed in a controlled way should protect the opponent from injury. However injuries may result if, for example, the thrower (Tori) lands on the opponent (Uke) as a result of a sloppy or intentionally malicious throw, or if the tori performs a sloppy throw with disregard for uke's joints (e.g., improper Osoto gari
Osoto Gari
is one of the original 40 throws of Judoas developed by Jigoro Kano. It belongs to the first group, Dai Ikkyo, of the traditional throwing list, Gokyo , of Kodokan Judo. It is also included in the current 67 Throws of Kodokan Judo...

 or Tai otoshi
Tai Otoshi
,is one of the original 40 throws of Judo as developed by Jigoro Kano.It belongs to the second group,Dai Nikyo,of the traditional throwing list, Gokyo ,of Kodokan Judo.It is also part of the current 67 Throws of Kodokan Judo....

 applied with lateral force to the knee; or sloppy Soto makikomi
Soto Makikomi
is one of the traditional forty throws of Judoas developed by Jigoro Kano.It belongs to the fourth group,Yonkyo,of the traditional throwing list,Gokyo , of Kodokan Judo.It is also part of the current 67 Throws of Kodokan Judo....

 or "drop" Ippon seoi nage resulting in excessive forces into uke's shoulder). To best prevent throwing injuries, proper throwing techniques should be thoroughly drilled by teachers before entering students into competition—via "fitting-in" drills (Uchi-komi's), prearranged forms (e.g., Nage-no-kata
Nage-no-kata
is one of the two of Kodokan Judo. It is intended as an illustration of the various concepts of that exist in judo, and is used both as a training method and as a demonstration of understanding.-History:...

), and intense but controlled & supervised free-practice/sparring (Randori
Randori
is a term used in Japanese martial arts to describe free-style practice. The term literally means "chaos taking" or "grasping freedom," implying a freedom from the structured practice of kata. Randori may be contrasted with kata, as two potentially complementary types of training.The exact meaning...

).

Judoka (practitioner)

A practitioner of Judo is known as a , though traditionally only those of 4th dan
Dan (rank)
The ranking system is a Japanese mark of level, which is used in modern fine arts and martial arts. Originally invented in a Go school in the Edo period, this system was applied to martial arts by Kanō Jigorō, the founder of judo and later introduced to other East Asia countries.In the modern...

or higher were called "Judoka". The suffix , when added to a noun, means a person with expertise or special knowledge on that subject. Other practitioners below the rank of 4th dan used to be called . The modern meaning of Judoka refers to a Judo practitioner of any level of expertise.

A Judo teacher is called . The word sensei comes from sen or saki (before) and sei (life) – i.e. one who has preceded you. In Western dojo, it is common to call any instructor of dan grade sensei. Traditionally, that title was reserved for instructors of 4th dan and above.

Jūdōgi (uniform)

Judo practitioners traditionally wear white uniforms called , sometimes the abbreviated as gi
Keikogi
or dōgi is a uniform for training, used in martial arts derived from Japan, or budō. . The prototype for the modern keikogi emerged in the late 19th century. The keikogi was developed by judo founder Kano Jigoro...

. The jūdōgi was created by Kano in 1907, and similar uniforms were later adopted by many other martial arts. The modern jūdōgi consists of white or blue cotton drawstring pants and a matching white or blue quilted cotton
Cotton
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed dispersal....

 jacket
Jacket
A jacket is a hip- or waist-length garment for the upper body. A jacket typically has sleeves, and fastens in the front. A jacket is generally lighter, tighter-fitting, and less insulating than a coat, which is outerwear...

, fastened by an , coloured to indicate rank
Judo ranks and grades
In Judo, improvement and understanding of the art is denoted by a system of ranks split into kyū and dan grades. These are indicated with various systems of coloured belts, with the black belt indicating a practitioner who has attained a certain level of competence.-The Kōdōkan Kyū-Dan ranking...

. The jacket is intended to withstand the stresses of grappling and, as a result, is much thicker than that of a . Jūdōgi are designed to allow an opponent to hold onto it, while karategi are made from slicker material so that an opponent cannot get a grip on the material.

The modern use of the blue jūdōgi was first suggested by Anton Geesink
Anton Geesink
Antonius "Anton" Johannes Geesink was a Dutch 10th-dan judoka from Utrecht. He was a three-time World Judo Champion , Olympic Gold Medalist and won 21 European championships...

 at the 1986 Maastricht IJF DC Meeting.
For competition, a blue jūdōgi is worn by one of the two competitors for ease of distinction by judges, referees, and spectators. In Japan, both jūdōka use a white jūdōgi and the traditional red obi (based on the colors of the Japanese flag) is affixed to the belt of one competitor. Outside Japan, a colored obi may also be used for convenience in minor competitions, the blue jūdōgi only being mandatory at the regional or higher levels, depending on organisation. Japanese practitioners and traditionalists tend to look down on the use of blue because of the fact that Judo is considered a pure sport, and the replacing the pure white jūdōgi for the impure blue, is an offence.

For events organised under the auspices of the International Judo Federation (IJF), jūdōgi have to bear the IJF Official Logo Mark Label. This label demonstrates that the jūdōgi has passed a number of quality control tests to ensure it conforms to construction regulations ensuring it is not too stiff, flexible, rigid or slippery to allow the opponent to grip or to perform techniques.

Organizations


The international governing body for Judo is the International Judo Federation
International Judo Federation
The International Judo Federation was founded in July 1951. The IJF was originally composed of judo federations from Europe plus Argentina. Countries from four continents were affiliated over the next ten years. Today the IJF has 200 National Federations on all continents...

 (IJF), founded in 1951. Members of the IJF include the African Judo Union (AJU), the Pan-American Judo Confederation (PJC), the Judo Union of Asia (JUA), the European Judo Union (EJU) and the Oceania Judo Union (OJU), each comprising a number of national judo associations. The IJF is responsible for organising international competition and hosts the World Judo Championships and is involved in running the Olympic Judo events.

Numerous non-IJF affiliated organisations exist, often having a more traditional focus than some of the IJF-affiliated organisations, which are sometimes criticised for over-emphasising the competitive side of jūdō.

Rank and grading

Judoka are ranked according to skill and knowledge of judo, and their rank is denoted by a system of ranks in modern systems these ranks are reflected by their belt colours. Ranks are split into kyū
Kyu
is a Japanese term used in martial arts, chadō, ikebana, go, shogi such as Japanese traditional culture, and academic tests and in other similar activities to designate various grades or levels or class of proficiency or experience...

grades and dan
Dan rank
The ranking system is a Japanese mark of level, which is used in modern fine arts and martial arts. Originally invented in a Go school in the Edo period, this system was applied to martial arts by Kanō Jigorō, the founder of judo and later introduced to other East Asia countries.In the modern...

(Black belt
Black belt (martial arts)
In martial arts, the black belt is a way to describe a graduate of a field where a practitioner's level is often marked by the color of the belt. The black belt is commonly the highest belt color used and denotes a degree of competence. It is often associated with a teaching grade though...

 grades. This kyu/dan ranking system was introduced into the martial arts by Kano and has since been widely adopted by modern martial arts as was. As initially designed, there were six student grades ranked in descending numerical order, with 1st kyū being the last before promotion to shodan
Shodan
, literally meaning "beginning degree," is the lowest black belt rank in Japanese martial arts and the game of Go. The 2nd dan is higher than Shodan, but the 1st dan is called Shodan traditionally and the 1st dan is not called "Ichidan"...

(first degree black belt).

The highest grade jūdan (tenth degree black belt) has no formal requirements and is decided by the president of the Kodokan, currently Kano Jigoro's grandson Yukimitsu Kano (Kano Yukimitsu). As of 2011, fifteen Japanese men have been promoted to this rank by the Kodokan, three of whom are still alive; the IJF and Western national federations have promoted another seven who are not recognized by the Kodokan. On July 28, 2011, the promotion board of USA Judo awarded Sensei Keiko Fukuda
Keiko Fukuda
is the highest-ranked female judo practitioner in history, holding the rank of 9th dan from the Kodokan and the United States Judo Federation , and 10th dan from USA Judo, and is the last surviving student of Kanō Jigorō, founder of judo...

 the rank of 10th dan, she is the first woman to be promoted to judo's highest level.

Although dan ranks tend to be consistent between national organizations there is more variation in the kyū grades, with some countries having more kyū grades. Although initially kyū grade belt colours were uniformly white, today a variety of colours are used. The first black belts to denote a Dan rank
Dan rank
The ranking system is a Japanese mark of level, which is used in modern fine arts and martial arts. Originally invented in a Go school in the Edo period, this system was applied to martial arts by Kanō Jigorō, the founder of judo and later introduced to other East Asia countries.In the modern...

 in the 1880s, initially the wide obi was used; as practitioners trained in kimono
Kimono
The is a Japanese traditional garment worn by men, women and children. The word "kimono", which literally means a "thing to wear" , has come to denote these full-length robes...

, only white and black obi were used. It was not until the early 1900s, after the introduction of the judogi
Judogi
Judogi is the formal Japanese name for the traditional uniform used for Judo practice and competition. It is actually derived from traditional articles of Japanese clothing. Jigoro Kano derived the original judogi from the kimono and other Japanese garments around the turn of the 20th century, and...

, that an expanded colored belt system of awarding rank was created.

See also

  • Judo techniques, partial list of judo techniques
  • The Canon of Judo
    The Canon Of Judo
    The Canon of Judo is a book was originally published in 1956, and written by Kodokan 10th dan, Kyuzo Mifune . The book covers almost all of the Kodokan recognized techniques, adds variations and new techniques, although Do-Jime is barely mentioned . The book also describes fifteen Kata developed by...

    , a book by Kyuzo Mifune
    Kyuzo Mifune
    has been categorized as one of the greatest exponents of the art of judo after the founder, Kanō Jigorō. He is considered by many to be the greatest judo technician ever, after Kanō.-Early life:...

     (1960)
  • The Principle of Ju
  • World Judo Championships
    World Judo Championships
    The World Judo Championships are the highest level of international judo competition, along with the Olympic judo competition. The championships are held once every year by the International Judo Federation, and qualified judoka compete in their respective categories as representatives of their...

  • Judo at the Summer Olympics
    Judo at the Summer Olympics
    Judo was first included in the Summer Olympic Games at the 1964 Games in Tokyo, Japan. After not being included in 1968, judo has been an Olympic sport in each Olympiad since then. Only male judoka participated until the 1988 Summer Olympics, when women participated as a demonstration sport...

  • List of judoka
  • List of celebrity judoka
  • List of Olympic medalists in judo
  • Paralympic judo
    Paralympic Judo
    Paralympic judo is an adaptation of the Japanese martial art of judo for visually impaired competitors. The rules of the sport are only slightly different from regular judo competitions...

  • U.S. intercollegiate judo champions

External links

  • International Judo Federation (IJF)—The worldwide governing body
    Sport governing body
    A sport governing body is a sports organization that has a regulatory or sanctioning function. Sport governing bodies come in various forms, and have a variety of regulatory functions. Examples of this can include disciplinary action for rule infractions and deciding on rule changes in the sport...

    for judo
  • Kodokan Judo Institute—Headquarters of judo (Kano Jigoro's school)
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