Irene Harand
Irene Harand was an Austrian
Austrians are a nation and ethnic group, consisting of the population of the Republic of Austria and its historical predecessor states who share a common Austrian culture and Austrian descent....

 human rights activist and campaigner against antisemitism.

Harand was born a Roman Catholic in Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

 and was an early organiser of protests against Nazi Germany's persecutions of Jews. She started the Harand Movement, an organisation Weltbewegung gegen Rassenhass und Menschennot (World Movement Against Racial Hatred and Human Suffering) in 1933 and actively campaigned throughout Europe before World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...


Though not opposed to the Austrofascist
Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used by historians to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria with the May Constitution of 1934, which ceased with the forcible incorporation of the newly-founded Federal State of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938...

 rule of Engelbert Dollfuß and his Fatherland's Front, Harand fought against antisemitic sentiments and Nazism
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

. To counter Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

's book Mein Kampf, she wrote a book named Sein Kampf - Antwort an Hitler von Irene Harand (His Struggle - the Answer to Hitler from Irene Harand).

When Nazi Germany invaded Austria
The Anschluss , also known as the ', was the occupation and annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938....

 in 1938, Harand was in London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 lecturing, it saved her life as the Nazis had set a price for her capture of 100,000 Reichmarks. She then emigrated to the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, where she established the Austrian forum, which after the war was the basis for the Austrian Cultural Forum
Austrian Cultural Forum New York
The Austrian Cultural Forum New York is one of Austria’s two cultural representation offices in the United States...

, of which she became the leader.

In 1969 she received the honorary title of a Righteous among the Nations
Righteous Among the Nations
Righteous among the Nations of the world's nations"), also translated as Righteous Gentiles is an honorific used by the State of Israel to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis....

 from the state of Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 for her resistance against the Nazi anti-semitism. Harand died in New York
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 in 1975 and is buried in Vienna-Simmering
Simmering (Vienna)
Simmering is the 11th district of Vienna, Austria . It borders the Danube and was established as a district in 1892. Simmering has several churches, some museums, schools, old castles, and many cemeteries.- History :...

. In 2008 a square in the Vienna district of Wieden
Wieden is the 4th municipal District of Vienna, Austria . It is near the center of Vienna and was established as a district in 1850, but borders changed later...

 was named in her honour.

External links

See also

  • Antisemitism
  • Austrian Cultural Forum New York
    Austrian Cultural Forum New York
    The Austrian Cultural Forum New York is one of Austria’s two cultural representation offices in the United States...

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