Injection (medicine)
Overview
 
An injection is an infusion method
Route of administration
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.-Classification:Routes of administration are usually classified by application location...

 of putting fluid into the body
Body
With regard to living things, a body is the physical body of an individual. "Body" often is used in connection with appearance, health issues and death...

, usually with a hollow needle
Hypodermic needle
A hypodermic needle is a hollow needle commonly used with a syringe to inject substances into the body or extract fluids from it...

 and a syringe
Syringe
A syringe is a simple pump consisting of a plunger that fits tightly in a tube. The plunger can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube , allowing the syringe to take in and expel a liquid or gas through an orifice at the open end of the tube...

 which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body. An injection follows a parenteral route of administration; that is, administered other than through the digestive tract.

There are several methods of injection or infusion, including intradermal, subcutaneous
Subcutaneous injection
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the...

, intramuscular
Intramuscular injection
Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. In medicine, it is one of several alternative methods for the administration of medications . It is used for particular forms of medication that are administered in small amounts...

, intravenous, intraosseous, and intraperitoneal.
Encyclopedia
An injection is an infusion method
Route of administration
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.-Classification:Routes of administration are usually classified by application location...

 of putting fluid into the body
Body
With regard to living things, a body is the physical body of an individual. "Body" often is used in connection with appearance, health issues and death...

, usually with a hollow needle
Hypodermic needle
A hypodermic needle is a hollow needle commonly used with a syringe to inject substances into the body or extract fluids from it...

 and a syringe
Syringe
A syringe is a simple pump consisting of a plunger that fits tightly in a tube. The plunger can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube , allowing the syringe to take in and expel a liquid or gas through an orifice at the open end of the tube...

 which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body. An injection follows a parenteral route of administration; that is, administered other than through the digestive tract.

There are several methods of injection or infusion, including intradermal, subcutaneous
Subcutaneous injection
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the...

, intramuscular
Intramuscular injection
Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. In medicine, it is one of several alternative methods for the administration of medications . It is used for particular forms of medication that are administered in small amounts...

, intravenous, intraosseous, and intraperitoneal. Long-acting forms of subcutaneous/intramuscular injections are available for various drugs, and are called depot injections.

Injections are among the most common health care procedures, with least 16 billion administered in developing
Developing country
A developing country, also known as a less-developed country, is a nation with a low level of material well-being. Since no single definition of the term developing country is recognized internationally, the levels of development may vary widely within so-called developing countries...

 and transitional countries
Transition economy
A transition economy or transitional economy is an economy which is changing from a centrally planned economy to a free market. Transition economies undergo economic liberalization, where market forces set prices rather than a central planning organization and trade barriers are removed,...

 each year. 95% of injections are administered in curative care, 3% for immunization
Immunization
Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent ....

 and the rest for other purposes, such as blood transfusions.

Intramuscular injection

In an intramuscular injection, the medication is delivered directly into a muscle
Muscle
Muscle is a contractile tissue of animals and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. They are classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscles. Their function is to...

. Many vaccine
Vaccine
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe or its toxins...

s are administered intramuscularly, as well as codeine
Codeine
Codeine or 3-methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive, and antidiarrheal properties...

, metoclopramide
Metoclopramide
Metoclopramide is an antiemetic and gastroprokinetic agent. It is commonly used to treat nausea and vomiting, to facilitate gastric emptying in people with gastroparesis, and as a treatment for the gastric stasis often associated with migraine headaches.-Medical uses:Metoclopramide is commonly...

, and many other medications. Many drugs injected intramuscularly are absorbed into the muscle fairly quickly, while others are more gradual. Injections to the buttocks are known to reach the bloodstream quickly due to the large amount of muscular tissue and corresponding blood supply.

Generally, intramuscular injections are not self-administered
Self-administration
Self-administration is, in its medical sense, the process of a subject administering a pharmacological substance to him-, her-, or itself. A clinical example of this is the subcutaneous "self-injection" of insulin by a diabetic patient....

, but rather by a trained medical professional
Health care provider
A health care provider is an individual or an institution that provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to individuals, families or communities....

. However, prescribed self-administered intramuscular injections are becoming more common for patients who require these injections routinely.

Depot injection

A depot injection is an injection, usually subcutaneous or intramuscular, of a pharmacological agent which releases its active compound in a consistent way over a long period of time. Depot injections are usually either solid or oil-based. Depot injections may be available as certain forms of a drug, such as decanoate
Decanoic acid
Decanoic acid, or capric acid, is a saturated fatty acid.Its formula is CH38COOH. Salts and esters of decanoic acid are called decanoates...

 salts or esters. Examples of depot injections include Depo Provera
Depo Provera
Depo-Provera is a branded progestogen-only contraceptive, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate long acting reversible hormonal contraceptive birth control drug that is injected every 3 months...

 and haloperidol decanoate. Prostate cancer patients receiving hormone therapy usually get depot injections as a treatment or therapy. Zoladex is an example of a depot delivered medication for prostate cancer treatment or therapy.

The advantages of using a long-acting depot injection include increased medication compliance
Compliance (medicine)
In medicine, compliance describes the degree to which a patient correctly follows medical advice...

 due to reduction in the frequency of dosing, as well as more consistent serum concentrations. A significant disadvantage is that the drug is not immediately reversible, since it is slowly released.
In Psychiatric Nursing, a short acting depot, zuclopenthixol acetate (Clopixol Acuphase), which lasts in the system anything from 24 – 72 hours, is now more regularly used for rapid tranquillisation.

Hypodermic injections in nature

Various animals, and some plants, have been injecting for various reasons long before humans began doing so. This process is often called stinging
Stinger (organ)
A sting, sometimes called a stinger in the US, is a sharp organ or body part found in various animals that delivers some kind of venom . A true sting differs from other piercing structures in that it pierces by its own action and injects venom, as opposed to teeth, which pierce by the force of...

.
Some examples include:
  • Snake
    Snake
    Snakes are elongate, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes that can be distinguished from legless lizards by their lack of eyelids and external ears. Like all squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping scales...

    s, wasp
    Wasp
    The term wasp is typically defined as any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant. Almost every pest insect species has at least one wasp species that preys upon it or parasitizes it, making wasps critically important in natural control of their...

    s, scorpion
    Scorpion
    Scorpions are predatory arthropod animals of the order Scorpiones within the class Arachnida. They have eight legs and are easily recognized by the pair of grasping claws and the narrow, segmented tail, often carried in a characteristic forward curve over the back, ending with a venomous stinger...

    s: poison, to kill prey and self-defense.
  • Some bee
    Bee
    Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, and are known for their role in pollination and for producing honey and beeswax. Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea, presently classified by the unranked taxon name Anthophila...

    s: poison, for self-defense and to defend their nests.
  • Cnidaria
    Cnidaria
    Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 9,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic and mostly marine environments. Their distinguishing feature is cnidocytes, specialized cells that they use mainly for capturing prey. Their bodies consist of mesoglea, a non-living jelly-like substance,...

     (jellyfish, etc.): poison, to kill prey.
  • Stinging nettle
    Stinging nettle
    Stinging nettle or common nettle, Urtica dioica, is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant, native to Europe, Asia, northern Africa, and North America, and is the best-known member of the nettle genus Urtica...

    s: poison, to try to avoid being eaten.

Injection pain

The pain of an injection may be lessened by prior application of ice or topical anesthetic or simultaneous pinching
Pinch (action)
A pinch is a grip of a flexible object in which a portion is taken between two fingers, until it hurts, or something of resemblance and squeezed so the gripped portion of the object is lifted from its normal level...

 of the skin. Recent studies suggest that forced coughing during an injection stimulates a transient rise in blood pressure which inhibits the perception of pain. Sometimes, as with an amniocentesis
Amniocentesis
Amniocentesis is a medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections, in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amnion or amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, and the fetal DNA is examined for...

, a local anesthetic is given. The most common technique to reduce the pain of an injection is simply to distract the patient.

Babies can be distracted by giving them a small amount of sweet liquid, such as sugar
Sugar
Sugar is a class of edible crystalline carbohydrates, mainly sucrose, lactose, and fructose, characterized by a sweet flavor.Sucrose in its refined form primarily comes from sugar cane and sugar beet...

 solution during the injection, which reduces crying.

Injection Safety

40% of injections worldwide are administered with unsterilized, reused syringes and needles, and in some countries this proportion is 70%, exposing millions of people to infections.

Another risk is poor collection and disposal of dirty injection equipment, which exposes healthcare workers and the community to the risk of needle stick injuries, while in some countries unsafe disposal can lead to re-sale of used equipment on the black market. Many countries have their legislation or policies that mandate that healthcare professionals use a safety syringe (safety engineered needle) or alternative methods of administering medicines whenever possible.

Open burning of syringes, which is considered unsafe by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on 7 April 1948, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health...

, is reported by half of the non-industrialized countries
Developed country
A developed country is a country that has a high level of development according to some criteria. Which criteria, and which countries are classified as being developed, is a contentious issue...

.

According to a study, unsafe injections cause an estimated 1.3 million early deaths each year.

To improve injection safety, the WHO recommends:

1. Changing the behavior of health care workers and patients.

2. Ensuring the availability of equipment and supplies.

3. Managing waste safely and appropriately.

Glossary

See also

  • Intracardiac injection
    Intracardiac injection
    Intracardiac injections are injections that are given directly into the heart muscles or ventricles. They are used in emergencies.- Procedure :...

  • Intraarticular injection
  • Intraosseous infusion
    Intraosseous infusion
    Intraosseous infusion is the process of injection directly into the marrow of a bone. This technique is used in emergency situations to provide fluids and medication when intravenous access is not available or not feasible.-History:...

  • Dart injection
    Dart injection
    A Dart injection is used to give a single intramuscular or subcutaneous injection to livestock without restraining the animal. It can be contrasted with hand injection....

  • Jet injector
    Jet injector
    A jet injector is a type of medical injecting syringe that uses a high-pressure narrow jet of the injection liquid instead of a hypodermic needle to penetrate the epidermis...

  • Injection port
    Injection port
    An injection port is a medical device used for the administration of insulin or other physician approved medicine into the subcutaneous tissue...

  • Needlestick injury
    Needlestick injury
    A needlestick injury is a percutaneous piercing wound typically set by a needle point, but possibly also by other sharp instruments or objects. Commonly encountered by people handling needles in the medical setting, such injuries are an occupational hazard in the medical community...

  • Needle remover
    Needle remover
    Needle removers are devices that physically remove a needle from a syringe. In developing countries, there is still a need for improvements in needle safety in hospital settings as most of the needle removal processes are done manually and under severe risk of hazard from needles puncturing skin...

  • Safety Syringe
    Safety syringe
    Safety Syringe legislation has been introduced in many nations as needlestick injuries and re-use prevention become the focus of governments and safety bodies.Traditional glass syringes can be re-used once disinfected...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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