Hurricane Andrew
Overview
 
Hurricane Andrew was the third Category 5
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
The Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale , or the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale , classifies hurricanes — Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms — into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds...

 hurricane to make landfall
Landfall (meteorology)
Landfall is the event of a tropical cyclone or a waterspout coming onto land after being over water. When a waterspout makes landfall it is reclassified as a tornado, which can then cause damage inland...

 in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, after the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935
Labor Day Hurricane of 1935
The 1935 Labor Day Hurricane was the strongest tropical cyclone of the 1935 Atlantic hurricane season, and one of the most intense hurricanes to make landfall in the United States in recorded history...

 and Hurricane Camille
Hurricane Camille
Hurricane Camille was the third and strongest tropical cyclone and second hurricane during the 1969 Atlantic hurricane season. The second of three catastrophic Category 5 hurricanes to make landfall in the United States during the 20th century , which it did near the mouth of the Mississippi River...

 in 1969. Andrew was the first named storm and only major hurricane of the otherwise inactive 1992 Atlantic hurricane season
1992 Atlantic hurricane season
The 1992 Atlantic hurricane season had one of the latest dates on record for the first named storm. The season officially began on June 1, 1992, and lasted until November 30, 1992. It was the least active hurricane season in nine years due to a strong El Niño...

. During Andrew's duration it struck the northwestern Bahamas, southern Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

 at Homestead
Homestead, Florida
Homestead is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States nestled between Biscayne National Park to the east and Everglades National Park to the west. Homestead is primarily a Miami suburb and a major agricultural area....

 (south of Miami), and southwest Louisiana
Louisiana
Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

 around Morgan City
Morgan City, Louisiana
Morgan City is a city in St. Martin and St. Mary parishes in the U.S. state of Louisiana. The population was 12,404 at the 2010 census....

 in August. Andrew caused $26.5 billion in damage (1992 USD
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

, $  USD), with most of that damage cost in south Florida, which it struck at Category 5 strength; however, other sources estimated the total cost between $27 billion (1992 USD, $  USD) and $34 billion (1992 USD, $  USD).
Encyclopedia
Hurricane Andrew was the third Category 5
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
The Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale , or the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale , classifies hurricanes — Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms — into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds...

 hurricane to make landfall
Landfall (meteorology)
Landfall is the event of a tropical cyclone or a waterspout coming onto land after being over water. When a waterspout makes landfall it is reclassified as a tornado, which can then cause damage inland...

 in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, after the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935
Labor Day Hurricane of 1935
The 1935 Labor Day Hurricane was the strongest tropical cyclone of the 1935 Atlantic hurricane season, and one of the most intense hurricanes to make landfall in the United States in recorded history...

 and Hurricane Camille
Hurricane Camille
Hurricane Camille was the third and strongest tropical cyclone and second hurricane during the 1969 Atlantic hurricane season. The second of three catastrophic Category 5 hurricanes to make landfall in the United States during the 20th century , which it did near the mouth of the Mississippi River...

 in 1969. Andrew was the first named storm and only major hurricane of the otherwise inactive 1992 Atlantic hurricane season
1992 Atlantic hurricane season
The 1992 Atlantic hurricane season had one of the latest dates on record for the first named storm. The season officially began on June 1, 1992, and lasted until November 30, 1992. It was the least active hurricane season in nine years due to a strong El Niño...

. During Andrew's duration it struck the northwestern Bahamas, southern Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

 at Homestead
Homestead, Florida
Homestead is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States nestled between Biscayne National Park to the east and Everglades National Park to the west. Homestead is primarily a Miami suburb and a major agricultural area....

 (south of Miami), and southwest Louisiana
Louisiana
Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

 around Morgan City
Morgan City, Louisiana
Morgan City is a city in St. Martin and St. Mary parishes in the U.S. state of Louisiana. The population was 12,404 at the 2010 census....

 in August. Andrew caused $26.5 billion in damage (1992 USD
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

, $  USD), with most of that damage cost in south Florida, which it struck at Category 5 strength; however, other sources estimated the total cost between $27 billion (1992 USD, $  USD) and $34 billion (1992 USD, $  USD). Its central pressure ranks as the fourth-lowest in U.S. landfall records. Andrew was the costliest Atlantic hurricane in U.S. history prior to Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was a powerful Atlantic hurricane. It is the costliest natural disaster, as well as one of the five deadliest hurricanes, in the history of the United States. Among recorded Atlantic hurricanes, it was the sixth strongest overall...

 in 2005
2005 Atlantic hurricane season
The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history, repeatedly shattering numerous records. The impact of the season was widespread and ruinous with an estimated 3,913 deaths and record damage of about $159.2 billion...

. It was also surpassed by Hurricane Ike
Hurricane Ike
Hurricane Ike was the second-costliest hurricane ever to make landfall in the United States, the costliest hurricane ever to impact Cuba and the second most active hurricane to reach the Canadian mainland in the Great Lakes Region after Hurricane Hazel in 1954...

 in 2008
2008 Atlantic hurricane season
The 2008 Atlantic hurricane season was a very active hurricane season with sixteen named storms formed, including eight that became hurricanes and five that became major hurricanes. The season officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of...

.

Meteorological history

A tropical wave
Tropical wave
Tropical waves, easterly waves, or tropical easterly waves, also known as African easterly waves in the Atlantic region, are a type of atmospheric trough, an elongated area of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, which move from east to west across the tropics causing areas of...

 moved off the coast of Africa on August 14. Under the influence of a ridge
Ridge (meteorology)
A ridge is an elongated region of relatively high atmospheric pressure, the opposite of a trough....

 of high pressure to its north, the wave tracked quickly westward, developing into Tropical Depression Three late on August 16 about 1630 mi (2,623.2 km) east-southeast of Barbados
Barbados
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles. It is in length and as much as in width, amounting to . It is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 kilometres east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea; therein, it is about east of the islands of Saint...

. By August 17, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Andrew, and by the following day had organized convection and estimated winds of 50 mph (80.5 km/h). Shortly thereafter the thunderstorms decreased markedly, and as the storm turned to the northwest it encountered southwesterly wind shear
Wind shear
Wind shear, sometimes referred to as windshear or wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed and direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere...

 from an upper-level low
Cold-core low
A cold-core low, also known as a cold low or cold-core cyclone, is a cyclone aloft which has an associated cold pool of air residing at high altitude within the Earth's troposphere. It is a low pressure system which strengthens with height in accordance with the thermal wind relationship. These...

. On August 19, a Hurricane Hunters
Hurricane Hunters
The Hurricane Hunters are aircraft that fly into tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic Ocean and Northeastern Pacific Ocean for the specific purpose of directly measuring weather data in and around those storms. In the United States, the Air Force, Navy, and NOAA units have all participated in...

 flight into the storm failed to locate a well-defined center, and the next day a flight found only a broad circulation with an unusually high pressure
Atmospheric pressure
Atmospheric pressure is the force per unit area exerted into a surface by the weight of air above that surface in the atmosphere of Earth . In most circumstances atmospheric pressure is closely approximated by the hydrostatic pressure caused by the weight of air above the measurement point...

 of 1015 mb. Around that time, the upper-level low degenerated into a trough
Trough (meteorology)
A trough is an elongated region of relatively low atmospheric pressure, often associated with fronts.Unlike fronts, there is not a universal symbol for a trough on a weather chart. The weather charts in some countries or regions mark troughs by a line. In the United States, a trough may be marked...

, which decreased the wind shear over the storm. In addition, a strong ridge
Ridge (meteorology)
A ridge is an elongated region of relatively high atmospheric pressure, the opposite of a trough....

 developed over the southeastern United States, which built eastward and caused Andrew to turn to the west.

The storm gradually re-intensified, and after developing an eye
Eye (cyclone)
The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of strong tropical cyclones. The eye of a storm is a roughly circular area and typically 30–65 km in diameter. It is surrounded by the eyewall, a ring of towering thunderstorms where the second most severe weather of a cyclone...

, Andrew attained hurricane status early on August 22 about 650 mi (1,046.1 km) east-southeast of Nassau, Bahamas
Nassau, Bahamas
Nassau is the capital, largest city, and commercial centre of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas. The city has a population of 248,948 , 70 percent of the entire population of The Bahamas...

. The hurricane accelerated as it tracked due westward into an area of very favorable conditions, and late on August 22 began rapidly intensifying
Rapid deepening
Rapid deepening, also known as rapid intensification, is a meteorological condition that occurs when the minimum sea-level atmospheric pressure of a tropical cyclone decreases drastically in a short period of time. The National Weather Service describes rapid deepening as a decrease of...

; in a 24 hour period the pressure dropped 47 mb to a minimum pressure of 922 mb. On August 23 Andrew attained Category 5 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
The Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale , or the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale , classifies hurricanes — Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms — into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds...

, and at 1800 UTC
Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is one of several closely related successors to Greenwich Mean Time. Computer servers, online services and other entities that rely on having a universally accepted time use UTC for that purpose...

 that day it reached peak winds of 175 mph (281.6 km/h) while located a short distance off Eleuthera
Eleuthera
Eleuthera is an island in The Bahamas, lying 50 miles east of Nassau. It is very long and thin—110 miles long and in places little more than a mile wide. According to the 2000 Census, the population of Eleuthera is approximately 8,000...

 island. Operationally, the National Hurricane Center
National Hurricane Center
The National Hurricane Center , located at Florida International University in Miami, Florida, is the division of the National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting weather systems within the tropics between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th...

 assessed its peak intensity as 150 mph (241.4 km/h), although it was reanalyzed and re-classified as a Category 5 hurricane twelve years subsequent to the hurricane. At its peak, Andrew was a small hurricane, with winds of 35 mph (56.3 km/h) extending out only 90 miles (144.8 km) from the center. Subsequent to peaking in intensity, the hurricane underwent an eyewall replacement cycle, and at 2100 UTC on August 23, Hurricane Andrew struck Eleuthera with winds of 160 mph (257.5 km/h). The hurricane weakened further while crossing the Bahama Banks
Bahama Banks
The Bahama Banks are the submerged carbonate platforms that make up much of the Bahama Archipelago. The term is usually applied in referring to either the Great Bahama Bank around Andros Island, or the Little Bahama Bank of Grand Bahama Island and Great Abaco, which are the largest of the...

, and at 0100 UTC on August 24 Andrew hit the southern Berry Islands
Berry Islands
The Berry Islands are a chain of islands and a district of the Bahamas, covering about thirty square miles of the north western part of the Out Islands...

 of the Bahamas with winds of 150 mph (241.4 km/h).

As it crossed over the warm waters of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe, the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful, warm, and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates at the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean...

 in the Straits of Florida
Straits of Florida
The Straits of Florida, Florida Straits, or Florida Strait is a strait located south-southeast of the North American mainland, generally accepted to be between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean, and between the Florida Keys and Cuba. The strait carries the Florida Current, the beginning of...

, the hurricane rapidly re-intensified as the eye decreased in size and its eyewall convection deepened. At 0840 UTC on August 24, Andrew struck Elliott Key
Elliott Key
Elliott Key is the northernmost of the true Florida Keys , and the largest key north of Key Largo. It is located entirely within Biscayne National Park, in Miami-Dade County, Florida, east of Homestead, Florida...

 with winds of 165 mph (265.5 km/h) and a pressure of 926 mb. About 25 minutes later the hurricane hit the Florida mainland about 9 mi (15 km) northeast Homestead
Homestead, Florida
Homestead is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States nestled between Biscayne National Park to the east and Everglades National Park to the west. Homestead is primarily a Miami suburb and a major agricultural area....

, or 20 mi (33 km) south-southwest of Miami, with the same winds and a minimum pressure of 922 mb. While crossing southern Florida, the hurricane weakened slightly and emerged into the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico is a partially landlocked ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent and the island of Cuba. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. In...

 with winds of 135 mph (217.3 km/h). The eye remained well-defined as it turned to the west-northwest, and Andrew reached winds of 145 mph (233.4 km/h) by late on August 25.

As the high pressure system to its north weakened, a strong approaching cold front
Cold front
A cold front is defined as the leading edge of a cooler mass of air, replacing a warmer mass of air.-Development of cold front:The cooler and denser air wedges under the less-dense warmer air, lifting it...

 caused the hurricane to decelerate to the northwest. The winds decreased while the hurricane neared the Gulf Coast of the United States
Gulf Coast of the United States
The Gulf Coast of the United States, sometimes referred to as the Gulf South, South Coast, or 3rd Coast, comprises the coasts of American states that are on the Gulf of Mexico, which includes Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida and are known as the Gulf States...

, and at 0830 UTC on August 26 Andrew made its final landfall in a sparsely populated area of Louisiana
Louisiana
Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

 about 20 mi (32.2 km) west-southwest of Morgan City
Morgan City, Louisiana
Morgan City is a city in St. Martin and St. Mary parishes in the U.S. state of Louisiana. The population was 12,404 at the 2010 census....

 with winds of 115 mph (185.1 km/h). It deteriorated rapidly as it turned to the north and northeast, and within ten hours weakened to a tropical storm. After entering Mississippi
Mississippi
Mississippi is a U.S. state located in the Southern United States. Jackson is the state capital and largest city. The name of the state derives from the Mississippi River, which flows along its western boundary, whose name comes from the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi...

, the cyclone weakened to tropical depression status early on August 27. Accelerating northeastward, the tropical depression began merging with the approaching frontal system, and by midday on August 28 Andrew ceased to meet the qualifications of a tropical cyclone while located over the southern Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
The Appalachian Mountains #Whether the stressed vowel is or ,#Whether the "ch" is pronounced as a fricative or an affricate , and#Whether the final vowel is the monophthong or the diphthong .), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians...

. The remnants continued to the northeast and lost its identity within the frontal zone
Weather front
A weather front is a boundary separating two masses of air of different densities, and is the principal cause of meteorological phenomena. In surface weather analyses, fronts are depicted using various colored lines and symbols, depending on the type of front...

 over the Mid-Atlantic states
Mid-Atlantic States
The Mid-Atlantic states, also called middle Atlantic states or simply the mid Atlantic, form a region of the United States generally located between New England and the South...

.

Statistics

Reports from private barometers helped establish that Andrew's central pressure, at landfall near Homestead, Florida, was 922 mb. At the time, this was the third-lowest pressure on record for a landfalling hurricane in the United States (it is now fourth, after 2005's Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was a powerful Atlantic hurricane. It is the costliest natural disaster, as well as one of the five deadliest hurricanes, in the history of the United States. Among recorded Atlantic hurricanes, it was the sixth strongest overall...

).

Andrew's peak winds in South Florida were not directly measured, primarily because of the destruction or failure of measuring instruments. The Coastal Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) station at Fowey Rocks, with platform elevation of 141 feet (43 m), in its last transmission at 4:30 a.m. EDT, August 24, recorded an 8-minute average wind of 142 mph (228.5 km/h) with a peak gust of 169 mph (272 km/h) shortly before the equipment was destroyed. It is probable that higher winds occurred at Fowey Rocks after the station was destroyed.

Another important wind speed report came from the Kendall-Tamiami Executive Airport, located nine miles (14 km) west of the shoreline. While weather observations had been suspended at the station, the official weather observer there stayed on duty and continued to make wind speed readings. At 4:45 a.m. EDT, August 24, he noted that the wind speed indicator was "pegged" at a position a little beyond the instrument's highest value of 120 mph (195 km/h), at a point he estimated to be around 10 mph (200 km/h). The needle reportedly remained "fixed" at this location for 3–5 minutes before dropping to "0" when the anemometer
Anemometer
An anemometer is a device for measuring wind speed, and is a common weather station instrument. The term is derived from the Greek word anemos, meaning wind, and is used to describe any airspeed measurement instrument used in meteorology or aerodynamics...

 failed. These observations were closely corroborated by two other observers. He also indicated that the weather conditions continued to worsen for an additional 30 minutes after the anemometer failed. It is probable that much stronger winds occurred at this location.

The highest recorded surface gust, within Andrew's northern eyewall, occurred at the home of a resident about a mile from the shoreline in Perrine, Florida
Perrine, Florida
Perrine, Florida was an unincorporated community in Miami-Dade County about midway between Miami and Homestead. It is located at The community was named after Dr...

. During the peak of the storm, a gust of 212 miles per hour (341.2 km/h) was observed before both the home and anemometer were destroyed. Subsequent wind-tunnel testing at Clemson University
Clemson University
Clemson University is an American public, coeducational, land-grant, sea-grant, research university located in Clemson, South Carolina, United States....

 of the same type of anemometer revealed a 16.5% error. The observed value was officially corrected to be 177 mph (284.9 km/h).

Data collected at the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station
Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station
Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station is a twin reactor nuclear power station located on a 3,300-acre site 2 miles east of Homestead, Florida, United States, next to Biscayne National Park located about 25 miles south of Miami, Florida near the southernmost edge of Miami-Dade...

 terminated at 5:05 EDT before winds reached maximum strength. The anemometer recorded sustained winds of 145 mph (233.4 km/h) before it failed, and a barometric pressure of 922 mb was recorded. Gusts exceeding 175 mph (280 km/h) were also observed. The data from Turkey Point reflects shoreline measurements (not inland), as it is situated directly on the coastline.
A National Weather Service-Miami Radar image recorded on 24 August 1992 at 4:35 EDT [08:35 UTC] superimposed on a street map by the Hurricane Research Division of NOAA indicates the most powerful winds within the northern eyewall (conditions greater than 48 dBZ) made landfall between SW 152 Street (Coral Reef Drive) and SW 184 Street (Eureka Drive) in the Perrine/Cutler Ridge area. dBZ readings indicate Decibels of Z (radar echo intensity/reflectivity) and help map the relative strength of storm activity within a weather system. This extremely powerful band within the northern eyewall corresponds with the exact latitude range where the highest surface wind gusts of 177 mph (248.8 km/h) and lowest barometric pressure was recorded at a private home in Perrine and evaluated by Clemson University
Clemson University
Clemson University is an American public, coeducational, land-grant, sea-grant, research university located in Clemson, South Carolina, United States....

. This corridor is also in line with the former Burger King
Burger King
Burger King, often abbreviated as BK, is a global chain of hamburger fast food restaurants headquartered in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. The company began in 1953 as Insta-Burger King, a Jacksonville, Florida-based restaurant chain...

 corporate headquarters, located on the shoreline at the terminus of 184th Street (Eureka Drive), where one of the highest storm surge levels was recorded (16.9 ft).

In 2002, The Atlantic Basin Hurricane Database Reanalysis Project examined Hurricane Andrew and this corridor of extreme winds embedded within Andrew's northern eyewall. The project concluded that Category 5 conditions on land occurred only in a small region of southern Dade (now Miami-Dade) County, specifically close to the coast in Cutler Ridge. The remaining areas affected by Andrew's initial landfall in Florida likely experienced sustained Category 4 and 3 hurricane conditions. Andrew was officially re-classified as a Category 5 storm in 2004, and the reanalysis provides a more comprehensive and detailed examination of Andrew's wind field structure upon landfall than originally assessed in 1992.

The National Hurricane Center
National Hurricane Center
The National Hurricane Center , located at Florida International University in Miami, Florida, is the division of the National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting weather systems within the tropics between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th...

, then located along U.S. 1 in Coral Gables, recorded a peak gust of 164 mph (263.9 km/h) measured 130 feet (39.6 m) above the ground, just before 5 a.m. EDT. The anemometer was severely damaged at 5:17 a.m. EDT and by 5:45 a.m. had been completely destroyed.

High winds occurred in other locations across Southern Florida, including peak gusts of 115 mph (185.1 km/h) estimated at Miami International Airport
Miami International Airport
Miami International Airport , also known as MIA and historically Wilcox Field, is the primary airport serving the South Florida area...

 and 132 mph (212.4 km/h) recorded at Haulover Beach, Florida
Baker's Haulover Inlet
Baker's Haulover Inlet is a man-made channel in Miami-Dade County, Florida connecting the northern end of Biscayne Bay with the Atlantic Ocean, at coordinates . The inlet was cut in 1925 through a narrow point in the peninsula that extends to a point east of the mouth of the Miami River, and which...

.

In 2002, as part of an ongoing review of historical hurricane records, National Hurricane Center experts concluded that Andrew had sustained winds of 165 mph (265.5 km/h) briefly before and during landfall, making it a Category 5.

Berwick, Louisiana
Berwick, Louisiana
Berwick is a town in St. Mary Parish, Louisiana, United States. The population was 4,418 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Morgan City Micropolitan Statistical Area....

 reported sustained winds of 96 mph (154.5 km/h) with gusts to 120 mph (193.1 km/h). The highest gust of 175 mph (281.6 km/h) was reported from a drilling barge on Bayou Teche in coastal St. Mary Parish
St. Mary Parish, Louisiana
St. Mary Parish is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. The parish seat is Franklin. As of 2000, the population was 53,500.The Morgan City Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of St. Mary Parish.-Geography:...

, Louisiana
Louisiana
Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

.

Bahamas

Before the hurricane passed through the Bahamas, forecasters predicted a storm surge
Storm surge
A storm surge is an offshore rise of water associated with a low pressure weather system, typically tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones. Storm surges are caused primarily by high winds pushing on the ocean's surface. The wind causes the water to pile up higher than the ordinary sea...

 of up to 18 ft (5.5 m), as well as up to 8 in (203.2 mm) of rain. On August 22, hurricane watches
Tropical cyclone warnings and watches
Warnings and watches are two levels of alert issued by national weather forecasting bodies to coastal areas threatened by the imminent approach of a tropical cyclone of tropical storm or hurricane intensity. They are notices to the local population and civil authorities to make appropriate...

 were issued from Andros
Andros, Bahamas
Andros Island is an archipelago within the archipelago-nation of the Bahamas, the largest of the 26 inhabited Bahamian Islands. Geo-politically considered a single island, Andros has an area greater than all the other 700 Bahamian islands combined...

 and Eleuthera
Eleuthera
Eleuthera is an island in The Bahamas, lying 50 miles east of Nassau. It is very long and thin—110 miles long and in places little more than a mile wide. According to the 2000 Census, the population of Eleuthera is approximately 8,000...

 islands, northward through Grand Bahama
Grand Bahama
Grand Bahama is one of the northernmost of the islands of the Bahamas, and the closest major island to the United States, lying off the state of Florida. Grand Bahama is the fifth largest island in the Bahamas island chain of approximately 700 islands and 2,400 cays...

 and Great Abaco
Andros, Bahamas
Andros Island is an archipelago within the archipelago-nation of the Bahamas, the largest of the 26 inhabited Bahamian Islands. Geo-politically considered a single island, Andros has an area greater than all the other 700 Bahamian islands combined...

. They were upgraded to hurricane warnings later that day, and on August 23 additional warnings were issued for the central Bahamas, including Cat Island
Cat Island (Bahamas)
Cat Island is in the central Bahamas, and one of its districts, and has the nation's highest point. Its Mount Alvernia rises to 206 ft and is topped by a monastery called The Hermitage. This assembly of buildings was erected by the Franciscan "Brother Jerome" .The first European settlers were...

, Exuma
Exuma
Exuma is a district of the Bahamas, consisting of over 360 islands . The largest of the cays is Great Exuma, which is 37 mi in length and joined to another island, Little Exuma by a small bridge. The capital and largest city in the district is George Town , founded 1793 and located on Great...

, San Salvador Island
San Salvador Island
San Salvador Island, also known as Watlings Island, is an island and district of the Bahamas. Until 1986, when the National Geographic Society suggested Samana Cay, it was widely believed that during his first expedition to the New World, San Salvador Island was the first land sighted and visited...

, and Long Island
Long Island, Bahamas
Long Island is an island in the Bahamas that is split by the Tropic of Cancer. Its capital is Clarence Town. Long Island is one of the Districts of the Bahamas and is known as the most scenic island in the Bahamas. The population is roughly 4,000 inhabitants.-Geography:Long Island is about 130...

. All watches and warnings were discontinued on August 24. Advanced warning was credited for the low death toll in the country.

Florida

By 11 PM Eastern Daylight Time, residents were warned that precautions to protect life and property should have been completed. About 55,000 people left the Florida Keys. Evacuations were ordered for 517,000 people in Dade County, 300,000 in Broward County, 315,000 in Palm Beach County and 15,000 in St. Lucie County. For counties further west in Florida, evacuation totals exceeding one thousand people are Collier (25,000), Glades (4,000) and Lee (2,500). A 7 to 10 feet (3 m) storm surge was predicted for Eastern Florida and the Florida Keys, and a 7 to 11 feet (3.4 m) storm surge was predicted for Western Florida before the storm exited Florida. Some isolated tornadoes were also predicted for South and Central Florida for August 23 and August 24. At least 8,000 Florida National Guard troops were deployed to prevent looting. Another 27,000 active duty military were deployed. Many hurricane watches and warnings were issued in Florida because of Hurricane Andrew, including a hurricane warning issued on August 23 that stretched from Vero Beach
Vero Beach, Florida
Vero Beach is a city in Indian River County, Florida, USA. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2006 estimates, the city had a population of 16,939. It is the county seat of Indian River County...

 all the way to the Florida Keys
Florida Keys
The Florida Keys are a coral archipelago in southeast United States. They begin at the southeastern tip of the Florida peninsula, about south of Miami, and extend in a gentle arc south-southwest and then westward to Key West, the westernmost of the inhabited islands, and on to the uninhabited Dry...

 and to Dry Tortugas
Dry Tortugas
The Dry Tortugas are a small group of islands, located at the end of the Florida Keys, USA, about west of Key West, and west of the Marquesas Keys, the closest islands. Still further west is the Tortugas Bank, which is completely submerged. The first Europeans to discover the islands were the...

. All watches and warning in the state were discontinued late on August 24 after Andrew moved offshore of Florida.

Louisiana

Sandbag walls were created in the South Bell Telephone Building in New Orleans. Sandbag walls were also created in the French Quarter
French Quarter
The French Quarter, also known as Vieux Carré, is the oldest neighborhood in the city of New Orleans. When New Orleans was founded in 1718 by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, the city was originally centered on the French Quarter, or the Vieux Carré as it was known then...

 section of New Orleans. Floodgates were also closed throughout the New Orleans Levee system. Sandbags for the public ran out because of the protection of major areas. Flights headed to and from New Orleans were canceled. There were many watches and warnings issued because of Andrew. For about two days the entire southern coast of Louisiana was covered in warning and watches. All hurricane watches and warnings were discontinued after Andrew made landfall near Morgan City, Louisiana
Morgan City, Louisiana
Morgan City is a city in St. Martin and St. Mary parishes in the U.S. state of Louisiana. The population was 12,404 at the 2010 census....

.

Elsewhere

As Andrew approached the Gulf Coast, tropical storm/hurricane watches and warnings were also issued in Alabama
Alabama
Alabama is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama ranks 30th in total land area and ranks second in the size of its inland...

, Mississippi
Mississippi
Mississippi is a U.S. state located in the Southern United States. Jackson is the state capital and largest city. The name of the state derives from the Mississippi River, which flows along its western boundary, whose name comes from the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi...

, and Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

. All watches and warnings were discontinued on August 25 after Andrew had moved inland over Louisiana. In addition, 250,000 people evacuated Orange
Orange County, Texas
Orange County is one of 254 counties of the State of Texas and its county seat is the city of Orange, Texas. In the year 2000, the population of Orange County was about 85,000. Orange County is the county in the very southeastern corner of Texas, with a boundary with Louisiana and a seacoast on the...

 and Jefferson Counties
Jefferson County, Texas
Jefferson County is a county located in the state of Texas, United States. As of 2000, the population was 252,051. Its county seat is Beaumont, and it is named for the former U.S...

 in Texas.

Bahamas

In the Bahamas, Andrew produced hurricane force winds in North Eleuthera, New Providence
New Providence
New Providence is the most populous island in the Bahamas, containing more than 70% of the total population. It also houses the national capital city, Nassau.The island was originally under Spanish control following Christopher Columbus' discovery of the New World, but the Spanish government showed...

, North Andros
North Andros
North Andros is one of the 31 Districts of The Bahamas. It is also the largest district in the country. It has some of the largest settlements on Andros Island and many churches as well.- Churches :...

, Bimini
Bimini
Bimini is the westernmost district of the Bahamas composed of a chain of islands located about 53 miles due east of Miami, Florida. Bimini is the closest point in the Bahamas to the mainland United States and approximately 137 miles west-northwest of Nassau...

, Berry Islands
Berry Islands
The Berry Islands are a chain of islands and a district of the Bahamas, covering about thirty square miles of the north western part of the Out Islands...

. It first struck Eleuthera, where it produced a high storm surge
Storm surge
A storm surge is an offshore rise of water associated with a low pressure weather system, typically tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones. Storm surges are caused primarily by high winds pushing on the ocean's surface. The wind causes the water to pile up higher than the ordinary sea...

 that was described as a "mighty wall of water". One person drowned from the surge in Eleuthera, and two others died in nearby The Bluff
The Bluff, Bahamas
The Bluff is a settlement on North Eleuthera, Bahamas.There are three settlements in the Bahamas called "The Bluff". The first is on South Andros Island. It is the most densely populated settlement on the island. It hosts a Homecoming every year, the first weekend in June on its Regatta site...

. The hurricane also produced several tornadoes in the area. Further west, Andrew spared damage to the capital city of Nassau, but on the private island of Cat Cay
Cat Cay(s)
The Cat Cays are two islands in the Bahamas, North Cat Cay and South Cat Cay, approximately 10 miles south of Bimini. North Cat Cay is a privately owned island and is run as a private members club by the Cat Cay Yacht Club. South Cat Cay is currently under development.- History :North Cat Cay is...

, many wealthy homes sustained heavy damage. Much of the northwestern Bahamas received damage, with monetary damage estimated at $250 million (1992 USD, $  USD). A total of 800 houses were destroyed, leaving 1,700 people homeless. Additionally, the storm left severe damage to the sectors of transport, communications, water, sanitation, agriculture, and fishing. The hurricane caused four deaths in the country, of which three directly; the indirect fatality was due to a heart failure during the passage of the storm.

Florida

As with most high-intensity storms (Categories 4 and 5), the worst damage from Andrew is thought to have occurred not from straight-line winds but from vortices, or "miniwhirls" (something like embedded tornadoes). This was the conclusion of Tetsuya Theodore Fujita, a University of Chicago
University of Chicago
The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois, USA. It was founded by the American Baptist Education Society with a donation from oil magnate and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller and incorporated in 1890...

 meteorologist who is known for the development of the Fujita scale
Fujita scale
The Fujita scale , or Fujita-Pearson scale, is a scale for rating tornado intensity, based primarily on the damage tornadoes inflict on human-built structures and vegetation...

 for measuring the strength of tornadoes.

Andrew produced a 17 feet (5.2 m) storm surge
Storm surge
A storm surge is an offshore rise of water associated with a low pressure weather system, typically tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones. Storm surges are caused primarily by high winds pushing on the ocean's surface. The wind causes the water to pile up higher than the ordinary sea...

 near the landfall point in Florida. A tidal surge of 16.9 feet (5.2 m) was recorded at the shoreline of SW 184th Street (Eureka Drive), the former location of the Burger King world corporate headquarters on the coast of the Perrine/Cutler Ridge area (directly within the path of the northern eyewall). Storm surge destruction was minimal, though, because of Andrew not moving over Miami itself.

Rainfall was limited in Southeast Florida because of Andrew traveling through at fast speeds, ranging from 20 to 25 mph (32.2 to 40.2 km/h).

Unlike most hurricanes, the vast majority of the damage in Florida was due to the winds. The agricultural loss in Florida was $1.04 billion (1992 USD) alone.

In Dade County
Miami-Dade County, Florida
Miami-Dade County is a county located in the southeastern part of the state of Florida. As of 2010 U.S. Census, the county had a population of 2,496,435, making it the most populous county in Florida and the eighth-most populous county in the United States...

 90% of homes had major roof damage. 117,000 were destroyed or had major damage.

The Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station
Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station
Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station is a twin reactor nuclear power station located on a 3,300-acre site 2 miles east of Homestead, Florida, United States, next to Biscayne National Park located about 25 miles south of Miami, Florida near the southernmost edge of Miami-Dade...

 was hit directly by Andrew. Over $90 million of damage was done, largely to a water tank and to a smokestack of one of the fossil-fueled units on-site, but the containment building
Containment building
A containment building, in its most common usage, is a steel or reinforced concrete structure enclosing a nuclear reactor. It is designed, in any emergency, to contain the escape of radiation to a maximum pressure in the range of 60 to 200 psi...

s were undamaged. The nuclear plant was built to withstand winds of up to 235 mph (378.2 km/h).

Massive damage caused by Andrew at Homestead Air Force Base
Homestead Air Reserve Base
Homestead Air Reserve Base is a United States Air Force base located approximately east-northeast of Homestead, Florida.The host unit at Homestead is the 482d Fighter Wing assigned to the Air Force Reserve Command Tenth Air Force...

, very near the point of landfall on the South Florida coast, led to the closing of the base as a full active-duty base. It was later partly rebuilt and operates today as a U. S. Air Reserve base. The aircraft and squadron were relocated to Aviano Air Base
Aviano Air Base
Aviano Air Base is a NATO Air Base under U.S. Air Force administration in northeastern Italy, in Friuli-Venezia Giulia region. It is located in Aviano municipality, at the foot of the Carnic Pre-Alps, or Southern Carnic Alps, about 15 kilometers from Pordenone.-Units:Aviano is hosted by the...

 in Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

.

Power lines to the Florida Keys
Florida Keys
The Florida Keys are a coral archipelago in southeast United States. They begin at the southeastern tip of the Florida peninsula, about south of Miami, and extend in a gentle arc south-southwest and then westward to Key West, the westernmost of the inhabited islands, and on to the uninhabited Dry...

 were destroyed, leaving residents without power. However, water was maintained, although it had to be boiled
Boiling
Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding environmental pressure. While below the boiling point a liquid...

.

There was also moderate damage to the coral reef
Coral reef
Coral reefs are underwater structures made from calcium carbonate secreted by corals. Coral reefs are colonies of tiny living animals found in marine waters that contain few nutrients. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, which in turn consist of polyps that cluster in groups. The polyps...

 areas offshore of Florida down to depths of 75 feet (22.9 m).

The effects of Hurricane Andrew on Florida wetlands were considerable. In the Florida Everglades
Everglades
The Everglades are subtropical wetlands in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida, comprising the southern half of a large watershed. The system begins near Orlando with the Kissimmee River, which discharges into the vast but shallow Lake Okeechobee...

, 25%, 70000 acres (283.3 km²) of trees were knocked down by the storm. It took 20 days for new trees and vegetation to grow following the storms passing. Damage to marine life was moderate as the storm increased the turbidity and lowered the oxygen level in the water, threatening many fish and other marine wildlife. In addition, the storm killed 182 million fish in the basin, causing $160 million (1992 USD) in lost value.

Louisiana

After hitting Florida, Andrew moved across the Gulf of Mexico and made landfall about 23 mi (37 km) west-southwest of Morgan City in south-central Louisiana; at landfall, the maximum sustained winds were 115 mph (185.1 km/h). As it moved ashore, the hurricane produced storm tides of at least 8 ft (2.4 m), causing flooding along the coast from Vermilion Bay
Vermilion Bay
Vermilion Bay is a bay in southern Louisiana in the United States.Vermilion Bay is located in southwestern Iberia Parish and southeastern Vermilion Parish...

 to Lake Borgne
Lake Borgne
Lake Borgne is a lagoon in eastern Louisiana of the Gulf of Mexico. Due to coastal erosion, it is no longer actually a lake but rather an arm of the Gulf of Mexico. Its name comes from the French word borgne, which means "one-eyed".-Geography:...

. River flooding was also reported, with the Tangipahoa River
Tangipahoa River
The Tangipahoa River originates northwest of McComb in southwest Mississippi, and runs south through Lake Tangipahoa in Percy Quin State Park before passing into southeast Louisiana. Its mouth opens into the northwest region of Lake Pontchartrain....

 in Robert
Robert, Louisiana
Robert is an unincorporated community in Tangipahoa Parish, Louisiana, United States. It lies east of Hammond, at the intersection of US 190 and LA 445, from which it has a signed exit on Interstate 12...

 cresting at 3.8 ft (1.2 m) above flood stage. Before making landfall, Andrew spawned an F3 tornado in Laplace
Laplace, Louisiana
LaPlace is a census-designated place in St. John the Baptist Parish, Louisiana, United States, along the east bank of the Mississippi River in the New Orleans metropolitan area. The population is 32,134 at the 2010 census....

, which stayed on the ground until Reserve
Reserve, Louisiana
Reserve is a census-designated place in St. John the Baptist Parish, Louisiana, United States, on the east bank of the Mississippi River. The population was 9,111 at the 2000 census...

, St. John the Baptist Parish
St. John the Baptist parish
St. John the Baptist parish may refer to one of a number of religious organisations:In the district of Clontarf, Dublin, Ireland:* The Church of Ireland Parish of Clontarf* The senior Parish of Clontarf...

. Two people were killed as a result of that tornado. The tornado was on the ground for about 10 minutes, during which it damaged or destroyed 163 structures which left 60 families homeless. Tornadoes were also reported in the parishes of Ascension
Ascension Parish, Louisiana
Ascension Parish is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. It is the fastest growing parish in the state. Its population is 107,215 which is 39.9% greater than the 2000 census...

, Iberville
Iberville Parish, Louisiana
Iberville Parish is a parish located south of Baton Rouge in the U.S. state of Louisiana. Its seat is Plaquemine. The 2010 population of the parish was 33,387....

, Pointe Coupee
Pointe Coupee Parish, Louisiana
Pointe Coupee Parish, pronounced "Pwent Koo-Pay" and , is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. The parish seat is New Roads. As of 2000, the population was 22,763....

, and Avoyelles
Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana
Avoyelles is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. The parish seat is Marksville. In 2000, its population was 41,481. The parish is named for the Avoyel Indian tribe.-History:...

, as well as in Baton Rouge
Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Baton Rouge is the capital of the U.S. state of Louisiana. It is located in East Baton Rouge Parish and is the second-largest city in the state.Baton Rouge is a major industrial, petrochemical, medical, and research center of the American South...

. Heavy rains accompanied the storm's passage through the state, peaking at 11.02 in (279.9 mm) in Robert.

Due to high winds, about 152,000 electricity customers lost their power because of the impact of Andrew. The hurricane knocked down 80% of the trees in part of the Atchafalaya River
Atchafalaya River
The Atchafalaya River is a distributary of the Mississippi River and Red River in south central Louisiana in the United States. It flows south, just west of the Mississippi River....

 Basin
Drainage basin
A drainage basin is an extent or an area of land where surface water from rain and melting snow or ice converges to a single point, usually the exit of the basin, where the waters join another waterbody, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea, or ocean...

 near the coast. In addition to tree damage, significant agricultural damage was also reported in Louisiana in the wake of Hurricane Andrew. Damage was done to soy bean, corn
Maize
Maize known in many English-speaking countries as corn or mielie/mealie, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maize kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable...

, and sugar cane crops. The damage estimated done to the sugar cane was $200 million (1992 USD).

Offshore, the storm killed 9.4 million fish, causing $7.8 million (1992 USD, $  USD) in lost value, and damaged large areas of marshland along the Louisiana coast. Also offshore, a group of six fishermen from Alabama perished due to drownings. A Coast Guard
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven U.S. uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, military, multi-mission service unique among the military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency...

 helicopter had to rescue four people and two dogs from a disabled 65 ft (19.8 m) fishing boat, 50 mi (80.5 km) south of Houma
Houma, Louisiana
Houma is a city in and the parish seat of Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana, and the largest principal city of the Houma–Bayou Cane–Thibodaux Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city's powers of government have been absorbed by the parish, which is now run by the Terrebonne Parish...

.

Damage was estimated at $1 billion (1992 USD, $  USD). There were nine indirect deaths in the state, one of which in Lafayette
Lafayette, Louisiana
Lafayette is a city in and the parish seat of Lafayette Parish, Louisiana, United States, on the Vermilion River. The population was 120,623 at the 2010 census...

 from a car accident due to a power outage affecting a traffic light. In addition, there were eight direct fatalities as a result of Andrew.

Remainder of United States

Offshore the gulf states
Gulf Coast of the United States
The Gulf Coast of the United States, sometimes referred to as the Gulf South, South Coast, or 3rd Coast, comprises the coasts of American states that are on the Gulf of Mexico, which includes Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida and are known as the Gulf States...

, Hurricane Andrew left about $500 million in damage to oil facilities. One company lost 13 platforms, had 104 structures damaged, and five drilling wells blown off course.

As Andrew moved ashore in Louisiana, its outer fringes produced a storm tide
Storm surge
A storm surge is an offshore rise of water associated with a low pressure weather system, typically tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones. Storm surges are caused primarily by high winds pushing on the ocean's surface. The wind causes the water to pile up higher than the ordinary sea...

 of about 1.3 ft (0.39624 m) in Sabine Pass, Texas
Sabine Pass, Texas
Sabine Pass is a neighborhood of Port Arthur, Texas, United States. It lies on the west bank of Sabine Pass, near the Louisiana border.Originally known as Sabine City, the original date of settlement of Sabine Pass is unknown, but is estimated at 1836...

. Winds were minor in the state, reaching 30 mph (48.3 km/h) in Port Arthur
Port Arthur, Texas
-Demographics:As of the 2000 census, there were 57,755 people, 21,839 households, and 14,675 families residing in the city. The population density was 696.5 people per square mile . There were 24,713 housing units at an average density of 298.0 per square mile...

.

After moving through Louisiana, Tropical Storm Andrew crossed Mississippi, prompting 3 severe thunderstorm warning
Severe thunderstorm warning
A severe thunderstorm warning is issued when trained storm spotters or a Doppler weather radar indicate a strong thunderstorm is producing dangerously large hail or high winds, capable of causing significant damage. In the United States, it does not account for lightning or flooding...

s, 21 tornado warning
Tornado warning
A tornado warning is an alert issued by government weather services to warn that severe thunderstorms with tornadoes may be imminent. It can be issued after a tornado or funnel cloud has been spotted by eye, or more commonly if there are radar indications of tornado formation...

s, and 16 flood warning
Flood warning
Flood warning is closely linked to the task of flood forecasting. The distinction between the two is that the outcome of flood forecasting is a set of forecast time-profiles of channel flows or river levels at various locations, while "flood warning" is the task of making use of these forecasts to...

s. Funnel cloud
Funnel cloud
A funnel cloud is a funnel-shaped cloud of condensed water droplets, associated with a rotating column of wind and extending from the base of a cloud but not reaching the ground or a water surface. A funnel cloud is usually visible as a cone-shaped or needle like protuberance from the main cloud...

s were observed along its path, and there were 26 tornadoes across the state. Structural damage was generally minimal, occurring from the tornadoes and severe thunderstorms. The winds also knocked down trees in the southwestern portion of the state. The storm also dropped rainfall across much of the state, peaking at 9.3 in (236.2 mm) at Sumrall
Sumrall, Mississippi
Sumrall is a town in Lamar County, Mississippi, United States. It is part of the Hattiesburg, Mississippi Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 1,005 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Sumrall is located at ....

. The rainfall caused flooding in low-lying areas and creeks, covering a few county roads but not entering many houses or businesses. Along the coast, the storm produced flooding and high tides.

In neighboring Alabama, the storm's rainfall peaked at 4.71 in (119.6 mm) in Aliceville
Aliceville, Alabama
Aliceville is a city in Pickens County, Alabama, United States. At the 2000 census the population was 2,567. According to the 2005 U.S. Census estimates, the city had a population of 2,465. -Geography:...

. Along Dauphin Island, high tides left severe beach erosion, with up to 30 ft (9.1 m) lost in some areas. Two damaging tornadoes occurred in the state, and wind gusts of 41 mph (67 km/h) were reported in Huntsville
Huntsville, Alabama
Huntsville is a city located primarily in Madison County in the central part of the far northern region of the U.S. state of Alabama. Huntsville is the county seat of Madison County. The city extends west into neighboring Limestone County. Huntsville's population was 180,105 as of the 2010 Census....

. Damage was generally minor in Alabama. Tropical storm force wind gusts extended eastward into Georgia, where damaging tornadoes were also reported. Monetary damage in the state reached about $100,000 (1992 USD, $  USD). Rainfall from Andrew spread across the southeastern United States along the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
The Appalachian Mountains #Whether the stressed vowel is or ,#Whether the "ch" is pronounced as a fricative or an affricate , and#Whether the final vowel is the monophthong or the diphthong .), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians...

 corridor. Totals of over 5 inches (125 mm) were reported near the tri-point border between Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. Rainfall continued along the path of Andrew's remnants through the Mid-Atlantic and Ohio Valley.

Florida

The slow response of federal aid to storm victims in southern Florida led Dade County
Miami-Dade County, Florida
Miami-Dade County is a county located in the southeastern part of the state of Florida. As of 2010 U.S. Census, the county had a population of 2,496,435, making it the most populous county in Florida and the eighth-most populous county in the United States...

 emergency management director Kate Hale to famously exclaim at a nationally televised news conference, "Where in the hell is the cavalry
Cavalry
Cavalry or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the third oldest and the most mobile of the combat arms...

 on this one? They keep saying we're going to get supplies. For God's sake, where are they?" Almost immediately, President George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
George Herbert Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States . He had previously served as the 43rd Vice President of the United States , a congressman, an ambassador, and Director of Central Intelligence.Bush was born in Milton, Massachusetts, to...

 promised, "Help is on the way," and mobile kitchens and tents, along with units from the 82nd Airborne Division and the 10th Mountain Division, Fort Drum
Fort Drum
Fort Drum is a United States Army base in New York near the Canadian border.Fort Drum may also refer to:*Fort Drum, Florida, a nearly-uninhabited town in the United States*Fort Drum , Philippines...

, New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

 began pouring in.

Insurance claims in the wake of the extreme damage caused by Andrew led to the bankruptcy and closure of 11 insurance companies and drained an excessive amount of equity from 30 more. An estimated $16 billion of the total losses (mainly structural) were insured. The Federal Insurance Administration estimated that flood damage from the hurricane would total $100 million and that the program would cover all expected claims. Even though a state-managed catastrophe fund was implemented to provide protection for the industry and its consumers, insurance rates and deductibles drastically increased. Nearly one million residences were no longer eligible for coverage by any insurance company. This led the Florida Legislature to create new entities, such as the Joint Underwriting Association, the Florida Windstorm Underwriting Association, and the Florida Hurricane Catastrophe Fund, in effort to restore adequate insurance capacity.

Looting occurred in Florida after the storm, with at least 100 people attempting to ransack the Cutler Ridge shopping mall south of Miami. However, the deployment of 600 National Guard troops in the region restored order.

Andrew's catastrophic damage spawned many rumors, including claims that hundreds or even thousands of migrant farm workers in south Dade County (now Miami-Dade County) were killed and their deaths were not reported in official accounts. An investigation by the Miami Herald
The Miami Herald
The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by The McClatchy Company headquartered on Biscayne Bay in the Omni district of Downtown Miami, Florida, United States...

found no basis for such rumors. These rumors were probably based on the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane
1928 Okeechobee Hurricane
The Okeechobee hurricane, or San Felipe Segundo hurricane, was a deadly hurricane that struck the Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, the Bahamas, and Florida in September of the 1928 Atlantic hurricane season...

, when the deaths of migrant workers initially went uncounted, and were still debated at the time of Andrew.

Homeowners and officials criticized developers and contractors for inadequate building practices and poor building codes. An inquiry after the storm concluded that there were probably construction flaws in some buildings, and that the state of Florida did enact some strict building codes since 1986, but they were either overlooked or ignored.

In the decade after the storm, Hurricane Andrew may have contributed to the massive and sudden housing boom in Broward County, Florida. Located just north of Miami-Dade County, residents who had lost their homes migrated to western sections of the county that was just starting to be developed. The result was record growth in places like Miramar
Miramar, Florida
Miramar is a city in Broward County, Florida, United States. The city was named after the Miramar district of Havana, Cuba. As of the 2010 census, the population was 122,041...

, Pembroke Pines
Pembroke Pines, Florida
Pembroke Pines is a city in Broward County, Florida, United States. The city had a population of 154,750 at the 2010 census, making it the second most populous city in Broward County, the tenth most populous in Florida, and the 150th most populous in the United States...

 and Weston
Weston, Florida
Weston is a suburb of South Florida located in Broward County, Florida, USA. Established as a city in 1996, much of the community was developed by Arvida/JMB Realty and is located near the western developmental boundary of Broward County. It is the most western city in Broward County, and its...

.

In commemoration of tenth anniversary of Hurricane Andrew, Biscayne National Park
Biscayne National Park
Biscayne National Park is a U.S. National Park located in southern Florida, due east of Homestead. The park preserves Biscayne Bay, one of the top scuba diving areas in the United States. Ninety-five percent of the park is water. In addition, the shore of the bay is the location of an extensive...

 dedicated a plaque in 2002. The plaque reads:

On Monday, August 24, 1992, at 4:30 a.m., the eye wall of Hurricane Andrew passed over this point before striking Homestead and southern Miami-Dade County. Andrew was one of the most powerful hurricanes in U.S. history with wind gusts exceeding 175 mph and a local record storm tide of 16.9 feet. Fifteen people in South Florida were killed by the forces of the hurricane and at least 29 died in its aftermath; hundreds more were injured. The destruction left at least 160,000 people homeless. Tens-of-thousands of jobs were affected and economic recovery took more than five years. Losses in Florida were estimated at $25-30 billion making Andrew the costliest hurricane disaster in U.S history.

Louisiana

Following the affects of Hurricane Andrew in Louisiana, then-President of the United States George H. W. Bush declared portions of the state as a disaster area. In Louisiana, about 6,200 people had to be housed in 36 separate shelters, according to the American Red Cross
American Red Cross
The American Red Cross , also known as the American National Red Cross, is a volunteer-led, humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief and education inside the United States. It is the designated U.S...

. The Salvation Army
Salvation Army
The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian church known for its thrift stores and charity work. It is an international movement that currently works in over a hundred countries....

 sent in 37 mobile food storage faculties that served 40,000 meals, to help those who could get little or no food. Federal aid, from the Pentagon, sent in four 750 kilowatt generators, 2,500 cots, and 30,000 MREs, or prepackaged meals, to Louisiana. About 1,279 National Guard were deployed to Louisiana, to do various duties, from cooking to patrolling. Shortly after the storm, Sheriffs along the coast of Louisiana imposed a curfew from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. local time
Central Time zone
In North America, the Central Time Zone refers to national time zones which observe standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC , and daylight saving, or summer time by subtracting five hours...

. Alcohol
Alcohol
In chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in which the hydroxy functional group is bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms....

 sales were also banned immediately after the storm.

Retirement

Because of the exceptional and widespread damage in Florida and Louisiana, the name Andrew was retired in the spring of 1993 and will never again be used for an Atlantic hurricane. The name was replaced by Alex for the 1998 season.

See also

  • Hurricane Andrew, South Florida and Louisiana, August 23–26, 1992, report on the event by the NOAA
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , pronounced , like "noah", is a scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere...

     Disaster Survey Team
  • List of Category 5 Atlantic hurricanes
  • List of Florida hurricanes
  • List of retired Atlantic hurricane names
  • Timeline of the 1992 Atlantic hurricane season
    Timeline of the 1992 Atlantic hurricane season
    The 1992 Atlantic hurricane season was a below-average season that produced six named tropical cyclones. The season officially started on June 1, 1992 and finished on November 30; however, Subtropical Storm One formed outside the official timeline on April 21...


Further reading

  • Modified after the National Hurricane Center web site. This U.S. government site is in the public domain
    Public domain
    Works are in the public domain if the intellectual property rights have expired, if the intellectual property rights are forfeited, or if they are not covered by intellectual property rights at all...

    .

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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