Hypodermic needle
Overview
A hypodermic needle is a hollow needle commonly used with a syringe
Syringe
A syringe is a simple pump consisting of a plunger that fits tightly in a tube. The plunger can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube , allowing the syringe to take in and expel a liquid or gas through an orifice at the open end of the tube...

 to inject
Injection (medicine)
An injection is an infusion method of putting fluid into the body, usually with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body...

 substances into the body or extract fluids from it. They may also be used to take liquid samples from the body, for example taking blood
Blood
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

 from a vein
Vein
In the circulatory system, veins are blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart. Most veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart; exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical veins, both of which carry oxygenated blood to the heart...

 in venipuncture
Venipuncture
In medicine, venepuncture, venopuncture or venipuncture is the process of obtaining intravenous access for the purpose of intravenous therapy or for blood sampling of venous blood. This procedure is performed by medical laboratory scientists, medical practitioners, some EMTs, paramedics,...

.
Large bore hypodermic intervention is especially useful in catastrophic blood loss or shock.

A hypodermic needle is used for rapid delivery of liquids, or when the injected substance cannot be ingested, either because it would not be absorbed
Absorption (Pharmacokinetics)
In pharmacology , absorption is the movement of a drug into the bloodstream.Absorption involves several phases...

 (as with insulin
Insulin
Insulin is a hormone central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle....

), or because it would harm the liver
Liver
The liver is a vital organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. It has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion...

.
Encyclopedia
A hypodermic needle is a hollow needle commonly used with a syringe
Syringe
A syringe is a simple pump consisting of a plunger that fits tightly in a tube. The plunger can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube , allowing the syringe to take in and expel a liquid or gas through an orifice at the open end of the tube...

 to inject
Injection (medicine)
An injection is an infusion method of putting fluid into the body, usually with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body...

 substances into the body or extract fluids from it. They may also be used to take liquid samples from the body, for example taking blood
Blood
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

 from a vein
Vein
In the circulatory system, veins are blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart. Most veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart; exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical veins, both of which carry oxygenated blood to the heart...

 in venipuncture
Venipuncture
In medicine, venepuncture, venopuncture or venipuncture is the process of obtaining intravenous access for the purpose of intravenous therapy or for blood sampling of venous blood. This procedure is performed by medical laboratory scientists, medical practitioners, some EMTs, paramedics,...

.
Large bore hypodermic intervention is especially useful in catastrophic blood loss or shock.

A hypodermic needle is used for rapid delivery of liquids, or when the injected substance cannot be ingested, either because it would not be absorbed
Absorption (Pharmacokinetics)
In pharmacology , absorption is the movement of a drug into the bloodstream.Absorption involves several phases...

 (as with insulin
Insulin
Insulin is a hormone central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle....

), or because it would harm the liver
Liver
The liver is a vital organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. It has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion...

. There are many possible routes
Injection (medicine)
An injection is an infusion method of putting fluid into the body, usually with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body...

 for an injection.

History

The modern hypodermic needle is generally said to have been invented in 1853, although Galen
Galen
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus , better known as Galen of Pergamon , was a prominent Roman physician, surgeon and philosopher...

 was familiar with the concept. Robert Boyle
Robert Boyle
Robert Boyle FRS was a 17th century natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor, also noted for his writings in theology. He has been variously described as English, Irish, or Anglo-Irish, his father having come to Ireland from England during the time of the English plantations of...

 and Christopher Wren
Christopher Wren
Sir Christopher Wren FRS is one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history.He used to be accorded responsibility for rebuilding 51 churches in the City of London after the Great Fire in 1666, including his masterpiece, St. Paul's Cathedral, on Ludgate Hill, completed in 1710...

 experimented with syringe-like devices in 1657, and 18th-century physician Dominique Anel
Dominique Anel
Dominique Anel , French surgeon, was born at Toulouse about 1679.After studying at Montpellier and Paris, he served as surgeon-major in the French army in Alsace; then after two years at Vienna he went to Italy and served in the Austrian army. In 1710 he was teaching surgery in Rouen, whence he...

 created the modern pump syringe as a device to clean wounds using suction.

Charles Pravaz
Charles Pravaz
Charles Gabriel Pravaz was a French orthopedic surgeon and inventor of the hypodermic syringe.While the concept dated to Galen, the modern syringe is thought to have originated in Fifteenth Century Italy, although it took several centuries for the device to be developed...

 (1791–1853), French surgeon, and Alexander Wood
Alexander Wood (physician)
Alexander Wood , was a Scottish physician. He invented the first true hypodermic syringe.The son of Dr James Wood and his wife Mary, Alexander was born on 10 December 1817 in Cupar, Fife, and educated at Edinburgh Academy and Edinburgh University .In 1853 invented the first hypodermic needle that...

 (1817–1884), Scottish physician, independently invented the hypodermic syringe.

In all these cases, it was impossible to perform injections without an incision until Irish
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

 physician Francis Rynd invented the hollow needle in 1844. Wanting to inject iron perchlorate coagulant
Coagulant
Coagulant can refer to:* flocculation* coagulation agent...

 into an aneurysm
Aneurysm
An aneurysm or aneurism is a localized, blood-filled balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. Aneurysms can commonly occur in arteries at the base of the brain and an aortic aneurysm occurs in the main artery carrying blood from the left ventricle of the heart...

, Charles Pravaz
Charles Pravaz
Charles Gabriel Pravaz was a French orthopedic surgeon and inventor of the hypodermic syringe.While the concept dated to Galen, the modern syringe is thought to have originated in Fifteenth Century Italy, although it took several centuries for the device to be developed...

 adapted Rynd's needle, rather than using the usual suction tube. Measuring 3 cm (1.18 in) long and 5 mm (0.2 in) in diameter, the syringe was entirely in silver, made by Établissements Charrière, and operated by a screw (rather than the plunger familiar today) to control the amount of substance injected.

Charles Pravaz
Charles Pravaz
Charles Gabriel Pravaz was a French orthopedic surgeon and inventor of the hypodermic syringe.While the concept dated to Galen, the modern syringe is thought to have originated in Fifteenth Century Italy, although it took several centuries for the device to be developed...

 did little development of the invention; it was L. J. Béhier who made Pravaz's invention known across Europe. It thus initiated the science of sclerotherapy
Sclerotherapy
Sclerotherapy is a procedure used to treat blood vessels or blood vessel malformations and also those of the lymphatic system. A medicine is injected into the vessels, which makes them shrink. It is used for children and young adults with vascular or lymphatic malformations...

 and the treatment of varicose veins
Varicose veins
Varicose veins are veins that have become enlarged and tortuous. The term commonly refers to the veins on the leg, although varicose veins can occur elsewhere. Veins have leaflet valves to prevent blood from flowing backwards . Leg muscles pump the veins to return blood to the heart, against the...

 and other varices
Varices
Varices may refer to:In lower extremities* Varicose veins, large tortuous veins usually found on legsIn the digestive system* Sublingual varices* Esophageal varices, also known as Oesophageal varices* Gastric varices* Intestinal varices...

.

The hollow needle inserted into a vein remains our optimal method of Fluid resuscitation to this day. Other means for introduction of extravascular fluid to the intravascular space remain elusive. Arthrocentesis
Arthrocentesis
Arthrocentesis is the clinical procedure of using a syringe to collect synovial fluid from a joint capsule. It is also known as joint aspiration. Arthrocentesis is used in the diagnosis of gout, arthritis, and synovial infections....

 remains a time honored method of removing excess synovial
Synovial
Synovial may refer to:* Synovial fluid* Synovial joint* Synovial membrane...

 fluid followed by injection of therapeutic interventions.

Manufacture

Hypodermic needles are normally made from a stainless-steel tube through a process known as tube drawing
Tube drawing
Tube drawing is a metalworking process to size tube by shrinking a large diameter tube into a smaller one, by drawing the tube through a die. This process produces high quality tubing with precise dimensions, good surface finish, and the added strength of cold working...

 where the tube is drawn through progressively smaller die
Die (manufacturing)
A die is a specialized tool used in manufacturing industries to cut or shape material using a press. Like molds, dies are generally customized to the item they are used to create...

s to make the needle. The end is bevel
Bevel
A beveled edge refers to an edge of a structure that is not perpendicular to the faces of the piece. The words bevel and chamfer overlap in usage; in general usage they are often interchanged, while in technical usage they may sometimes be differentiated as shown in the image at right.-Cutting...

led to create a sharp pointed tip letting the needle easily penetrate the skin.

Needle gauge

The diameter of the needle is indicated by the needle gauge
Stubs Iron Wire Gauge
The Stubs Iron Wire Gauge system is used to specify thickness or diameter of metal wire, strip, and tube products...

. Various needle lengths are available for any given gauge. There are a number of systems for gauging needles, including the Stubs Needle Gauge
Stubs Iron Wire Gauge
The Stubs Iron Wire Gauge system is used to specify thickness or diameter of metal wire, strip, and tube products...

, and the French Catheter Scale
French catheter scale
The French scale or French gauge system is commonly used to measure the size of a catheter. It is most often abbreviated as Fr, but can often abbreviated as FR or F. It may also be abbreviated as CH or Ch in French speaking countries...

. Needles in common medical use range from 7 gauge (the largest) to 33 (the smallest) on the Stubs scale. 21-gauge needles are most commonly used for drawing blood for testing purposes, and 16- or 17-gauge needles are most commonly used for blood donation, as they are wide enough to allow red blood cells to pass through the needle without rupturing (this also allows more blood to be collected in a shorter time). Larger-gauge needles (with smaller diameter) will rupture the red blood cells, and if this occurs, the blood is useless for the patient receiving it. Although reusable needles remain useful for some scientific applications, disposable needles are far more common in medicine. Disposable needles are embedded in a plastic or aluminium hub that attaches to the syringe barrel by means of a press-fit or twist-on fitting. These are sometimes referred to as "Luer Lock" connections, referring to the trademark Luer-Lok.

Non-specialist use

Hypodermic needles are usually used by medical professionals (physicians, nurses, paramedics), but they are sometimes used by patients themselves. This is most common with type one diabetics
Diabetes mellitus type 1
Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a form of diabetes mellitus that results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. The subsequent lack of insulin leads to increased blood and urine glucose...

, who may require several insulin
Insulin
Insulin is a hormone central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle....

 injections a day. It also occurs with patients who have asthma
Asthma
Asthma is the common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath...

 or other severe allergies. Such patients may need to take desensitization
Desensitization
Desensitization can refer to:* Desensitization * Desensitization * Desensitization * Desensitization of explosives, see Phlegmatized...

 injections or they may need to carry injectable medicines to use for first aid in case of a severe allergic reaction. In the latter case, such patients often carry a syringe loaded with epinephrine
Epinephrine
Epinephrine is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. It increases heart rate, constricts blood vessels, dilates air passages and participates in the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system. In chemical terms, adrenaline is one of a group of monoamines called the catecholamines...

 (e.g. EpiPen
EpiPen
An epinephrine autoinjector is a medical device used to deliver a measured dose of epinephrine using autoinjector technology, most frequently for the treatment of acute allergic reactions to avoid or treat the onset of anaphylactic shock.Trade names for this device include EpiPen, Twinject,...

), diphenhydramine
Diphenhydramine
Diphenhydramine hydrochloride is a first-generation antihistamine possessing anticholinergic, antitussive, antiemetic, and sedative properties which is mainly used to treat allergies. Like most other first-generation antihistamines, the drug also has a powerful hypnotic effect, and for this reason...

 (e.g. Benadryl
Benadryl
Benadryl is a brand name allergy medicine marketed over-the-counter by Johnson & Johnson subsidiary McNeil Consumer Healthcare. Prior to 2007, Benadryl was marketed by Pfizer Consumer Healthcare...

) or dexamethasone
Dexamethasone
Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid drugs. It acts as an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant...

. Although sometimes disconcerting to spectators, rapid injection of these drugs may stop a severe allergic reaction.

Multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which the fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord are damaged, leading to demyelination and scarring as well as a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms...

 patients may also treat themselves by injection; several MS therapies, including various interferon
Interferon
Interferons are proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens—such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites—or tumor cells. They allow communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that eradicate pathogens or tumors.IFNs belong to...

 preparations, are designed to be self-administered by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection.

In some countries, Erectile Dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction is sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual performance....

 patients may be prescribed Alprostadil
Alprostadil
Prostaglandin E1 , known pharmaceutically as alprostadil, is a prostaglandin. It is a drug used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction and has vasodilatory properties.-Sexual dysfunction:...

 in injectable form, which is self-injected directly into the base or side of the penis with a very fine hypodermic needle.

Female-to-Male
Trans man
A trans man, transman, trans guy, or FTM is a transgender or transsexual man: a person who was assigned female at birth, but who identifies as male....

 transsexuals often use hypodermic needles for self-injection of prescription testosterone
Hormone replacement therapy (female-to-male)
Hormone replacement therapy for transgender gender variant and transsexual introduces hormones associate with the gender that the patient identifies with...

. Male-to-Female
Trans woman
A trans woman is a male-to-female transsexual or transgender person and the term trans woman is preferred by some individuals over various medical terms. Other non-medical terms include t-girl, tg-girl and ts-girl...

 transsexuals may also use hypodermic needles for self-injection of estrogen
Hormone replacement therapy (male-to-female)
Hormone replacement therapy for transgender and transsexual people changes the balance of sex hormones in their bodies. Some intersex people also receive HRT, either starting in childhood to confirm the sex to which they were assigned, or later, if this assignment has proven to be incorrect...

.

Hypodermic needles are also used in recreational intravenous drug use. In order to limit the spread of blood-borne disease
Blood-borne disease
A blood-borne disease is one that can be spread through contamination by blood.The most common examples are HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and viral hemorrhagic fevers....

s such as hepatitis
Hepatitis
Hepatitis is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. The name is from the Greek hepar , the root being hepat- , meaning liver, and suffix -itis, meaning "inflammation"...

 and HIV
HIV
Human immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive...

 through shared injection equipment, many countries have needle exchange programs
Needle-exchange programme
A Needle & syringe programme or syringe-exchange programme is a social policy based on the philosophy of harm reduction where injecting drug users can obtain hypodermic needles and associated injection equipment at little or no cost. Many programmes are called "exchanges" because some require...

 in most larger cities. In some countries, such programs are wholly or partially subsidized by the government. Before governments attained current levels of awareness about the spread of disease through shared needles, hypodermic syringes in many countries were available only by prescription; today, most countries allow hypodermic syringes to be dispensed without a prescription.

Industrial use

Disposable plastic syringes equipped with unbeveled blunt-tip needles are often used in industry to apply precise amounts of lubricants, adhesives, and various other liquids and pastes. Also, a needle-like attachment is used to inflate balls and other sporting equipment, through a special valve in the surface of the ball.

Phobia

It is estimated that about 10% of the adult population may have a phobia
Phobia
A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, usually defined as a persistent fear of an object or situation in which the sufferer commits to great lengths in avoiding, typically disproportional to the actual danger posed, often being recognized as irrational...

 of needles (trypanophobia), and it is much more common in children, ages 5–16. Patients can ask for a patch from the nurse to numb the area of where the injection will take place to reduce pain.

See also

  • Cannula
    Cannula
    A cannula or canula is a tube that can be inserted into the body, often for the delivery or removal of fluid or for the gathering of data...

  • Catheter
    Catheter
    In medicine, a catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, duct, or vessel. Catheters thereby allow drainage, administration of fluids or gases, or access by surgical instruments. The process of inserting a catheter is catheterization...

  • Intravenous therapy
    Intravenous therapy
    Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein. The word intravenous simply means "within a vein". Therapies administered intravenously are often called specialty pharmaceuticals...

  • Nanoneedle
    Nanoneedle
    Nanoneedles may be conical or tubular needles in the nanometre size range, made from silicon or boron-nitride with a central bore of sufficient size to allow the passage of large molecules, or solid needles useful in Raman spectroscopy, light emitting diodes and laser diodes.The conical needles...

  • Needle biopsy
  • Needle gauge comparison chart
    Needle gauge comparison chart
    Hypodermic needles are available in a wide variety of outer diameters described by gauge numbers. Smaller gauge numbers indicate larger outer diameters. Inner diameter depends on both gauge and wall thickness. The following chart shows nominal inner diameter and wall thickness for regular-wall...

  • Needle remover
    Needle remover
    Needle removers are devices that physically remove a needle from a syringe. In developing countries, there is still a need for improvements in needle safety in hospital settings as most of the needle removal processes are done manually and under severe risk of hazard from needles puncturing skin...

  • Pin prick attack
    Pin prick attack
    A pin prick attack is a hypothetical assault on another person with a needle or syringe tainted with the blood of somebody carrying a Blood-borne disease, such as HIV...

  • Tuohy needle
    Tuohy needle
    A Tuohy needle is a hollow hypodermic needle, very slightly curved at the end, suitable for inserting epidural catheters.The needle features an anti-coring curve at its tip, as shown in the picture above left.- Epidural needle :...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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