Henry Bradwardine Jackson
Admiral of the Fleet
Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy)
Admiral of the fleet is the highest rank of the British Royal Navy and other navies, which equates to the NATO rank code OF-10. The rank still exists in the Royal Navy but routine appointments ceased in 1996....

 Sir Henry Bradwardine Jackson GCB
Order of the Bath
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate mediæval ceremony for creating a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements. The knights so created were known as Knights of the Bath...

Royal Victorian Order
The Royal Victorian Order is a dynastic order of knighthood and a house order of chivalry recognising distinguished personal service to the order's Sovereign, the reigning monarch of the Commonwealth realms, any members of her family, or any of her viceroys...

, FRS (21 January 1855 – 14 December 1929) was British First Sea Lord
First Sea Lord
The First Sea Lord is the professional head of the Royal Navy and the whole Naval Service; it was formerly known as First Naval Lord. He also holds the title of Chief of Naval Staff, and is known by the abbreviations 1SL/CNS...

 during much of the First World War. He won the 1926 Hughes Medal
Hughes Medal
The Hughes Medal is awarded by the Royal Society of London "in recognition of an original discovery in the physical sciences, particularly electricity and magnetism or their applications". Named after David E. Hughes, the medal is awarded with a gift of £1000. The medal was first awarded in 1902 to...

 of the Royal Society
Royal Society
The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, known simply as the Royal Society, is a learned society for science, and is possibly the oldest such society in existence. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a Royal Charter by King Charles II as the "Royal Society of London"...

 "for his pioneer work in the scientific investigations of radiotelegraphy and its application to navigation".

Early life

Henry Jackson entered the navy in 1868 and gained an early reputation as a pioneer of ship-to-ship radio technology whilst in command of the Torpedo School Training Ship HMS Defiance
HMS Defiance (1861)
HMS Defiance was the last wooden line-of-battle ship launched for the Royal Navy. She never saw service as a wooden line-of-battle ship. In 1884 she became a schoolship.- Design :...

 at Wearde Quay, Saltash
Saltash is a town and civil parish in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It has a population of 14,964. It lies in the south east of Cornwall, facing Plymouth over the River Tamar. It was in the Caradon district until March 2009 and is known as "the gateway to Cornwall". Saltash means ash tree by...

. In 1896 he became the first person to achieve ship-to-ship radio communications, and demonstrated continuous communication with another vessel up to three miles away. He worked with Marconi
Marconi Company
The Marconi Company Ltd. was founded by Guglielmo Marconi in 1897 as The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company...

 and earned himself appointment as a Fellow
A fellow in the broadest sense is someone who is an equal or a comrade. The term fellow is also used to describe a person, particularly by those in the upper social classes. It is most often used in an academic context: a fellow is often part of an elite group of learned people who are awarded...

 to the Royal Society
Royal Society
The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, known simply as the Royal Society, is a learned society for science, and is possibly the oldest such society in existence. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a Royal Charter by King Charles II as the "Royal Society of London"...

 in 1901. From 1905 to 1908 Jackson served as Third Sea Lord and Controller of the Navy
Third Sea Lord
The Third Sea Lord and Controller of the Navy was formerly the Naval Lord and member of the Board of Admiralty responsible for procurement and matériel in the British Royal Navy...

. After that he served as head of the Naval War College at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich from 1911 to 1913 and afterwards on the Admiralty War Staff as an advisor on overseas expeditions. The arrival of the First World War in August 1914 enabled Jackson to work on the co-ordination of British attacks on Germany's colonial possessions.

First Sea Lord

He was selected as the surprise successor to Admiral Fisher upon the latter's spectacular resignation in May 1915. He had a cordial working relationship with First Lord of the Admiralty
The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the Kingdom of England, and later in the United Kingdom, responsible for the command of the Royal Navy...

 (and former Prime Minister) Arthur Balfour
Arthur Balfour
Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC, DL was a British Conservative politician and statesman...

. Jackson largey concerned himself with administrative matters and his prestige suffered when German destroyers appeared in the Channel. Consequently Sir John Jellicoe
John Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe
Admiral of the Fleet John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe, GCB, OM, GCVO was a British Royal Navy admiral who commanded the Grand Fleet at the Battle of Jutland in World War I...

 was appointed to replace Jackson in November 1916.

Later life

Jackson saw out the rest of the war as King George V's aide-de-camp and as president of the Royal Naval College at Greenwich. In this period, he was awarded the Japanese Grand Cordon, Order of the Rising Sun
Order of the Rising Sun
The is a Japanese order, established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. The Order was the first national decoration awarded by the Japanese Government, created on April 10, 1875 by decree of the Council of State. The badge features rays of sunlight from the rising sun...

, which was duly published in the London Gazette
London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, and the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published...

. In 1919 Jackson was appointed Admiral of the Fleet; he retired five years later and died in 1929. Recognizing his work on wireless telegraphy, in 1926 Henry Bradwardine Jackson was appointed Secretary, and later, Chairman, of the British National Committee on Radio Telegraphy.
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