International Harvester
Overview
 
International Harvester Company (IHC or IH) was a United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 agricultural
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

 machinery, construction equipment, vehicle, commercial truck, and household and commercial products manufacturer. In 1902, J.P. Morgan merged the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company and Deering Harvester Company
Deering Harvester Company
Deering Harvester Company was founded in 1894 by William Deering. In 1902, Deering Harvester Company and McCormick Harvesting Machine Company, along with three smaller agricultural equipment firms merged to create the International Harvester Company which is still in operation today as the Case IH...

, along with three smaller agricultural equipment firms, to form International Harvester. International Harvester sold off its agricultural division in 1985 and renamed the company Navistar International
Navistar International
Navistar International Corporation is a United States-based holding company that owns the manufacturer of International brand commercial trucks, MaxxForce brand diesel engines, IC Bus school and commercial buses, Workhorse brand chassis for motor homes and step vans, and is a private label...

 Corporation in 1986.
Encyclopedia
International Harvester Company (IHC or IH) was a United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 agricultural
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

 machinery, construction equipment, vehicle, commercial truck, and household and commercial products manufacturer. In 1902, J.P. Morgan merged the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company and Deering Harvester Company
Deering Harvester Company
Deering Harvester Company was founded in 1894 by William Deering. In 1902, Deering Harvester Company and McCormick Harvesting Machine Company, along with three smaller agricultural equipment firms merged to create the International Harvester Company which is still in operation today as the Case IH...

, along with three smaller agricultural equipment firms, to form International Harvester. International Harvester sold off its agricultural division in 1985 and renamed the company Navistar International
Navistar International
Navistar International Corporation is a United States-based holding company that owns the manufacturer of International brand commercial trucks, MaxxForce brand diesel engines, IC Bus school and commercial buses, Workhorse brand chassis for motor homes and step vans, and is a private label...

 Corporation in 1986. Case IH
Case IH
Case IH is an American mechanical company, one of the world’s largest brands of agricultural equipment. With headquarters in Racine, Wisconsin, it has a network of more than 4,000 dealers and distributors that operates in more than 160 countries...

 was formed when the agricultural division merged with J.I. Case.

History

Founding of the company

The roots of International Harvester run to the 1830s, when Cyrus Hall McCormick, an inventor from Virginia
Virginia
The Commonwealth of Virginia , is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother of Presidents" after the eight U.S. presidents born there...

, finalized his version of a horse-drawn reaper
Reaper
A reaper is a person or machine that reaps crops at harvest, when they are ripe.-Hand reaping:Hand reaping is done by various means, including plucking the ears of grains directly by hand, cutting the grain stalks with a sickle, cutting them with a scythe, or with a later type of scythe called a...

, which he field-demonstrated throughout 1831, and for which he received a patent in 1834. Together with his brother Leander J. McCormick
Leander J. McCormick
Leander James McCormick was an American farmer, inventor, manufacturer, and businessman. Although born in rural Virginia, he later owned vast amounts of real estate in downtown Chicago.-Life:...

 (1819–1900), McCormick moved to Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

 in 1847 and started the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company. The McCormick reaper sold well, partially as a result of savvy and innovative business practices. Their products came onto the market just as the development of railroads offered wide distribution to distant market areas. He developed marketing and sales techniques, developing a vast network of trained salesmen able to demonstrate operation of the machines in the field.

McCormick died in 1884, with his company passing to his son, Cyrus McCormick, Jr. In 1902 the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company and Deering Harvester Company
Deering Harvester Company
Deering Harvester Company was founded in 1894 by William Deering. In 1902, Deering Harvester Company and McCormick Harvesting Machine Company, along with three smaller agricultural equipment firms merged to create the International Harvester Company which is still in operation today as the Case IH...

, along with three smaller agricultural equipment firms (Milwaukee; Plano; and Warder, Bushnell, and Glessner
Benjamin H. Warder
Benjamin Head Warder was an American manufacturer of agricultural machinery...

—manufacturers of Champion brand) merged to create the International Harvester Company. In 1919, the Parlin and Orendorff factory in Canton, Illinois
Canton, Illinois
Canton is the largest city in Fulton County, Illinois in the United States. The population was 18,288 as of the 2000 Census. The Canton Micropolitan Statistical Area covers all of Fulton County; it is in turn part of the wider Peoria-Canton, IL Combined Statistical Area .-Geography:Canton is...

 was a leader in the plow manufacturing industry. International Harvester purchased the factory calling it the Canton Works; it continued production for many decades.

The golden years of IH

In 1926 IH's Farmall Works began production in a new plant in Rock Island, Illinois
Rock Island, Illinois
Rock Island is the county seat of Rock Island County, Illinois, United States. The population was 40,884 at the 2010 census. Located on the Mississippi River, it is one of the Quad Cities, along with neighboring Moline, East Moline, and the Iowa cities of Davenport and Bettendorf. The Quad Cities...

, built solely to produce the new Farmall tractor. By 1930, the 100,000th Farmall was produced. IH next set their sights on introducing a true 'general-purpose' tractor designed to satisfy the needs of the average US family farmer. The resulting 'letter' series of Raymond Loewy
Raymond Loewy
Raymond Loewy was an industrial designer, and the first to be featured on the cover of Time Magazine, on October 31, 1949. Born in France, he spent most of his professional career in the United States...

-designed Farmall tractors in 1939 proved a huge success, and IH enjoyed a sales lead in tractors and related equipment that continued through much of the 1940s and 1950s, despite stiff competition from Ford
Fordson tractor
Fordson was a brand name used on a range of mass produced general-purpose tractors manufactured by Henry Ford & Son, Inc, from 1917 until 1920 when it was merged into the Ford Motor Company, which used the name until 1964...

, John Deere and other tractor manufacturers. In 1946 IH acquired a World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 defense plant in Louisville, Kentucky
Louisville, Kentucky
Louisville is the largest city in the U.S. state of Kentucky, and the county seat of Jefferson County. Since 2003, the city's borders have been coterminous with those of the county because of a city-county merger. The city's population at the 2010 census was 741,096...

, which was enlarged, expanded, and re-equipped for production of the Farmall A, B, and the new 340
Farmall Cub
The Farmall Cub or International Cub was the smallest tractor manufactured by International Harvester under either the McCormick-Deering, Farmall, or International names from 1947 through 1981 in Louisville, Kentucky.-Description:The two major variations of the Cub were the Standard Cub and the...

 tractors. In 1974, the 5 millionth IHC tractor was produced at the Rock Island Farmall plant.

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, despite good sales, IH's profit margins remained slim. The continual adding of unrelated business lines created a somewhat unwieldy corporate organization, and the company found it difficult to focus on a primary business, be it agricultural equipment, construction equipment, or truck production. An overly conservative management, combined with a rigid policy of in-house promotions tended to stifle new management strategies as well as technical innovation. Products with increasingly ancient technology continued in production year after year despite their marginal addition to sales. Worse, IH now not only faced a threat of stiff competition in each of its main corporate businesses, but also had to contend with greatly increased production costs, primarily due to labor and government-imposed environmental and safety regulations.

Downfall and ending

In 1979 IH named a new CEO, who was determined to improve profit margins and drastically cut a ballooning cost structure. Unprofitable model lines were terminated, and factory production curtailed. By the end of the year, IH profits were at their highest in 10 years, but cash reserves were still too low. Union members became increasingly irate over production cutbacks and other cost-cutting measures. In the spring and summer of 1979, IH began short-term planning for a strike that seemed inevitable. Then on November 1, IH announced figures showing that president and chairman Archie McCardell
Archie McCardell
Archie R. McCardell was an American business leader. He was best known for his tenure as chief executive officer, president, and chairman of the board at the International Harvester farm and heavy equipment manufacturing concern from 1977 to 1982...

 received a US$1.8 million (in 1979 values) bonus. McCardell sought overtime, work rule, and other changes from the UAW
United Auto Workers
The International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, better known as the United Auto Workers , is a labor union which represents workers in the United States and Puerto Rico, and formerly in Canada. Founded as part of the Congress of Industrial...

, which led to a strike on November 2, 1979
International Harvester strike of 1979–1980
The International Harvester strike of 1979–1980 was a strike by the United Auto Workers against the International Harvester company over work rules. The strike began on November 1, 1979, and ended after 172 days on April 20, 1980...

.

Soon after, the economy turned unfavorable
Early 1980s recession
The early 1980s recession describes the severe global economic recession affecting much of the developed world in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The United States and Japan exited recession relatively early, but high unemployment would continue to affect other OECD nations through at least 1985...

, and IH faced a financial crisis. The strike lasted approximately six months. When it ended, IH had lost almost $600 million (in 1979 value; over $2 billion
1000000000 (number)
1,000,000,000 is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.In scientific notation, it is written as 109....

 today).

By 1981 the company's finances were at their lowest point ever. The strike, accompanied by the economy and internal corporate problems, had placed IH in a hole that had only a slim way out. Things only got worse until 1984, when the bitter end came.

International Harvester, following long negotiations, agreed to sell its agricultural products division to Tenneco, Inc. on November 26, 1984. Tenneco had a subsidiary, J.I. Case, that manufactured tractors, but lacked the full line of farm implements that IH produced (combines
Combine harvester
The combine harvester, or simply combine, is a machine that harvests grain crops. The name derives from the fact that it combines three separate operations, reaping, threshing, and winnowing, into a single process. Among the crops harvested with a combine are wheat, oats, rye, barley, corn ,...

, cotton picker
Cotton picker
The mechanical cotton picker is a machine that automates cotton harvesting in a way that reduces harvest time and maximizes efficiency.-History:...

s, tillage equipment etc.)

Following the merger, tractor production at Harvester's Rock Island, Illinois Farmall Works ceased in May 1985. Production of the new Case IH
Case IH
Case IH is an American mechanical company, one of the world’s largest brands of agricultural equipment. With headquarters in Racine, Wisconsin, it has a network of more than 4,000 dealers and distributors that operates in more than 160 countries...

 tractors moved to the J.I. Case Tractor Works in Racine, Wisconsin. Production of IH Axial-Flow combines continued at the East Moline, Illinois combine factory. Harvester's Memphis Works in Memphis, Tennessee was closed and cotton picker production was moved.

The truck and engine divisions remained, and in 1986 Harvester changed the corporate name to Navistar International Corporation
Navistar International
Navistar International Corporation is a United States-based holding company that owns the manufacturer of International brand commercial trucks, MaxxForce brand diesel engines, IC Bus school and commercial buses, Workhorse brand chassis for motor homes and step vans, and is a private label...

 (Harvester had sold the International Harvester name and the IH symbol to Tenneco Inc. as part of the sale of its agricultural products division). Navistar International Corporation continues to manufacture medium- and heavy-duty trucks, school buses, and engines under the International brand name.

Divisions and products

Agriculture

The International Harvester Agricultural Division was the biggest and best-known IH subsidiary. When IH sold the agricultural products division to Tenneco in 1985, the International Harvester name and "IH" logo, went with it.

One of the early products (besides the harvesting equipment that McCormick and Deering had been making prior to the merger) from the newly-created International Harvester Company was the Traction Truck: a truck frame manufactured by Morton Traction Truck Company (later bought by IHC) with an IHC engine installed.

From 1902, when IH was formed, to the early 1920s, the McCormick and Deering dealerships kept their original brands unique, with Mogul tractors sold at McCormick dealers, and Titan tractors at Deering dealerships, due to the still present competitiveness of the former rivals.

The early tractors

IH produced a range of large gasoline-powered farm tractors under the Mogul and Titan brands. Sold by McCormick dealers, the Type C Mogul was little more than a stationary engine
Stationary engine
A stationary engine is an engine whose framework does not move. It is normally used not to propel a vehicle but to drive a piece of immobile equipment such as a pump or power tool. They may be powered by steam; or oil-burning or internal combustion engines....

 on a tractor chassis, fitted with friction drive (one speed forward, one reverse). Between 1911 and 1914, 862 Moguls were built. These tractors had varied success but the trend going into the mid-1910s was "small" and "cheap".

The first important tractor
Tractor
A tractor is a vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction...

s from IH were the model 10-20 and 15-30. Introduced in 1915, the tractors (which were smaller than their predecessors) were primarily used as traction engines to pull plows and for belt work on threshing machine
Threshing machine
The thrashing machine, or, in modern spelling, threshing machine , was a machine first invented by Scottish mechanical engineer Andrew Meikle for use in agriculture. It was invented for the separation of grain from stalks and husks. For thousands of years, grain was separated by hand with flails,...

s. The 10-20 and 15-30 both had separate, but similar, Mogul and Titan versions.

Around this time, IHC purchased a number of smaller companies to incorporate their products into the IH dealer arsenal. Parlin & Orendorff aka P&O Plow and Chattanooga Plow were purchased in 1919. Other brand names they incorporated include but are not limited to Keystone, D.M. Osborne, Kemp
Kemp
- People :* Kemp Hannon, American politician* Albert Edward Kemp , Canadian businessman and politician* Alfred Kempe , English mathematician* Anthony Fenn Kemp , Australian soldier and merchant...

, Meadows, Sterling, Weber
Weber
Weber is a surname of German origin, derived from the noun meaning "weaver". In some cases, following migration to English-speaking countries, it has been anglicised to the English surname 'Webber' or even 'Weaver'.Notable people with the surname include:...

, Plano
Plano
Plano can refer to:*Plano cultures, the Late Paleo-Indian hunter-gatherer societies of the Great Plains of North America** Plano points, the chipped stone tools of the Plano culturesPlaces in the United States:...

, Champion
Champion
A champion is the victor in a challenge, contest or competition.There can be a territorial pyramid of championships, e.g. local, regional / provincial, state, national, continental and world championships, and even further divisions at one or more of these levels, as in soccer. Their champions...

.

In 1924 IH introduced the Farmall tractor, a smaller general-purpose tractor, to fend off competition from the Ford Motor Company's
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. The automaker was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford and Lincoln brands, Ford also owns a small stake in Mazda in Japan and Aston Martin in the UK...

 Fordson tractors. The Farmall was the first tractor in the United States to incorporate a tricycle
Tricycle
A tricycle is a three-wheeled vehicle. While tricycles are often associated with the small three-wheeled vehicles used by pre-school-age children, they are also used by adults for a variety of purposes. In the United States and Canada, adult-sized tricycles are used primarily by older persons for...

-like design (or row-crop front axle), which could be used on tall crops such as cotton
Cotton
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed dispersal....

 and corn
Maize
Maize known in many English-speaking countries as corn or mielie/mealie, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maize kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable...

.
Following the introduction of the Farmall, IH introduced several similar looking "F Series" models that offered improvements over the original design (the original model became known as the "Regular").

In 1932 IH produced their first diesel engine
Diesel engine
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

, in the McCormick-Deering TD-40 crawler
Tracked vehicle
A tracked vehicle is a vehicle that runs on continuous tracks instead of wheels...

. This engine started on gasoline, then switched over to diesel fuel. Diesel engines of this era were difficult to start in cold weather, and using gasoline allowed the engine to start easily and thoroughly warm up before making the switch to diesel in all weather conditions. In 1935 this engine was put in the International Harvester WD-40, becoming the first diesel tractor on wheels in North America (the world's first diesel tractor was the German Benz-Sendling BS 6, introduced in 1922).

The Letter and Standard Series

For model year 1939, industrial designer Raymond Loewy
Raymond Loewy
Raymond Loewy was an industrial designer, and the first to be featured on the cover of Time Magazine, on October 31, 1949. Born in France, he spent most of his professional career in the United States...

 was hired to design a new line of tractors. The sleek look, combined with other new features, created what is known as the Farmall "letter series" (A, B, BN, C, H and M) and the McCormick-Deering "standard series" (W-4, W-6 and W-9). 1941 saw the introduction of the model "MD" the first rowcrop diesel powered tractor, it would be over a decade before IH's biggest competitor (John Deere) would introduce a diesel option on their rowcrop tractors. The letter series tractors were updated to the "super" series in 1953 (with the exception of the A, which became a "super" in 1947, and the B and BN, which were discontinued in 1948) and received several improvements. Many of these tractors (especially the largest: the H, M and W models) are still in operation on farms today. Especially desirable are the diesel-powered MD, WD-6 and WD-9. These tractors carried forward the unique gasoline start diesel concept of the WD-40.

The letter and standard series of tractors was produced until 1954, and was a defining product in IH history.

For 1955 in IH tractors, the numbered "hundred-series" was offered. Although given slightly different looks and few new features, they were still updates to the models introduced in 1939. The only new tractor in the 1955 lineup is the 300 Utility. In 1957 IH gave the tractor lineup another update by increasing power in some models, adding a new 230 Utility model, and adding new white paint to the grill and sides, and giving new number designations. This improved sales at the time, but IH's inability to change and update was already showing.

60 Series recall

In July 1958, IH launched a major campaign to introduce a new line of tractors to revitalize slumping sales. At the Hinsdale, Illinois
Hinsdale, Illinois
Hinsdale is a suburb of Chicago, Illinois; it is located partly in Cook County and mainly in DuPage County in the U.S. state of Illinois. The population was 17,349 at the 2000 census. The town's ZIP code is 60521. The town has a rolling, wooded topography, with a quaint downtown and is a 30-minute...

 Testing Farm, IH entertained over 12,000 dealers from over 25 countries. IH showed off their new "60" series of tractors: including the big, first-of-its-kind, six-cylinder 460 and 560 tractors. But the joy of the new line of tractors was short lived. One of the first events that would eventually lead to the downfall of IH presented itself in 1959. In June of that year, IH recalled the 460, 560, and 660 tractors: final drive components had failed. IH, who wanted to be the first big-power manufacturer, had failed to drastically update the final drives on the new six-cylinder tractors. These final drives were essentially unchanged from 1939 and would fail rapidly under the stress of the more powerful 60-series engines. IH's competitors took advantage of the recall, and IH would lose customers in the ensuing months, with many customers moving to John Deere
Deere & Company
Deere & Company, usually known by its brand name John Deere , is an American corporation based in Moline, Illinois, and the leading manufacturer of agricultural machinery in the world. In 2010, it was listed as 107th in the Fortune 500 ranking...

's New Generation of Power tractors introduced in 1960.

1960s

Throughout the 1960s IH introduced new tractors and new sales techniques. As producing tractors was the lifeblood of the company, IH would have to remain competitive in this field. They both succeeded and failed at this goal. But farming was about to change, and IH and its competitors were in for a bumpy ride. In 1963 IH introduced the 73 hp 706 and 95 hp 806 tractors. in 1964 IH made its 4 millionth tractor, an 806. In 1965 IH introduced its first 100 hp two-wheel-drive tractor, the 1206. Another option became available in 1965 for the 706, 806 and the new 1206: a factory-installed cab (made by Stopler Allen Co.). This cab is often called the "Ice Cream Box" cab due to its shape. The cab could be equipped with a fan and heater. By 1967, over 100,000 models 706, 806 and 1206 were built.

1967 saw the introduction of the "56" series tractors as replacements for the successful and popular "06" series. These new "56s" were bigger and more powerful than the "06s". The new models included the 65 hp 656, 76 hp 756, the 101 hp 856 and the 116 hp 1256. The "ice cream box" cab was still an option. In 1969 IH introduced the 1456 Turbo at 131 hp. Also that year, the 91 hp 826 was introduced with the option of gearshift or hydrostatic transmissions
Transmission (mechanics)
A machine consists of a power source and a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Merriam-Webster defines transmission as: an assembly of parts including the speed-changing gears and the propeller shaft by which the power is transmitted from an engine to a...

. The "ice cream box" cab was dropped and replaced with the new "custom" cab made by Exel Industries, which could be equipped with factory air-conditioning, heat and an AM radio. Another milestone for IH was the 1970 introduction of the 1026 Hydro which was basically a hydrostatic version of the 1256, at that time the most powerful hydrostatic transmission tractor made in the US at 114 hp.

1970s

In 1971 IH introduced the 66 series line. The new models included the 78 hp 766, the 101 hp 966, the 125 hp 1066 turbo, the 145 hp 1466 Turbo, and the 145 hp 1468 V-8. The 130 hp 4166 4WD was also introduced. The 966 and 1066 were available with Hydro or gearshift transmissions and the choice of two-post ROPs
Roll over protection structure
Roll Over Protection Structure refers to operator compartment structures intended to protect equipment operators from injuries caused by vehicle overturns or rollovers.Commonly found on heavy equipment Roll Over Protection Structure (ROPS) refers to operator compartment structures (usually cabs...

 or two different cabs, the "custom" and the "deluxe". Both could be equipped with A/C, heat, and AM-FM radios.

In 1972 the 666 replaced the long-running 656, the 150 hp 1568 V8 replaced the 1468, and the 160 hp 1566 and the 163 hp 4366 4WD were introduced. Also later that year, four-post ROPs replaced two-post; The "custom" cab was dropped and the "deluxe" cab was now painted red instead of white. Due to horsepower confusions the 966 and 1066 Hydro models were restriped; the Hydro 100 and the 666 Hydro became the Hydro 70. On February 1, 1974 at 9:00 am, the 5 millionth tractor came off the assembly line at the Farmall Plant in Illinois. IH was the first tractor manufacturer to accomplish this. Also in 1973, IH officially dropped the "Farmall" name from its tractor. This ended an era that began with the first Farmall "Regular" back in 1924.

The 230 hp 4568 V8 4WD was introduced in 1975. In 1976 the entire tractor line got a new paint job and decal pattern. No longer were the side panels all white with chrome and black decals: they were now all red with a black striped sticker. This was done to clear inventory for the forthcoming "Pro Ag Line".

In September 1976 IH released their 86 series "Pro Ag Line". The models included the 786{roughly 105 hp}, 90 hp 886, the 101 hp 986, the 104 hp 186 Hydro, the 135 hp 1086, the 146 hp 1486 and the 161 hp 1586. These new tractors had a new cab dubbed the "Control Center" that came standard with A/C, heat, and several radio/CB options. The driver sat well ahead of the rear axle and the fuel tank was mounted behind the cab over the rear axle. This increased balance and ride. Also in 1976, the 62 hp 686 along with the "86" series four-wheel-drives were introduced, including the 4186, 4586, and 4786.

In 1977 International Harvester introduced the first Axial-Flow rotary combine. This machine, produced at East Moline, Illinois
East Moline, Illinois
East Moline is a city in Rock Island County, Illinois, United States. The population was 20,333 at the 2000 census. East Moline is one of the five Quad Cities,, along with the cities of Rock Island, Moline, and the Iowa cities of Davenport and Bettendorf. The Quad Cities has a population of 379,690...

, was the first generation of over 30 years of Axial-Flow combines.

In 1979 IH introduced two all-new tractors: the 3388 and 3588, known as the 2+2 4wd line. These tractors were the result of taking two 1086 rear ends and hooking them together with a transfer case. A year later, the 3788 was introduced. Despite the fact these tractors proved well in the field, they never sold well.

1980s

As the 1980s began, IH was ready to climb from its own depression and become a leader once more. IH would face a stable economy, yet it would face an unknown fate. In September 1981, IH announced at a dealership meeting the new "50 Series" of tractors, which included the 136 hp 5088, the 162 hp 5288 and the 187 hp 5488. IH also released the "30 series", which included the 81 hp 3088, the 90 hp 3288 the 112 hp 3488Hydro and the 113 hp 3688. These new tractors would prove once again that IH had the innovation to come out on top. Designed by industrial designer Gregg Montgomery, whose firm later designed the Case IH "Magnum" series tractors, the new stylish design of the "50 Series and 30 series would change the look of tractors from that time. IH spent over $29 million to develop this new series, and the result was the last great lineup of tractors from IH.

There were many technology-related innovations in the new series. A computer monitoring system ("Sentry") was developed, and IH became the first manufacturer to add a computer to a farm tractor. Other innovations included a "z" shift pattern, an 18-speed synchronized transmission, a forward air flow cooling system which sucked air from above the hood and blew it out the front grille, "Power Priority" 3-pump hydraulic system, color-coded hydraulic lines and controls, and a new rear-hitch system. The 50 Series had an unprecedented three-year or 2,500-hour engine and drive-train warranty, which would later become an industry standard. Although no new sales records were set, IH sold a respectable amount of these tractors during its short production time. IH also released the "60 series 2+2s" and planned on making the "Super70 series" 2+2s but only a handful of these exist today. On May 14, 1985 the last IH tractor rolled off the factory line, a 5488 FWA.

IH was well into the development of a new line of tractors that would revolutionize the ways of farming when the sale of the agricultural products division was announced. Many of these new features would find their way into the new series of MAGNUM tractors introduced by Case IH
Case IH
Case IH is an American mechanical company, one of the world’s largest brands of agricultural equipment. With headquarters in Racine, Wisconsin, it has a network of more than 4,000 dealers and distributors that operates in more than 160 countries...

 in 1987.

Brand names of the Ag division

IH over the years used a number of brand names to market their tractor and harvesting products:
  • Titan (1910–1924)
  • Mogul (1911–1924)
  • McCormick-Deering (1923–1947)
  • McCormick (1947–1958)
  • Farmall (1924–1973)
  • Fairway (1924–1938)
  • Electrall (1954–1956)
  • International (1902–1985)

Other agricultural products

Along with the prominent tractor division, IH also sold several different types of farm-related equipment, such as baler
Baler
A baler is a piece of farm machinery used to compress a cut and raked crop into compact bales that are easy to handle, transport and store...

s, cultivators, combines
Combine harvester
The combine harvester, or simply combine, is a machine that harvests grain crops. The name derives from the fact that it combines three separate operations, reaping, threshing, and winnowing, into a single process. Among the crops harvested with a combine are wheat, oats, rye, barley, corn ,...

 (self-propelled and pull behind), combine heads, corn shellers, cotton pickers, manure spreaders, hay rakes, crop dusters, disk harrows, elevators, feed grinders, hammer mills, hay conditioners, milking machines, planters, mills, discs, plows and various miscellaneous equipment.

Also produced were twine, stationary engines, loaders
Loader (equipment)
A loader is a heavy equipment machine often used in construction, primarily used to load material into or onto another type of machinery .-Heavy equipment front loaders:A loader A loader is a heavy equipment machine often used in construction, primarily used to load material (such as asphalt,...

, and wagons.

Electrall

The Electrall system was introduced in 1954; it was a short-lived attempt to market electrically-operated farm equipment and accessories. The system, co-developed with General Electric
General Electric
General Electric Company , or GE, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in Schenectady, New York and headquartered in Fairfield, Connecticut, United States...

, consisted of a 208V
Volt
The volt is the SI derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference, and electromotive force. The volt is named in honor of the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta , who invented the voltaic pile, possibly the first chemical battery.- Definition :A single volt is defined as the...

 three phase alternating current
Alternating current
In alternating current the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction. In direct current , the flow of electric charge is only in one direction....

 generator connected with electric cables to the device to be powered. The generator could even power a household. A 10kW Electrall generator was an option on the Farmall 400 tractor, and there also was a 12.5 kW PTO
Power take-off
A power take-off or power takeoff is a splined driveshaft, usually on a tractor or truck, that can be used to provide power to an attachment or separate machine. It is designed to be easily connected and disconnected...

-driven version. The possible applications of Electrall power were many, but few made it to market. IH marketing materials showed a haybaler being Electrall powered. One of the more novel applications of the Electrall was a device to electrocute insects in the field at night (basically like a modern-day bug zapper
Bug zapper
A bug zapper, or more formally an electrical discharge insect control system is a device that attracts and kills flying insects that are attracted by light. A light source attracts insects to an electrical grid, where they are electrocuted by touching two wires with a high voltage between them...

, but on a larger scale).

Light duty trucks

IH is often remembered as a maker of relatively successful and innovative “light” lines of vehicles, competing directly against the Big 3
Big Three automobile manufacturers
The Big Three, when used in relation to the automotive industry, most generally refers to the three major American automotive companies:Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler...

. The most common were pickup truck
Truck
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration, with the smallest being mechanically similar to an automobile...

s. IH made light trucks from 1907 to 1975, beginning with the Model A Auto Wagon (sometimes called the "Auto Buggy"). Production commenced in in February 1907 at IH's McCormick Works in Chicago, although production was moved to Akron, Ohio
Akron, Ohio
Akron , is the fifth largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Summit County. It is located in the Great Lakes region approximately south of Lake Erie along the Little Cuyahoga River. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 199,110. The Akron Metropolitan...

 in October that year. Powered by a horizontally-opposed aircooled twin of around 15 hp, it was a right hand drive model popular in rural areas for high ground clearance on the poor roads typical of the era. It featured a rear seat convertible to a carrier bed. The Auto Wagon was renamed the Motor Truck in 1910, and was a forerunner to the successful modern pickup truck. They were called IHC until 1914, when the 'International' name was first applied. The final light line truck was made on May 5, 1975.

IH also had early success with the "Auto Buggy", which started production in February 1907. In the mid-1940s, International released their K and KB series
International Harvester K and KB Series
The K and KB trucks were produced by the International Harvester Company, the first being the K introduced in the mid 1940. In total there were 42 models, 142 different wheelbase lengths and load ratings ranging from 1/2 ton to 90,000 lbs. They are best known for their durability, prewar design...

 trucks, which were more simplistic than other trucks released in that era. This was followed by the L Series
International Harvester L-Series
The International Harvester L Series Trucks were introduced by International Harvester in 1949 as the replacement for the KB-Series and ran the gamut from light pickup trucks and delivery vehicles to full size tractor trailers...

 in 1949, which was replaced by the R Series
International Harvester R-Series
The International R series replaced the L-Series in 1953. It was mostly a facelift of the light and medium models, but also a remarkable set of changes. The busy front style seen on L series was cleanly and easily redesigned to become the R line...

 in 1952, followed by the S line
International Harvester S-Series
The International Harvester S-Series was a medium-duty truck line manufactured by International Harvester. The S-Series was first introduced in mid-1977 as a replacement for the International Harvester Fleetstar. In 1979, other versions of the S-Series were introduced as the successor to the...

 in 1955. In 1957, to celebrate IH's golden anniversary as a truck manufacturer, this was replaced by the new A line
International Harvester A-Series
The International A-Series replaced the S-Series for 1957. The name stood for "Anniversary", as 1957 marked the fiftieth anniversary of International Harvester's truck production. It was largely a rebodied version of the light and medium S-Series truck, incorporating a wide cab and more...

. 'A' stands for anniversary. With light modifications to its appearance but more serious changes under the shell (and a number of new names), this design continued in production until replaced by the 1100D in late 1969, which looked very similar to the Scout.

One of the company's light-duty vehicles was the Travelall, which was similar in concept to the Chevrolet Suburban
Chevrolet Suburban
Chevrolet offered a station wagon body, built on the 1/2 ton truck frame. This model was specifically built for National Guard units and Civilian Conservation Corps units. Much of the body was constructed from wood, and could seat up to eight occupants....

. The Travelette was a crew cab, available in 2 or 4 wheel drive. It was available starting in 1957, and was the first 6-passenger, 4-door truck of its time. The Scout
International Harvester Scout
Scout 80s were built between 1960 and 1965. These models were identifiable by removable sliding side windows in 1960–1961 and even some very early 1962 models, a fold-down windshield, vacuum windshield wipers mounted to the top of the windshield and an IH logo in the center of the grille...

, first introduced in 1961, is a small two-door SUV, similar to a Jeep
Jeep
Jeep is an automobile marque of Chrysler . The first Willys Jeeps were produced in 1941 with the first civilian models in 1945, making it the oldest off-road vehicle and sport utility vehicle brand. It inspired a number of other light utility vehicles, such as the Land Rover which is the second...

. In 1972 the Scout became the Scout II, and in 1974 Dana 44
Dana 44
The Dana/Spicer Model 44 is an automotive axle manufactured by Dana Corp. and is used extensively among automobile manufacturers and in the automotive aftermarket area as well. The Dana 44 was first manufactured in the 1940s and is still being manufactured today, both front and rear axle variants...

 axles, power steering and power disk brakes became standard. After the pickups and Travelall were discontinued in 1975, the Scout Traveler and Terra became available, both with a longer wheelbase than a standard Scout II.

IH would abandon sales of passenger vehicles in 1980 to concentrate on commercial trucks and school bus
School bus
A school bus is a type of bus designed and manufactured for student transport: carrying children and teenagers to and from school and school events...

es. Today the pickups, Travelalls, and Scouts are minor cult orphaned vehicles. All were available as rugged four-wheel drive
Four-wheel drive
Four-wheel drive, 4WD, or 4×4 is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously...

 off-road vehicle
Off-road vehicle
An off-road vehicle is considered to be any type of vehicle which is capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface. It is generally characterized by having large tires with deep, open treads, a flexible suspension, or even caterpillar tracks...

s.

The Scout & Light Truck parts business was sold to Scout/Light Line Distributors, Inc. in 1991.

Medium/Heavy duty

IH was an early manufacturer of medium/heavy duty trucks. Although based upon truck chassis, IH also became the leading manufacturer of the chassis portion of body-on-chassis conventional (type C) school bus
School bus
A school bus is a type of bus designed and manufactured for student transport: carrying children and teenagers to and from school and school events...

es. In 1962 IH offered the International Harvester Loadstar
International Harvester Loadstar
Loadstar is a series of medium-duty trucks made by International Harvester from 1962 to 1979. It was primarily used for local delivery, including school buses and fire engines. It was also used extensively in the agricultural and construction industries....

 which became the premier medium-duty truck. In 1978 IH offered the International Harvester S-Series
International Harvester S-Series
The International Harvester S-Series was a medium-duty truck line manufactured by International Harvester. The S-Series was first introduced in mid-1977 as a replacement for the International Harvester Fleetstar. In 1979, other versions of the S-Series were introduced as the successor to the...

, which replaced the Loadstar in 1979.

With the truck and engine divisions remaining following the 1985 sale of the agricultural division, International Harvester Company changed their corporate name to Navistar International
Navistar International
Navistar International Corporation is a United States-based holding company that owns the manufacturer of International brand commercial trucks, MaxxForce brand diesel engines, IC Bus school and commercial buses, Workhorse brand chassis for motor homes and step vans, and is a private label...

 in 1986. Today Navistar International's subsidiary, International Truck and Engine Corporation, manufactures and markets trucks and engines under the International brand name.

The Power Stroke
Ford Power Stroke engine
Power Stroke is the name given to the diesel engines found in Ford Super Duty trucks, Ford Excursion SUVs, Ford Econoline vans, and Ford LCF commercial vehicles. Production by Navistar International Corporation for Ford Motor Company began in mid 1994, in Indianapolis, Indiana, Huntsville,...

 diesel engine
Diesel engine
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

, which is a trade name
Trade name
A trade name, also known as a trading name or a business name, is the name which a business trades under for commercial purposes, although its registered, legal name, used for contracts and other formal situations, may be another....

 of Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. The automaker was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford and Lincoln brands, Ford also owns a small stake in Mazda in Japan and Aston Martin in the UK...

, is manufactured by International Truck and Engine Corporation in Melrose Park, IL., for use in Ford heavy-duty trucks, vans and SUVs.

Military

IH manufactured heavy vehicles for military use, including the 1942 M5 Tractor
M5 Tractor
The M5 High-Speed Tractor was an artillery tractor used by the US Army from 1942.-Construction:The M5 is a fully track vehicle designed to tow the 105 mm Howitzer M2, and the 155 mm Long Tom field artillery, and carry the gun crew and ammunition. A winch and roller system allows the M5 to pull...

 and 2.5-ton trucks for the US Navy & Marines.

In early 1951, the United States Army
United States Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

 through the Springfield Armory
Springfield Armory
The Springfield Armory, located in the City of Springfield, Massachusetts - from 1777 until its closing in 1968 - was the primary center for the manufacture of U.S. military firearms. After its controversial closing during the Vietnam War, the Springfield Armory was declared Western Massachusetts'...

 contracted International Harvester to produce M1 Garand
M1 Garand
The M1 Garand , was the first semi-automatic rifle to be generally issued to the infantry of any nation. Called "the greatest battle implement ever devised" by General George S...

 rifles, and from 1953 to 1956 produced 337,623 rifles in total, according to the Army Ordnance Department.

International also made 2½- and 5-ton 4×4 and 6×6 trucks for the Australian Army
Australian Army
The Australian Army is Australia's military land force. It is part of the Australian Defence Force along with the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Air Force. While the Chief of Defence commands the Australian Defence Force , the Army is commanded by the Chief of Army...

 from 1963 to 1973. Known as the Mk3, Mk4 and F1 they saw service until the late 1980s.

Lawn and garden

IH branched out into the home lawn and garden business in the 1960s with its line of Cub Cadet
Cub Cadet
IH Cub Cadet is a premium line of small tractors, established in 1960 as part of International Harvester. The IH Cub Cadet was an entirely new line of heavy-duty small tractors using components from the previous Cub series tractors...

 equipment, which included riding and walk-behind lawn mower
Lawn mower
A lawn mower is a machine that uses a revolving blade or blades to cut a lawn at an even length.Lawn mowers employing a blade that rotates about a vertical axis are known as rotary mowers, while those employing a blade assembly that rotates about a horizontal axis are known as cylinder or reel...

s and snow blower
Snow blower
A snow blower or snow thrower is a machine for removing snow from an area where it is not wanted, such as a driveway, sidewalk, roadway, railroad track, rink, runway, or houses...

s. Also produced were compost shredders, rotary tillers, Cadet garden tractors, and power washers.

The Cub Cadet line was sold to MTD Products
MTD Products
MTD Products is a manufacturer of outdoor power equipment for the mass market. Based in Cleveland, Ohio, USA, the company began in 1932 and is a family-owned, private company. It originated as a tool and die maker...

 in 1981.

Home appliances

Although best known for farm equipment, IH produced home appliances for farmers and non-farmers alike. This included refrigeration
Refrigeration
Refrigeration is a process in which work is done to move heat from one location to another. This work is traditionally done by mechanical work, but can also be done by magnetism, laser or other means...

 equipment such as refrigerator
Refrigerator
A refrigerator is a common household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room...

s, air conditioners and freezers. IH had a refrigeration
Refrigeration
Refrigeration is a process in which work is done to move heat from one location to another. This work is traditionally done by mechanical work, but can also be done by magnetism, laser or other means...

 division of it own, as did other vehicle manufacturers of the time: Ford had Philco
Philco
Philco, the Philadelphia Storage Battery Company , was a pioneer in early battery, radio, and television production as well as former employer of Philo Farnsworth, inventor of cathode ray tube television...

, Chrysler
Chrysler
Chrysler Group LLC is a multinational automaker headquartered in Auburn Hills, Michigan, USA. Chrysler was first organized as the Chrysler Corporation in 1925....

 had Airtemp, General Motors
General Motors
General Motors Company , commonly known as GM, formerly incorporated as General Motors Corporation, is an American multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Detroit, Michigan and the world's second-largest automaker in 2010...

 had Frigidaire
Frigidaire
Frigidaire is a brand of consumer and commercial appliances. Frigidaire was founded as the Guardian Frigerator Company in Fort Wayne, Indiana, and developed the first self-contained refrigerator in 1916. In 1918, William C...

, Nash-Kelvinator Corporation
Nash-Kelvinator Corporation
Nash-Kelvinator Corporation was the result of a merger between Nash Motors and Kelvinator Appliance Company. The union of these two companies was brought about as a result of a condition made by George W...

 (and then American Motors
American Motors
American Motors Corporation was an American automobile company formed by the 1954 merger of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and Hudson Motor Car Company. At the time, it was the largest corporate merger in U.S. history.George W...

) had Kelvinator
Kelvinator
Kelvinator is an appliance brand. It takes its name from William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, who developed the concept of absolute zero and for whom the Kelvin temperature scale is named...

, Studebaker
Studebaker
Studebaker Corporation was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana. Founded in 1852 and incorporated in 1868 under the name of the Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company, the company was originally a producer of wagons for farmers, miners, and the...

 had the Franklin Appliance Company, Crosley
Crosley
The Crosley was an automobile manufactured by the Crosley Corporation and later by Crosley Motors Incorporated in the United States from 1939 to 1952.-History:...

 had Crosley.

The IH appliance division had originally been developed to manufacture commercial-grade items to farmers, most of whom had just received electricity
Electricity
Electricity is a general term encompassing a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. These include many easily recognizable phenomena, such as lightning, static electricity, and the flow of electrical current in an electrical wire...

 by way of the many electrification projects in the U.S. before and after World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. Among the offerings were milk coolers and walk-in freezers for produce and meat. Later on, IH courted the farmer's wife with kitchen
Kitchen
A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation.In the West, a modern residential kitchen is typically equipped with a stove, a sink with hot and cold running water, a refrigerator and kitchen cabinets arranged according to a modular design. Many households have a...

 refrigerators available in the latest designer
Designer
A designer is a person who designs. More formally, a designer is an agent that "specifies the structural properties of a design object". In practice, anyone who creates tangible or intangible objects, such as consumer products, processes, laws, games and graphics, is referred to as a...

 styles. The IH spokeswoman for these products was Irma Harding, a factory trademark
Trademark
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual, business organization, or other legal entity to identify that the products or services to consumers with which the trademark appears originate from a unique source, and to distinguish its products or...

. These products were introduced in 1947 and sold for less than 10 years. The refrigeration division was sold to Whirlpool Corporation in 1955. Since the time of production was short, these appliances
Home appliance
Home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking or cleaning. Home appliances can be classified into:*Major appliances, or White goods*Small appliances, or Brown goods...

 are rare today.

In popular culture

  • The McCormick Harvesting Machine Company appears in the "Wild West" game Red Dead Redemption by Rockstar Games
    Rockstar Games
    Rockstar Games is a major video game developer and publisher based in New York City, owned by Take-Two Interactive following its purchase of UK video game publisher BMG Interactive. The brand is mostly known for Grand Theft Auto, Max Payne, L.A...

    , located in the town of Blackwater.
  • In the Left Behind
    Left Behind
    Left Behind is a series of 16 best-selling novels by Tim LaHaye and Jerry B. Jenkins, dealing with Christian dispensationalist End Times: pretribulation, premillennial, Christian eschatological viewpoint of the end of the world. The primary conflict of the series is the members of the Tribulation...

    series of novels by Tim Lahaye
    Tim LaHaye
    Timothy F. LaHaye is an American evangelical Christian minister, author, and speaker. He is best known for the Left Behind series of apocalyptic fiction, which he co-wrote with Jerry B. Jenkins. He has written over 50 books, both fiction and non-fiction.-Early life:LaHaye was born in Detroit,...

     and Jerry B. Jenkins
    Jerry B. Jenkins
    Jerry Bruce Jenkins is an American novelist and biographer. He is best known as co-author of the Left Behind series of books with Tim LaHaye, Jenkins has written over 150 books, including romance novels, mysteries, and children's adventures, as well as non-fiction...

    , the character Cameron "Buck" Williams
    Cameron "Buck" Williams
    Cameron "Buck" Williams is a fictional character in the Left Behind series of novels by Tim LaHaye and Jerry B. Jenkins. Buck is a celebrated news reporter who, after being left behind following the Rapture, becomes one of the founding members of the Tribulation Force.-Pre-Rapture:Buck was born 30...

     occasionally claims to work for "International Harvesters".
  • Mater
    Mater (Cars)
    Sir Tow Mater or better known as Mater is the deuteragonist in the 2006 animated Pixar film Cars and the main protagonist in its sequel...

     of the Cars
    Cars (franchise)
    Cars is the second film series created by Pixar and distributed by Disney after Toy Story. Cars was released on June 9, 2006 and Cars 2 was released on June 24, 2011. Both films were directed by John Lasseter, the CEO of Pixar Animation Studios...

     franchise was inspired by a 1951 International Harvester L-series tow truck
    Tow truck
    A tow truck is a vehicle used to transport motor vehicles to another location , or to recover vehicles which are no longer on a drivable surface.Towing services are generally provided by an emergency road service operator...

    .

See also

  • Farmall tractor
    Farmall tractor
    Farmall was a model name and later a brand name for tractors manufactured by International Harvester . The Farmall name was usually presented as McCormick-Deering Farmall and later McCormick Farmall in the evolving brand architecture of IH....

  • International Harvester Scout
    International Harvester Scout
    Scout 80s were built between 1960 and 1965. These models were identifiable by removable sliding side windows in 1960–1961 and even some very early 1962 models, a fold-down windshield, vacuum windshield wipers mounted to the top of the windshield and an IH logo in the center of the grille...

  • List of International Harvester vehicles
  • Haymarket affair
    Haymarket affair
    The Haymarket affair was a demonstration and unrest that took place on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at the Haymarket Square in Chicago. It began as a rally in support of striking workers. An unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police as they dispersed the public meeting...

  • International Harvester (song)
    International Harvester (song)
    "International Harvester" is the title of a country music song written by Jeffrey Steele, Shane Minor, and Danny Myrick . The song was recorded by American singer Craig Morgan on his album Little Bit of Life, which was released in 2006 on Broken Bow Records...


External links

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