Haryana
Overview
Haryana is a state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. Historically, it has been a part of the Kuru region in North India
North India
North India, known natively as Uttar Bhārat or Shumālī Hindustān , is a loosely defined region in the northern part of India. The exact meaning of the term varies by usage...

. The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the apabhramsha
Apabhramsha
Apabhraṃśa is a term used by Sanskrit grammarians since Patañjali to refer to dialects that deviate from the norm of Sanskrit grammar. The term in Sanskrit literally means "corrupt" or "non-grammatical language". It is used as a cover term for the dialects forming the transition between the late...

 writer Vibudh Shridhar
Vibudh Shridhar
Vibudh Shridhar or Vibudha Shridhara was an accomplished Apabhramsha writer and poet in North India. He is the first known Agrawal author...

 (VS 1189-1230). It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh is a state in Northern India. It is spread over , and is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab on the west and south-west, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh on the south, Uttarakhand on the south-east and by the Tibet Autonomous Region on the east...

 to the north, and by Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 to the west and south. The river Yamuna
Yamuna
The Yamuna is the largest tributary river of the Ganges in northern India...

 defines its eastern border with Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand , formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Land of Gods due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found throughout the state, some of which are among Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship...

 and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

. Haryana also surrounds Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi.
Encyclopedia
Haryana is a state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. Historically, it has been a part of the Kuru region in North India
North India
North India, known natively as Uttar Bhārat or Shumālī Hindustān , is a loosely defined region in the northern part of India. The exact meaning of the term varies by usage...

. The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the apabhramsha
Apabhramsha
Apabhraṃśa is a term used by Sanskrit grammarians since Patañjali to refer to dialects that deviate from the norm of Sanskrit grammar. The term in Sanskrit literally means "corrupt" or "non-grammatical language". It is used as a cover term for the dialects forming the transition between the late...

 writer Vibudh Shridhar
Vibudh Shridhar
Vibudh Shridhar or Vibudha Shridhara was an accomplished Apabhramsha writer and poet in North India. He is the first known Agrawal author...

 (VS 1189-1230). It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh is a state in Northern India. It is spread over , and is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab on the west and south-west, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh on the south, Uttarakhand on the south-east and by the Tibet Autonomous Region on the east...

 to the north, and by Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 to the west and south. The river Yamuna
Yamuna
The Yamuna is the largest tributary river of the Ganges in northern India...

 defines its eastern border with Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand , formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Land of Gods due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found throughout the state, some of which are among Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship...

 and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

. Haryana also surrounds Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Consequently, a large area of Haryana is included in the National Capital Region
National Capital Region (India)
The National Capital Region in India is a name for the conurbation or metropolitan area which encompasses the entire National Capital Territory of Delhi as well as urban areas ringing it in neighbouring states of Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan...

. The capital of the state is Chandigarh
Chandigarh
Chandigarh is a union territory of India that serves as the capital of two states, Haryana and Punjab. The name Chandigarh translates as "The Fort of Chandi". The name is from an ancient temple called Chandi Mandir, devoted to the Hindu goddess Chandi, in the city...

 which is administered as a union territory
Union Territory
A Union Territory is a sub-national administrative division of India, in the federal framework of governance. Unlike the states of India, which have their own elected governments, union territories are ruled directly by the federal government; the President of India appoints an Administrator or...

 and is also the capital of Punjab.

Sites in Haryana were part of the Indus Valley
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India...

 and Vedic Civilizations. Several decisive battles were fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India. These include the epic battle of Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

 at Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra is a land of historical and religious importance. Historically the land belonged to Punjab now a district in Haryana state of India. It is a holy place and is also known as Dharmakshetra . According to the Puranas, Kurukshetra is named after King Kuru, the ancestor of Kauravas and...

 mentioned in the Hindu mythology (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
The ' , also more simply known as Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the ancient Sanskrit epic, the Mahabharata, but is frequently treated as a freestanding text, and in particular, as an Upanishad in its own right, one of the several books that constitute general Vedic tradition...

 by Krishna
Krishna
Krishna is a central figure of Hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita. He is the supreme Being and considered in some monotheistic traditions as an Avatar of Vishnu...

), and the three battles of Panipat
Panipat
Panipat بَنِبَت is an ancient and historic city in Panipat district, Haryana state, India. It is 90 km north from Delhi and 169 km south of Chandigarh on NH-1. The three battles fought at the city were turning points in Indian history. The city is famous in India by the name of "City of...

. Haryana was administered as part of the Punjab province
Punjab (British India)
Punjab was a province of British India, it was one of the last areas of the Indian subcontinent to fall under British rule. With the end of British rule in 1947 the province was split between West Punjab, which went to Pakistan, and East Punjab, which went to India...

 of British India, and was carved out on linguistic lines as India's 17th state in 1966. Haryana is now a leading contributor to the country's production of foodgrain and milk. Agriculture is the leading occupation for the residents of the state, the flat arable land irrigated by submersible pump
Submersible pump
A submersible pump is a device which has a hermetically sealed motor close-coupled to the pump body. The whole assembly is submerged in the fluid to be pumped. The main advantage of this type of pump is that it prevents pump cavitation, a problem associated with a high elevation difference between...

s and an extensive canal
Canal
Canals are man-made channels for water. There are two types of canal:#Waterways: navigable transportation canals used for carrying ships and boats shipping goods and conveying people, further subdivided into two kinds:...

 system. Haryana contributed heavily to the Green Revolution
Green Revolution in India
The introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the increased use of fertilizers and irrigation are known collectively as the Green Revolution, which provided the increase in production needed to make India self-sufficient in food grains, thus improving agriculture in India...

 that made India self-sufficient in food production in the 1960s.

Haryana is one of the wealthiest states of India and has the third highest per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 in the country at Rs. 67,891, including the largest number of rural crorepati
Crorepati
A crorepati is a person who resides in a household whose net worth or wealth exceeds ten million rupees, or units of another currency. The term crorepati is derived from the unit crore — part of the Indian numbering system, equivalent to 100 lakhs or 10 million...

s in India. Haryana is also one of the most economically developed regions in South Asia and its agricultural and manufacturing industry has experienced sustained growth since 1970s. Haryana is India's largest manufacturer of passenger cars, two-wheelers, and tractors. Since 2000, the state has emerged as the largest recipient of investment per capita in India. The city of Gurgaon
Gurgaon
Gurgaon is the second largest city in the Indian state of Haryana. Gurgaon is the industrial and financial center of Haryana. It is located 30 km south of national capital New Delhi, about 10 kilometers from Dwarka Sub City and 268 km south of Chandigarh, the state capital...

 has rapidly emerged as a major hub for the information technology
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

 and automobile industries. Gurgaon is home to Maruti Udyog Limited, India's largest automobile manufacturer, and Hero MotoCorp Limited, the world's largest manufacturer of two-wheelers. Yamunanagar
Yamunanagar
Yamuna nagar is a city and a municipal corporation in Yamuna Nagar district in the Indian state of Haryana. This town is known for the cluster of plywood units. The older town is called Jagadhri...

, Panipat
Panipat
Panipat بَنِبَت is an ancient and historic city in Panipat district, Haryana state, India. It is 90 km north from Delhi and 169 km south of Chandigarh on NH-1. The three battles fought at the city were turning points in Indian history. The city is famous in India by the name of "City of...

, Panchkula
Panchkula
Panchkula is a planned city in Panchkula district, Haryana, India. It is a satellite city of the Union Territory of Chandigarh. It also shares seamless border with Mohali district in Punjab. The prestigious Chandimandir Cantonment Headquarters of the Indian Army Western Command, is also located in...

 and Faridabad
Faridabad
Faridabad is a city in the south-east of Haryana state in northern India, in Faridabad district. It lies at 28º 25' 16" N Latitude and 77º 18' 28" E Longitude. The district shares its boundaries with the National Capital and Union Territory of Delhi to its north, Gurgaon district to the west and...

 are also industrial hubs, with the Panipat Refinery
Panipat Refinery
Panipat Refinery is an oil refinery that was set up in 1998. It is located in Baholi village, Panipat, Haryana. Panipat is the seventh refinery belonging to Indian Oil Corporation Limited. The cost of the refinery's construction was Rs 9024 crores...

 being the second largest refinery in South Asia. There are also long established steel, plywood, paper and textile industries in the state.

Ancient period


Haryana was the outermost location of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India...

 with centers such as Banawali
Banawali
Banawali is an archaeological site belonging to Indus Valley Civilization period in Hisar district, Haryana, about 120 km northeast of Kalibangan. Banawali is located 16 km from Fatehabad. This site was excavated by R.S. Bisht...

 and Rakhigarhi
Rakhigarhi
Rakhigarhi, or Rakhi Garhi , is a village in Hisar District in the northwest Indian state of Haryana, around 150 kilometers from Delhi. In 1963 archeologists discovered the village was the site of an extensive city, part of the Indus Valley Civilization...

. The most extensive center, Rakhigarhi, is now a village in Hisar District
Hisar District
Hisar district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state, India. Hisar city serves as the district headquarters. The district is also part of Hisar division, which is headed by a commissioner who belongs to the Indian Administrative Service....

. The site is dated to be over 5,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, drainage system, large rainwater collection, storage system, terracotta brick, statue production, and skilled metal working (in both bronze and precious metals) has been uncovered.

Also the Vedic Civilization flourished on the banks of the now lost Sarasvati River
Sarasvati River
The Sarasvati River is one of the chief Rigvedic rivers mentioned in ancient Hindu texts. The Nadistuti hymn in the Rigveda mentions the Sarasvati between the Yamuna in the east and the Sutlej in the west, and later Vedic texts like Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas as well as the Mahabharata...

. Several decisive battles were fought in the area, which shaped much of the history of India
History of India
The history of India begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens as long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago. The Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent from...

. These include the epic Battle of Kurukshetra described in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

 (including the recital of the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
The ' , also more simply known as Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the ancient Sanskrit epic, the Mahabharata, but is frequently treated as a freestanding text, and in particular, as an Upanishad in its own right, one of the several books that constitute general Vedic tradition...

 by Krishna
Krishna
Krishna is a central figure of Hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita. He is the supreme Being and considered in some monotheistic traditions as an Avatar of Vishnu...

) and the three battles of Panipat
Panipat
Panipat بَنِبَت is an ancient and historic city in Panipat district, Haryana state, India. It is 90 km north from Delhi and 169 km south of Chandigarh on NH-1. The three battles fought at the city were turning points in Indian history. The city is famous in India by the name of "City of...

.

Etymology

The name "Haryana" could mean "the Abode of God", derived from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 words Hari (the Hindu God Vishnu
Vishnu
Vishnu is the Supreme god in the Vaishnavite tradition of Hinduism. Smarta followers of Adi Shankara, among others, venerate Vishnu as one of the five primary forms of God....

) and ayana (home).

Scholars like Muni Lal, Murli Chand Sharma, HA Phadke and Sukhdev Singh Chib believe that the name Haryana comes from the words Hari (Sanskrit Harit, "green") and Aranya (forest).

The Yashastilaka-Champu of Somadeva mentions "Harivansha" as the ruling family of this region. JN Singh Yadav, Pran Nath Chopra and some anthropologists believe that the name Haryana may have derived from Abhiras, its ancient inhabitants (Abhirayana -> Ahirayana -> Hirayana -> Haryana).

Medieval period

After ousting the Huns
Huns
The Huns were a group of nomadic people who, appearing from east of the Volga River, migrated into Europe c. AD 370 and established the vast Hunnic Empire there. Since de Guignes linked them with the Xiongnu, who had been northern neighbours of China 300 years prior to the emergence of the Huns,...

, king Harshavardhana established his capital at Thanesar
Thanesar
Thanesar is an old and historic town on the banks of the Sarsawati Ghaggar river in the state of Haryana in northern India. It is located in Kurukshetra District, approximately 160 km northwest of Delhi...

 near Kurukshetra in the 7th century AD. After his death, the kingdom of his clansmen, the Pratihara
Pratihara
The Gurjara Pratihara , often simply called Pratihara Empire, was an imperial Indian dynasty that ruled much of Northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries. At its peak of prosperity and power , the Gurajara-Pratihara Empire rivaled or even exceeded the Gupta Empire in the extent of its...

s continued to rule over a vast region for quite a while from Harsha
Harsha
Harsha or Harsha Vardhana or Harshvardhan was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India from 606 to 647 AD. He was the son of Prabhakara Vardhana and younger brother of Rajya Vardhana, a king of Thanesar, Haryana...

's adopted capital of Kannauj
Kannauj
Kannauj , also spelt Kanauj, is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The city's name is traditionally derived from the term Kanyakubja . Kannauj is an ancient city, in earlier times the capital...

. The region remained strategically important for the rulers of North India
North India
North India, known natively as Uttar Bhārat or Shumālī Hindustān , is a loosely defined region in the northern part of India. The exact meaning of the term varies by usage...

 even though Thanesar was no more central than Kannauj. Prithviraj Chauhan established forts at Tarori
Taraori
Taraori or Tarori, as it is sometimes called in the local dialect, is a city and a Tehsil 16 km north of Karnal in Karnal district in the Indian state of Haryana....

 and Hansi
Hansi
Hansi is a city and a municipal council in Hisar district in the Indian state of Haryana. Its 2011 population is estimated to be 1,34,568. It is located at a distance of east of Hisar on National Highway 10. Geographically, it is semi-arid with around 46 cm of annual rainfall. It appears...

 in the 12th century. Muhammad Ghori conquered this area in the Second Battle of Tarain. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived, Delhi based kingdoms or sultanates, of Turkic origin in medieval India. The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty...

 was established that ruled much of India for several centuries. The earliest reference to 'Hariana' occurs in a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 inscription dated 1328 AD kept in Delhi Museum, which refers to this region as The heaven on earth, indicating that it was fertile and relatively peaceful at that time. Firoz Shah Tughlaq
Firuz Shah Tughluq
-External links:*...

 established a fort at Hisar in 1354 to further fortify the region, and also constructed canals or rajwahas as they were referred to in the Indo-Persian historical texts.

The three famous battles of Panipat took place near the modern town of Panipat
Panipat
Panipat بَنِبَت is an ancient and historic city in Panipat district, Haryana state, India. It is 90 km north from Delhi and 169 km south of Chandigarh on NH-1. The three battles fought at the city were turning points in Indian history. The city is famous in India by the name of "City of...

 in Haryana. The first battle
First battle of Panipat
The first battle of Panipat took place in Northern India, and marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire. This was one of the earliest battles involving gunpowder firearms and field artillery.-Details:...

 took place in 1526, where Babur
Babur
Babur was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty of South Asia. He was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother...

, the ruler of Kabul
Kabul
Kabul , spelt Caubul in some classic literatures, is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. It is also the capital of the Kabul Province, located in the eastern section of Afghanistan...

, defeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived, Delhi based kingdoms or sultanates, of Turkic origin in medieval India. The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty...

, through the use of field artillery
Field artillery
Field artillery is a category of mobile artillery used to support armies in the field. These weapons are specialized for mobility, tactical proficiency, long range, short range and extremely long range target engagement....

. In the second battle of Panipat
Second battle of Panipat
The Second Battle of Panipat was fought between the forces of Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, popularly called Hemu, the Hindu king who was ruling North India from Delhi, and the army of Jalal ud-Din Muhammad Akbar, on November 5, 1556...

 (5 November 1556), Akbar's forces defeated Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya popularly called Hemu
Hemu
Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, Hemu Vikramaditya or simply Hemu was a Hindu Emperor of India during the sixteenth century, in medieval times...

, who belonged to Rewari
Rewari
Rewari is a city and a municipal council in Rewari district in the Indian state of Haryana. It is located in south-west Haryana around from Delhi and from Gurgaon.- Etymology :...

 in Haryana and who had earlier won 22 battles, from Punjab to Bengal including two against Akbar's forces during 1553-1556 before acceeding to Delhi throne and establishing 'Hindu Raj' in North India on 7 October 1556. The Third Battle of Panipat
Third battle of Panipat
The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761, at Panipat , about 60 miles north of Delhi between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Confederacy and a coalition of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali with 2 Indian Muslim allies—the Rohilla Afghans of the Doab, and the...

 was fought in 1761 between the Afghan warlord Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Marathas under Sadashivrao Bhau of Pune. Ahmad Shah won decisively, on 13 January 1761.

British period

During the Indian rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to...

, several leaders from this region, including Rao Tula Ram
Rao Tula Ram
Rao Tula Ram was one of the key leaders of the Indian rebellion of 1857, in Haryana, where he is considered a state hero....

, participated actively. People of Haryana took an active part in the Indian Independence movement
Indian independence movement
The term Indian independence movement encompasses a wide area of political organisations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending first British East India Company rule, and then British imperial authority, in parts of South Asia...

.King Rao Tula Ram
Rao Tula Ram
Rao Tula Ram was one of the key leaders of the Indian rebellion of 1857, in Haryana, where he is considered a state hero....

 was one of the important leaders of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Many battles were fought by the rulers of the states and by the farmers also, sometimes defeating the British army. Some most important fights were at Sonipat
Sonipat
Sonipat , also spelled as Sonepat, is an ancient town and a municipal council in Sonipat district in the state of Haryana, India. It comes under National Capital Region and is 45 km north of Delhi. The Yamuna River runs along the eastern boundary of the district...

, Bhiwani
Bhiwani
Bhiwani is a city and a municipal council in Bhiwani district in the state of Haryana, India. It is known as the city of temples. Besides being a seat of spiritual learning, the city has been the centerstage of regional politics. The city is hometown to three of Haryana's chief ministers: Bansi...

, Rohtak
Rohtak
Rohtak City is a Municipal Corporation in Rohtak district that styles itself as the "Heart of Haryana". It is located 70 km Northwest of New Delhi and 210 km South of the state capital Chandigarh at the NH 10...

. Later, leaders like Sir Chhotu Ram played an important role in the politics of the Punjab province.

Formation of Haryana

Haryana state was formed on 1 November 1966, on the recommendation of the haudhary Hukum singh a revolutionary person from uttar pradesh] Parliamentary Committee. The formation of this committee was announced in the Parliament on 23 September 1965. On 23 April 1966, acting on the recommendation of the Hukam Singh Committee, the Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice J. C. Shah, to divide and set up the boundaries of Punjab and Haryana giving consideration to the language spoken by the people. The commission gave its report on 31 May 1966. According to this report the then districts of Hissar
Hisar, India
Hisar city, previously spelled Hissar, is the administrative headquarters of Hisar district, in the state of Haryana, in northwestern India. Hisar was founded in 1354 CE, as Hissar-e-Firoza by Firoz Shah Tughlaq, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. on the demolished ruins...

, Mahendragarh
Mahendragarh
Mahendragarh is a town and a municipal committee in Mahendragarh district in the north Indian state of Haryana.-Geography:Mahendragarh is located at...

, Gurgaon
Gurgaon
Gurgaon is the second largest city in the Indian state of Haryana. Gurgaon is the industrial and financial center of Haryana. It is located 30 km south of national capital New Delhi, about 10 kilometers from Dwarka Sub City and 268 km south of Chandigarh, the state capital...

, Rohtak
Rohtak
Rohtak City is a Municipal Corporation in Rohtak district that styles itself as the "Heart of Haryana". It is located 70 km Northwest of New Delhi and 210 km South of the state capital Chandigarh at the NH 10...

, and Karnal
Karnal
Karnal is an important city and the headquarters of Karnal District in the Indian state of Haryana.Karnal is said to have been founded by the Kauravas in the Mahabharata era for the king Karna, a mythological hero and a key figure in the epic tale...

 were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the tehsil
Tehsil
A Tehsil or Tahsil/Tahasil , also known as Taluk and Mandal, is an administrative division of some country/countries of South Asia....

s of Jind
Jind
Jind is a town in Jind District, Harayana state, India.It is one of the oldest districts of Harayana. It is one of the first Sikh Kingdoms. It lies in central Haryana and is the fourth district of the Jat belt .The city is beautiful...

 (district Sangrur), Narwana
Narwana
is a city in the Jind district of state Haryana, India.-History and etymology:Narwana is nicknamed as the NRW. and according to historical references and the ancestors there are several myths related to existence of city's name. One of them is that it was named on a lake, Nirwana, near Baba Gaibi...

 (district Sangrur), Naraingarh
Naraingarh
Naraingarh is a city and a municipal committee in Ambala district in the Indian state of Haryana.-Demographics: India census, Naraingarh had a population of 18,209. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Naraingarh has an average literacy rate of 73%, higher than the national...

, Ambala
Ambala
Ambala is a city and a municipal corporation in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, India, located on the border of the states of Haryana and Punjab in India. Politically; Ambala has two sub-areas: Ambala Cantt and Ambala City, approximately 3 kilometers apart from each other...

 and Jagadhri
Jagadhri
Jagadhri is a city and a municipal council in Yamunanagar district in the Indian state of Haryana. This town is a part of twin towns, constituting Jagadhri and Yamunanagar; Jagadhri is the older one and the latter a relatively new town...

 were also to be included. The commission recommended that Tehsil Kharar (including Chandigarh) should be a part of Haryana. Pt.Bhagwat Dayal Sharma, MLA from Yamunanagar
Yamunanagar
Yamuna nagar is a city and a municipal corporation in Yamuna Nagar district in the Indian state of Haryana. This town is known for the cluster of plywood units. The older town is called Jagadhri...

 became first Chief Minister of Haryana.

The city of Chandigarh
Chandigarh
Chandigarh is a union territory of India that serves as the capital of two states, Haryana and Punjab. The name Chandigarh translates as "The Fort of Chandi". The name is from an ancient temple called Chandi Mandir, devoted to the Hindu goddess Chandi, in the city...

, and a Punjabi-speaking area of Rupnagar district
Rupnagar district
Rupnagar district is one of the twenty districts in the state of Punjab in North-West Republic of India. The town of Rupnagar is said to have been founded by a Raja called Rokeshar, who ruled during the 11th century and named it after his son Rup Sen. It is also the site of an ancient town of...

 were made a Union Territory
Union Territory
A Union Territory is a sub-national administrative division of India, in the federal framework of governance. Unlike the states of India, which have their own elected governments, union territories are ruled directly by the federal government; the President of India appoints an Administrator or...

 serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana. According to the Rajiv-Longowal Accord, Chandigarh
Chandigarh
Chandigarh is a union territory of India that serves as the capital of two states, Haryana and Punjab. The name Chandigarh translates as "The Fort of Chandi". The name is from an ancient temple called Chandi Mandir, devoted to the Hindu goddess Chandi, in the city...

 was to be transferred to the state of Punjab in 1986, but the transfer was delayed and it has not been executed so far due to various reasons.

Geography

Haryana is a landlocked state in northern India. It is located between 27°37' to 30°35' N latitude and between 74°28' and 77°36' E longitude. The altitude of Haryana varies between 700 to 3600 ft (200 metres to 1200 metres) above sea level. An area of 1,553 km2 is covered by forest. Haryana has four main geographical features.
  • The Yamuna
    Yamuna
    The Yamuna is the largest tributary river of the Ganges in northern India...

    -Ghaggar plain forming the largest part of the state
  • The Shivalik Hills to the northeast
  • Semi-desert sandy plain to the southwest
  • The Aravalli Range
    Aravalli Range
    The Aravalli Range literally meaning 'line of peaks', is a range of mountains in western India and eastern Pakistan running approximately 800 km from northeast to southwest across states of Rajasthan, Haryana, and Gujarat and Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Sindh...

     in the south

Rivers of Haryana

The river Yamuna
Yamuna
The Yamuna is the largest tributary river of the Ganges in northern India...

 flows along its eastern boundary. The ancient Sarasvati River
Sarasvati River
The Sarasvati River is one of the chief Rigvedic rivers mentioned in ancient Hindu texts. The Nadistuti hymn in the Rigveda mentions the Sarasvati between the Yamuna in the east and the Sutlej in the west, and later Vedic texts like Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas as well as the Mahabharata...

 is said to have flowed from Yamunanagar
Yamunanagar
Yamuna nagar is a city and a municipal corporation in Yamuna Nagar district in the Indian state of Haryana. This town is known for the cluster of plywood units. The older town is called Jagadhri...

, but it has now disappeared.

The river Ghaggar is Haryana's main seasonal river. The Ghaggar rises in the outer Himalayas
Himalayas
The Himalaya Range or Himalaya Mountains Sanskrit: Devanagari: हिमालय, literally "abode of snow"), usually called the Himalayas or Himalaya for short, is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau...

, between the Yamuna and the Sutlej
Sutlej
The Sutlej River is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroad region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. It is located north of the Vindhya Range, south of the Hindu Kush segment of the Himalayas, and east of the Central Sulaiman Range in Pakistan.The Sutlej...

 and enters Haryana near Pinjore, Panchkula district
Panchkula District
Panchkula district is the newly formed 17th district of Haryana state in India. As formed 15 August 1995, it comprises two sub divisions and two Tehsils named Panchkula and Kalka. It has 264 villages out of which 12 villages are un-inhabited and 10 villages wholly merged in towns or treated as...

. Passing through Ambala
Ambala
Ambala is a city and a municipal corporation in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, India, located on the border of the states of Haryana and Punjab in India. Politically; Ambala has two sub-areas: Ambala Cantt and Ambala City, approximately 3 kilometers apart from each other...

 and Hissar
Hisar, India
Hisar city, previously spelled Hissar, is the administrative headquarters of Hisar district, in the state of Haryana, in northwestern India. Hisar was founded in 1354 CE, as Hissar-e-Firoza by Firoz Shah Tughlaq, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. on the demolished ruins...

, it reaches Bikaner in Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 and runs a course of 290 miles before disappearing into the deserts of Rajasthan.

The Markanda river's ancient name was Aruna. A seasonal stream like the Ghaggar, it originates from the lower Sivalik Hills and enters Haryana near Ambala
Ambala
Ambala is a city and a municipal corporation in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, India, located on the border of the states of Haryana and Punjab in India. Politically; Ambala has two sub-areas: Ambala Cantt and Ambala City, approximately 3 kilometers apart from each other...

. During monsoons, this stream swells into a raging torrent notorious for its devastating power. The surplus water is carried on to the Sanisa lake where the Markanda joins the Sarasvati.

An important tributary is the Tangri. The Sahibi originates in the Mewat
Mewat
Mewat is a historical region of Haryana and Rajasthan states in northwestern India. The loose boundaries of Mewat are not precisely determined but generally include Mewat District of Haryana and parts of Alwar, Bharatpur, and Dholpur districts of Rajasthan...

 hills near Jitgarh and Manoharpur in Rajasthan. Gathering volume from about a hundred tributaries, it reaches voluminous proportions, forming a broad stream around Alwar and Patan. On reaching Rohtak
Rohtak
Rohtak City is a Municipal Corporation in Rohtak district that styles itself as the "Heart of Haryana". It is located 70 km Northwest of New Delhi and 210 km South of the state capital Chandigarh at the NH 10...

 it branches off into two smaller streams, finally reaching the outskirts of Delhi and flowing into the Yamuna. There are three other rivulets in and around the Mewat hills – Indori, Dohan and Kasavati and they all flow northwards from the south.

Climate

The climate of Haryana is similar to other states of India lying in the northern plains. It is very hot in summer (up to a high of 50 deg Celsius) and cold in winters (down to a low of 1 deg Celsius). The hottest months are May and June and the coldest being December and January. Rainfall is varied, with the Shivalik Hills region being the wettest and the Aravali Hills region being the driest. About 80% of the rainfall occurs in the monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 season (July–September) and sometimes causes local flooding.

Flora and fauna

Thorny, dry, deciduous forest and thorny shrubs can be found all over the state. During the monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

, a carpet of grass covers the hills. Mulberry
Mulberry
Morus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae. The 10–16 species of deciduous trees it contains are commonly known as Mulberries....

, eucalyptus
Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of flowering trees in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Members of the genus dominate the tree flora of Australia...

, pine, kikar, shisham and babul are some of the trees found here. The species of fauna
Fauna
Fauna or faunæ is all of the animal life of any particular region or time. The corresponding term for plants is flora.Zoologists and paleontologists use fauna to refer to a typical collection of animals found in a specific time or place, e.g. the "Sonoran Desert fauna" or the "Burgess shale fauna"...

 found in the state of Haryana include black buck
Black Buck
For the mammal, see Blackbuck. For the RAF operation, see Operation Black Buck.In post-Reconstruction United States, Black Buck was a racial slur used to describe a certain type of African American men...

, nilgai
Nilgai
The nilgai , sometimes called nilgau, is an antelope, and is one of the most commonly seen wild animals of central and northern India and eastern Pakistan; it is also present in parts of southern Nepal. The mature males appear ox-like and are also known as blue bulls...

, panther
Leopard
The leopard , Panthera pardus, is a member of the Felidae family and the smallest of the four "big cats" in the genus Panthera, the other three being the tiger, lion, and jaguar. The leopard was once distributed across eastern and southern Asia and Africa, from Siberia to South Africa, but its...

, fox
Fox
Fox is a common name for many species of omnivorous mammals belonging to the Canidae family. Foxes are small to medium-sized canids , characterized by possessing a long narrow snout, and a bushy tail .Members of about 37 species are referred to as foxes, of which only 12 species actually belong to...

, mongoose
Mongoose
Mongoose are a family of 33 living species of small carnivorans from southern Eurasia and mainland Africa. Four additional species from Madagascar in the subfamily Galidiinae, which were previously classified in this family, are also referred to as "mongooses" or "mongoose-like"...

, jackal
Jackal
Although the word jackal has been historically used to refer to many small- to medium-sized species of the wolf genus of mammals, Canis, today it most properly and commonly refers to three species: the black-backed jackal and the side-striped jackal of sub-Saharan Africa, and the golden jackal of...

 and wild dog. More than 300 species of birds are found here.

Demographics

The population of Haryana, according to the 2011 census
2011 census of India
The 15th Indian National census was conducted in two phases, houselisting and population enumeration. Houselisting phase began on April 1, 2010 and involved collection of information about all buildings...

, is 25,353,081. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 is 573.4 people/km2. Haryana, along with neighboring Punjab
Punjab (India)
Punjab ) is a state in the northwest of the Republic of India, forming part of the larger Punjab region. The state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast and Rajasthan to the southwest as well as the Pakistani province of Punjab to the...

, has a skewed sex ratio
Human sex ratio
In anthropology and demography, the human sex ratio is the sex ratio for Homo sapiens . Like most sexual species, the sex ratio is approximately 1:1. In humans the secondary sex ratio is commonly assumed to be 105 boys to 100 girls, an assumption that is a subject of debate in the scientific...

 at 861, with many more men than women. Selective abortion
Abortion
Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo prior to viability. An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is usually called a miscarriage, or it can be purposely induced...

 of female fetuses has a very high provenance, reflecting a widespread preference for the male child.

Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

s are majority in Haryana and are about 90% of the population, Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

s 6.2%, Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s 4.05% (mainly Meo
Meo
Mayo or Meo or Mewati is a prominent Muslim Rajput tribe from North-Western India. A considerable number of Meos migrated to Pakistan after independence in 1947 and now they are estimated to be over 12 million. In Pakistan, Meos have lost their distinct group identity and cultural traditions and...

s) and Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

s 0.10%. Hindus
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

 make up about 18,655,925 of the population, Sikhs
Sikhism
Sikhism is a monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, by Guru Nanak Dev and continued to progress with ten successive Sikh Gurus . It is the fifth-largest organized religion in the world and one of the fastest-growing...

 1,170,662, Muslims
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 1,222,196, Jains
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

 57,167, Christians
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 27,185, and Buddhists
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 7,140. Muslims are mainly in the Mewat district
Mewat District
Mewat district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. The district was carved out as the 20th district of Haryana from erstwhile Gurgaon and Hathin Block of Faridabad districts on 4 April 2005...

 and Yamunanagar
Yamunanagar
Yamuna nagar is a city and a municipal corporation in Yamuna Nagar district in the Indian state of Haryana. This town is known for the cluster of plywood units. The older town is called Jagadhri...

 district, while Sikhs are mostly in the districts adjoining Punjab
Punjab (India)
Punjab ) is a state in the northwest of the Republic of India, forming part of the larger Punjab region. The state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast and Rajasthan to the southwest as well as the Pakistani province of Punjab to the...

, Hisar
Hisar District
Hisar district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state, India. Hisar city serves as the district headquarters. The district is also part of Hisar division, which is headed by a commissioner who belongs to the Indian Administrative Service....

, Sirsa
Sirsa district
Sirsa district is one of the districts of Haryana state, India. Sirsa is the district headquarters, and is located on National Highway 10 and 250 km away from Delhi.-Origin of name:The district is named after its headquarters, Sirsa...

, Jind
Jind district
Jind district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. Jind town is the administrative headquarters of the district. It is part of Hisar Division....

, Fatehabad
Fatehabad
Fatehabad may refer to:* Fatehabad, Afghanistan* Fatehabad, Haryana a town in Haryana, India* Fatehabad district, a district in Haryana, India* Fatehabad, Madhya Pradesh, a city in Madhya Pradesh, India* Fatehabad, Agra, a village in Uttar Pradesh, India...

, Kaithal
Kaithal
Kaithal is a city and a municipal council in Kaithal district in the Indian state of Haryana. Kaithal was previously a part of Karnal District and later, Kurukshetra District until 1 November 1989, when it became the headquarters of the Kaithal District of Haryana. Kaithal shares common boundary...

, Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra is a land of historical and religious importance. Historically the land belonged to Punjab now a district in Haryana state of India. It is a holy place and is also known as Dharmakshetra . According to the Puranas, Kurukshetra is named after King Kuru, the ancestor of Kauravas and...

, Ambala
Ambala
Ambala is a city and a municipal corporation in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, India, located on the border of the states of Haryana and Punjab in India. Politically; Ambala has two sub-areas: Ambala Cantt and Ambala City, approximately 3 kilometers apart from each other...

, and Panchkula
Panchkula
Panchkula is a planned city in Panchkula district, Haryana, India. It is a satellite city of the Union Territory of Chandigarh. It also shares seamless border with Mohali district in Punjab. The prestigious Chandimandir Cantonment Headquarters of the Indian Army Western Command, is also located in...

. Agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

 and related industries have been the backbone of the local economy
Economy
An economy consists of the economic system of a country or other area; the labor, capital and land resources; and the manufacturing, trade, distribution, and consumption of goods and services of that area...

. These days the state is seeing a massive influx of immigrants from across the nation, primarily from Bihar
Bihar
Bihar is a state in eastern India. It is the 12th largest state in terms of geographical size at and 3rd largest by population. Almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, which is the highest proportion in India....

, Bengal
Bengal
Bengal is a historical and geographical region in the northeast region of the Indian Subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Today, it is mainly divided between the sovereign land of People's Republic of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, although some regions of the previous...

, Uttrakhand, Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

 and Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

.

Government and politics

Like in all other states of India, Haryana is governed through a governor, a largely ceremonial position who is appointed by the President of India
President of India
The President of India is the head of state and first citizen of India, as well as the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. President of India is also the formal head of all the three branches of Indian Democracy - Legislature, Executive and Judiciary...

. The Chief Minister is the head of the Haryana state government and is vested with most of the executive and legislative powers. Haryana’s legislature is unicameral; its one house, the Haryana Legislative Assembly, consists of 90 members. Haryana has five seats in the Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India. Rajya means "state," and Sabha means "assembly hall" in Sanskrit. Membership is limited to 250 members, 12 of whom are chosen by the President of India for their expertise in specific fields of art, literature,...

, the upper house of India's national parliament, and ten in the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
The Lok Sabha or House of the People is the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by direct election under universal adult suffrage. As of 2009, there have been fifteen Lok Sabhas elected by the people of India...

, the lower house. The largest political parties in Haryana are the Indian National Lok Dal
Indian National Lok Dal
Indian National Lok Dal, a political party in India, based in the state of Haryana is the principal opposition party in Haryana. The party president is Om Prakash Chautala. Ajay Singh Chautala is its Secretary General. The party was a member of the National Democratic Alliance , and thus part of...

, Haryana Janhit Congress, Bhartiya Janata Party, Bahujan Samaj Party
Bahujan Samaj Party
The Bahujan Samaj Party is a centrist national political party in India with socialist leanings. It was formed to chiefly represent Bahujans , referring to people from the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Castes as well as Buddhists. The party claims to be inspired by the...

 and Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

. The present political scenario of the state is clear and it has a stable government under Bhupinder Singh Hooda
Bhupinder Singh Hooda
Bhupinder Singh Hooda is an Indian politician, a leader of the Indian National Congress and the current Chief Minister of Haryana. He became the chief minister of Haryana for the first time in March 2005. He created a history of sorts in the Haryana assembly elections of 2009, when Hooda led...

  who is presently the Chief Minister of the state. During his presidency American president Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, the only U.S. President to have received the Prize after leaving office...

 visited Carterpuri
Carterpuri
Carterpuri is a village in Haryana very close to Delhi and Six km. off the main Gurgaon road. This is a Yadav dominated village and it's village Council chairman is Mr. Bhoop Singh Yadav....

 village in Gurgaon
Gurgaon
Gurgaon is the second largest city in the Indian state of Haryana. Gurgaon is the industrial and financial center of Haryana. It is located 30 km south of national capital New Delhi, about 10 kilometers from Dwarka Sub City and 268 km south of Chandigarh, the state capital...

.

Culture

Haryana has a rich cultural heritage that goes way back to the Vedic
Vedic
Vedic may refer to:* the Vedas, the oldest preserved Indic texts** Vedic Sanskrit, the language of these texts** Vedic period, during which these texts were produced** Vedic pantheon of gods mentioned in Vedas/vedic period...

 times. The state is rich in folklore with the oldest extant romance being that of Sorath and Dhaj, Ror Kumar
Dhaj, Ror Kumar
Raja Dhaj or Rai Diyach, a name by which he is better known among Sindhi Rajputs when they listen to the ballad of Sorath, is an ancient figure made immortal by his abduction of Sorath, a woman of legendary beauty...

. The people of Haryana have their own traditions. The age old customs of meditation
Meditation
Meditation is any form of a family of practices in which practitioners train their minds or self-induce a mode of consciousness to realize some benefit....

, Yoga
Yoga
Yoga is a physical, mental, and spiritual discipline, originating in ancient India. The goal of yoga, or of the person practicing yoga, is the attainment of a state of perfect spiritual insight and tranquility while meditating on Supersoul...

 and chanting of Vedic
Vedic
Vedic may refer to:* the Vedas, the oldest preserved Indic texts** Vedic Sanskrit, the language of these texts** Vedic period, during which these texts were produced** Vedic pantheon of gods mentioned in Vedas/vedic period...

 Mantras, are still observed by the masses. Famous yoga guru Swami Ramdev
Swami Ramdev
Swami Ramdev is popularly known as Baba Ramdev. This young monk has attained immence popularity in a very short span of time. His yog-camps are attended by a large number of people in India and abroad...

 is from Mahendragarh
Mahendragarh
Mahendragarh is a town and a municipal committee in Mahendragarh district in the north Indian state of Haryana.-Geography:Mahendragarh is located at...

 in Haryana. Seasonal and religious festivals glorify the culture of this region. Dance is said to be the mother of all arts. Music and poetry exist in tune, painting and architecture in space. Dance is not just a form of recreation but something needed to release physical and emotional energy. Haryana has a variety of folk dances, which like other creative art, help in sublimating the performer's worries and cares.

The people of Haryana have preserved their old religious and social traditions. They celebrate festivals with great enthusiasm and traditional fervor. Their culture and popular art are Saangs, dramas, ballads and songs in which they take great delight. Regarding eating habits, there is an idiom that says, Hara-Bhara Haryana, Jahan Doodh-Dahi ka Khana (meaning a lush-green state where milk and curd are the food).

Languages

Haryanavi has traditionally been the dominant language spoken by the martial people of Haryana. Post-1947, Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

 is also spoken by a lot of people in Haryana especially by those Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

s and Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

s who came over from Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

. Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

 is second official language of Haryana. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 is also taught in most of the schools in Haryana. In towns and cities, English is still to be adopted as the household lingo, but is spoken in a hazy mixture of Haryanvi. Other language is Ahirwati, it is an Indo-Aryan language
Indo-Aryan languages
The Indo-Aryan languages constitutes a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family...

, classified as a Rajasthani
Rajasthani language
Rajasthani Rajasthani Rajasthani (Devanagari: , Perso-Arabic: is a language of the Indo-Aryan languages family. It is spoken by 50 million people in Rajasthan and other states of India and in some areas of Pakistan. The number of speakers may be up to 80 million worldwide...

 language, and is spoken in the Mahendragarh
Mahendragarh District
Mahendragarh district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. The district occupies an area of 1,859 km². The district has a population of 812,022. Narnaul town is the administrative headquarters of the district...

, Rewari
Rewari District
Rewari district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state, India. The administrative headquarters of this district, Rewari city is the biggest city in this district. It is located in southern Haryana...

 and Gurgaon
Gurgaon
Gurgaon is the second largest city in the Indian state of Haryana. Gurgaon is the industrial and financial center of Haryana. It is located 30 km south of national capital New Delhi, about 10 kilometers from Dwarka Sub City and 268 km south of Chandigarh, the state capital...

 districts of Haryana. According to famous historian Robert Vane Russell Ahirwati language is spoken in Rohtak
Rohtak
Rohtak City is a Municipal Corporation in Rohtak district that styles itself as the "Heart of Haryana". It is located 70 km Northwest of New Delhi and 210 km South of the state capital Chandigarh at the NH 10...

 and Gurgaon
Gurgaon
Gurgaon is the second largest city in the Indian state of Haryana. Gurgaon is the industrial and financial center of Haryana. It is located 30 km south of national capital New Delhi, about 10 kilometers from Dwarka Sub City and 268 km south of Chandigarh, the state capital...

 Districts of Punjab (now Haryana) and Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

. This is akin to Mewati
Mewati
Mewati is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million speakers in the Alwar, Bharatpur and Dholpur districts of Rajasthan, Mewat districts of Haryana, as well as parts of southern Pakistan and in Punjab. It contributed profoundly to Rajasthani literature in medieval periods.There are 9...

, one of the forms of Rajasthani or the language of Rajputana
Rajputana
Rājputāna was the pre-1949 name of the present-day Indian state of Rājasthān, the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. George Thomas was the first in 1800 A.D., to term this region as Rajputana...

. The most striking feature of Haryana is its language itself; or rather, the manner in which it is spoken. Popularly known as Haryanavi, with Bangaru being the most widely spoken dialect, it is perhaps a bit crude, but full of earthy humor and straightforwardness. With rapid urbanization, and due to Haryana's close proximity to Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

, the cultural aspects are now taking a more modern hue.

Music

Raagni are very famous in Haryana and it is a part of folk music in Haryana.

Economy

The economy of Haryana relies on manufacturing, business process outsourcing
Business process outsourcing
Business process outsourcing is a subset of outsourcing that involves the contracting of the operations and responsibilities of specific business functions to a third-party service provider. Originally, this was associated with manufacturing firms, such as Coca Cola that outsourced large segments...

, agriculture and retail.

Manufacturing

Yamunanagar district is the largest industrial town wholly within in Haryana. It has Asia's largest paper mill BILT
Ballarpur Industries Limited
Ballarpur Industries Limited is a flagship of the US$ 4 bn Avantha Group and India's largest manufacturer of writing and printing paper. The current chairman of the company is Gautam Thapar, who succeeded his late uncle L.M...

and Asia's largest Sugar Mill. Yamunanagar
Yamunanagar
Yamuna nagar is a city and a municipal corporation in Yamuna Nagar district in the Indian state of Haryana. This town is known for the cluster of plywood units. The older town is called Jagadhri...

 has Asia's largest timber industry, an HPGCL thermal power plant, a hydro power plant and India's largest Railway workshop. It is also famous for its old steel and brass industry.

Faridabad
Faridabad
Faridabad is a city in the south-east of Haryana state in northern India, in Faridabad district. It lies at 28º 25' 16" N Latitude and 77º 18' 28" E Longitude. The district shares its boundaries with the National Capital and Union Territory of Delhi to its north, Gurgaon district to the west and...

 is another big industrial part of Haryana. It is home to hundreds of large scale companies like Orient Paper & Industries, JCB India Limited, Nirigemes, Agri Machinery Group (Escorts Limited), India Yamaha
Yamaha
Yamaha may refer to:* Yamaha Corporation, a Japanese company with a wide range of products and services** Yamaha Motor Company, a Japanese motorized vehicle-producing company...

 Motor Pvt. Ltd., Whirlpool, ABB Group, Goodyear Tyres
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company was founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling. Goodyear manufactures tires for automobiles, commercial trucks, light trucks, SUVs, race cars, airplanes, farm equipment and heavy earth-mover machinery....

 and Knorr Bremse India Pvt. Ltd. There are thousands of medium and small scale units as well, like Amrit Enterprises, McAma Industries.

Panipat
Panipat
Panipat بَنِبَت is an ancient and historic city in Panipat district, Haryana state, India. It is 90 km north from Delhi and 169 km south of Chandigarh on NH-1. The three battles fought at the city were turning points in Indian history. The city is famous in India by the name of "City of...

 is a city of textiles and carpets. It is the biggest centre for cheap blankets and carpets in India and has a handloom weaving industry. The pickle "Pachranga International" is also well known. Panipat also has heavy industry, including a refinery operated by the Indian Oil Corporation
Indian Oil Corporation
Indian Oil Corporation Limited, or IndianOil, is an Indian state-owned oil and gas corporation with its headquarters are in Mumbai, India. It is India’s largest commercial enterprise, ranked 98th on the Fortune Global 500 list for 2011...

, and a National Thermal Power Corporation
National Thermal Power Corporation
NTPC Limited is the largest Indian state-owned energy service provider based in New Delhi, India. It is listed in Forbes Global 2000 for 2010 ranked it 341st in the world...

 power plant,
Hissar
Hisar, India
Hisar city, previously spelled Hissar, is the administrative headquarters of Hisar district, in the state of Haryana, in northwestern India. Hisar was founded in 1354 CE, as Hissar-e-Firoza by Firoz Shah Tughlaq, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. on the demolished ruins...

 is another big city where Jindal company has established. Jindal Steel
Jindal Steel
Jindal Steel and Power Limited is the most valuable private steel producer in India, with an annual turnover of over US $2.1 billion , Jindal Steel & Power Limited is a part of about US$ 12 billion diversified O. P. Jindal Group. JSPL is a leading player in Steel, Power, Mining, Oil & Gas and...

 now increasing their business and open new factory in other state also.

Ambala
Ambala
Ambala is a city and a municipal corporation in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, India, located on the border of the states of Haryana and Punjab in India. Politically; Ambala has two sub-areas: Ambala Cantt and Ambala City, approximately 3 kilometers apart from each other...

 is the largest manufacturer of Scientific Apparatuses.It is named as Science City of Haryana. Ambala
Ambala
Ambala is a city and a municipal corporation in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, India, located on the border of the states of Haryana and Punjab in India. Politically; Ambala has two sub-areas: Ambala Cantt and Ambala City, approximately 3 kilometers apart from each other...

 is one of the biggest exporters of educational instruments in the country. Ambala
Ambala
Ambala is a city and a municipal corporation in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, India, located on the border of the states of Haryana and Punjab in India. Politically; Ambala has two sub-areas: Ambala Cantt and Ambala City, approximately 3 kilometers apart from each other...

 has largest whole sale cloth market in India.

Service industries

Gurgaon, has seen emergence of an active information technology industry in the recent years. With organisations like Tata Consultancy Services
Tata Consultancy Services
Tata Consultancy Services Limited is a global IT services, business solutions and outsourcing company headquartered in Mumbai, India. It is the largest provider of information technology in Asia and second largest provider of business process outsourcing services in India...

, IBM
IBM
International Business Machines Corporation or IBM is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and it offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas...

, NIIT
NIIT
NIIT Limited is a global computer education company. The company is listed on the National Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange of India. The company provides training for individuals, enterprises, schools and colleges. It has its presence in 40 countries worldwide.In 2004 , NIIT was...

, Hewitt Associates
Hewitt Associates
Hewitt Associates , based in Lincolnshire, Illinois, United States was a global human resources outsourcing and consulting firm delivering a complete range of integrated services to help companies manage their total HR and employee costs, enhance HR services, and improve their workforces.Hewitt...

, Dell
Dell
Dell, Inc. is an American multinational information technology corporation based in 1 Dell Way, Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells and supports computers and related products and services. Bearing the name of its founder, Michael Dell, the company is one of the largest...

, Convergys
Convergys
Convergys Corporation is a corporation based in Cincinnati, Ohio that provides solutions in customer management and information management. Customer management solutions include agent assisted, self-service and proactive care solutions tailored to the communications, financial services,...

, United Healthcare and The Boston Consulting Group setting up back offices or contact centers in Gurgaon.

Agriculture

Despite recent industrial development, Haryana is primarily an agricultural state. About 70% of residents are engaged in agriculture Wheat
Wheat
Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize and rice...

 and rice
Rice
Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima . As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and the West Indies...

 are the major crops. Haryana is self-sufficient in food production and the second largest contributor to India's central pool of food grains. The main crops of Haryana are wheat, rice, sugarcane
Sugarcane
Sugarcane refers to any of six to 37 species of tall perennial grasses of the genus Saccharum . Native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia, they have stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar, and measure two to six metres tall...

, cotton
Cotton
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed dispersal....

, oilseeds, pulses
Pulse (legume)
A pulse is an annual leguminous crop yielding from one to twelve seeds of variable size, shape, and color within a pod. Pulses are used for food and animal feed. The term "pulse", as used by the Food and Agricultural Organization , is reserved for crops harvested solely for the dry seed...

, barley
Barley
Barley is a major cereal grain, a member of the grass family. It serves as a major animal fodder, as a base malt for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods...

, maize
Maize
Maize known in many English-speaking countries as corn or mielie/mealie, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maize kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable...

, millet
Millet
The millets are a group of small-seeded species of cereal crops or grains, widely grown around the world for food and fodder. They do not form a taxonomic group, but rather a functional or agronomic one. Their essential similarities are that they are small-seeded grasses grown in difficult...

 etc. There are two main types of crops in Haryana: Rabi and Kharif. The major Kharif crop
Kharif crop
The crops that are sown in the rainy season are called kharif crops.The Kharif crop is the autumn harvest in India and Pakistan. The term Kharif means "autumn" in Arabic Kharif crops are usually sown with the beginning of the first rains in July, during the south-west monsoon season...

s of Haryana are rice
Rice
Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima . As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and the West Indies...

, jowar, bajra
Pearl millet
Pearl millet is the most widely grown type of millet. Grown in Africa and the Indian subcontinent since prehistoric times, it is generally accepted that pearl millet originated in Africa and was subsequently introduced into India. The center of diversity, and suggested area of domestication, for...

, maize
Maize
Maize known in many English-speaking countries as corn or mielie/mealie, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maize kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable...

, cotton
Cotton
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed dispersal....

, jute
Jute
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from plants in the genus Corchorus, which has been classified in the family Tiliaceae, or more recently in Malvaceae....

, sugarcane
Sugarcane
Sugarcane refers to any of six to 37 species of tall perennial grasses of the genus Saccharum . Native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia, they have stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar, and measure two to six metres tall...

, sesame
Sesame
Sesame is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. Numerous wild relatives occur in Africa and a smaller number in India. It is widely naturalized in tropical regions around the world and is cultivated for its edible seeds, which grow in pods....

 and groundnut
Peanut
The peanut, or groundnut , is a species in the legume or "bean" family , so it is not a nut. The peanut was probably first cultivated in the valleys of Peru. It is an annual herbaceous plant growing tall...

. For these crops the ground is prepared in April and May and the seeds are sown at the commencement of rains in June. The crops are ready for harvesting by the beginning of November. The major Rabi crop
Rabi crop
Different crops have different requirements for their proper growth , as they grow in different season . Based on the season in which they grow , crops are categorised as:-1.rabi crops2.kharif crops...

s are wheat, tobacco
Tobacco
Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as a pesticide and, in the form of nicotine tartrate, used in some medicines...

, pulses
Pulse (legume)
A pulse is an annual leguminous crop yielding from one to twelve seeds of variable size, shape, and color within a pod. Pulses are used for food and animal feed. The term "pulse", as used by the Food and Agricultural Organization , is reserved for crops harvested solely for the dry seed...

, linseed, rapeseed
Rapeseed
Rapeseed , also known as rape, oilseed rape, rapa, rappi, rapaseed is a bright yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae...

 and mustard
Mustard seed
Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants. The seeds are usually about 1 or 2 mm in diameter. Mustard seeds may be colored from yellowish white to black. They are important spices in many regional foods. The seeds can come from three different plants: black mustard , brown...

. The ground is prepared by the end of October or the beginning of November and the crops are harvested by March.
About 86% of the area is arable, and of that 96% is cultivated. About 75% of the area is irrigated, through tube well
Tube well
A tube well is a type of water well in which a long 100–200 mm wide stainless steel tube or pipe is bored into the underground aquifer. The lower end is fitted with a strainer, and a pump at the top lifts water for irrigation...

s and an extensive system of canals. Haryana contributed significantly to the Green Revolution in India
Green Revolution in India
The introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the increased use of fertilizers and irrigation are known collectively as the Green Revolution, which provided the increase in production needed to make India self-sufficient in food grains, thus improving agriculture in India...

 in the 1970s that made the country self-sufficient in food production. The state has also significantly contributed to the field of agricultural education in the country. Asia's biggest agricultural University - Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University
Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University
Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University popularly known as HAU, is one of Asia's biggest agricultural universities, located at Hisar in the Indian state of Haryana. It is named after India's seventh prime minister, Choudhary Charan Singh...

 is located at Hisar and it has made a significant contribution in ushering in the 'Green Revolution' in the state.

Dairy farming
Dairy farming
Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or an animal husbandry, enterprise, for long-term production of milk, usually from dairy cows but also from goats and sheep, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy factory for processing and eventual retail sale.Most dairy farms...

 is also an essential part of the rural economy. Haryana has a livestock
Livestock
Livestock refers to one or more domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor. The term "livestock" as used in this article does not include poultry or farmed fish; however the inclusion of these, especially poultry, within the meaning...

 population of 98.97 lakh. Milk and milk products form an essential part of the local diet. There is the saying Desaan main des Haryana, jit doodh dahi ka khaana, which means "Best among all the countries in the world is Haryana, where the staple food is milk and yoghurt". Haryana, with 660 grams of availability of milk per capita per day, ranks at number two in the country as against the national average of 232 grams. There is a vast network of milk societies that support the dairy industry. The National Dairy Research Institute
National Dairy Research Institute
The National Dairy Research Institute or the NDRI Karnal is India's premier institute for dairy research. The institute was accorded the status of a Deemed University in the year 1989...

 at Karnal is Asia's largest and oldest dairy, and the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes
Central Institute for Research on Buffalo (CIRB), Hisar
The Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes is based at Hisar, Haryana, India.The Institute carries out research on various aspects of buffalo improvement including conservation of germplasm, development of optimum diets and feeding systems, enhancement of reproductive efficiency and health...

 at Hisar are instrumental in development of new breeds of cattle and propagation of these breeds through embryo transfer
Embryo transfer
Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy...

 technology. The Murrah
Murrah Buffalo
The Murrah breed of Water buffalo is a breed of domestic water buffalo kept for dairy production. It is originally from Punjab and Haryana states of India and Punjab province of Pakistan, but has been used to improve the milk production of dairy buffalo in other countries, such as Italy, Bulgaria...

 breed of water buffalo from Haryana is world-famous for its milk production.

Roads, aviation and infrastructure

It has a total road length of 23,684 kilometers. There are 29 national highways with total length of 1,461 km and many state highways with total length of 2,494 km. The most remote parts of the state are linked with metaled roads. Its modern bus fleet of 3,864 buses covers a distance of 1.15 million Kilometers per day. It was the first State in the country to introduce luxury video coaches.
Grand Trunk Road
Grand Trunk Road
The Grand Trunk Road also formerly known as Uttarapatha, Shah Rah-e-Azam or Sadak-e-Azam or Badshahi Sadak is one of South Asia's oldest and longest major roads...

, commonly abbreviated to GT Road, is one of South Asia's oldest and longest major roads. It passes through the districts of Sonipat
Sonipat district
Sonipat district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. Sonipat town is the district headquarters. It is a part of National Capital Region along with Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Mewat, Palwal, Rewari, Jhajjar, Rohtak, Panipat, Alwar, Bhiwadi Industrial Town, Noida,...

, Panipat
Panipat District
Panipat district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. The historical town of Panipat is the administrative headquarters of the district. The district occupies an area of 1268 km².-History:...

, Karnal
Karnal District
Karnal district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. Karnal town is the administrative headquarters of the district. Other major towns in this district are Assandh, Gharaunda, Nilokheri, Indri and Uncha Siwana. This district is part of Rohtak Division.-History:Karnal...

, Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra district
Kurukshetra district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. The town of Kurukshetra, a sacred place for the Hindus, is the administrative headquarters of this district. The district occupies an area of 1682.53 km². The district has a population of 825,454...

 and Ambala
Ambala District
Ambala district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in India. Ambala town is the administrative headquarters of the district. The district has an area of 1568.85 km².-History:...

 in north Haryana where it enters Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 and subsequently the industrial town of Faridabad
Faridabad
Faridabad is a city in the south-east of Haryana state in northern India, in Faridabad district. It lies at 28º 25' 16" N Latitude and 77º 18' 28" E Longitude. The district shares its boundaries with the National Capital and Union Territory of Delhi to its north, Gurgaon district to the west and...

 on its way. The state government proposes to construct Express highways and freeways for speedier vehicular traffic. The 135.6-km long Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway(KMP)
Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway(KMP)
Delhi Western Peripheral Expressway, or Kundli-Manesar-Palwal , is 135.6 km long Expressway being constructed in Haryana, India. It was planned to become operational by June 2009. but will not be ready even partially before 2012...

 will provide a high-speed link to northern Haryana with its southern districts such as Sonepat, Jhajjar, Gurgaon and Faridabad. The work on the project has already started and is scheduled to be completed by July 2013. Haryana is in close contact with the cosmopolitan world, being right next to Delhi. As a result, international and domestic airports, diplomatic and commercial complexes are located in close proximity to the state. Haryana and Delhi government has also constructed Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway which has the largest toll plaza in Asia and 3rd largest in the world. There is a proposal for a Badarpur Flyover and the widening of the Mathura Road passing through Faridabad from 6 lanes to 8 lanes. There is also a proposal to connect Chandigarh
Chandigarh
Chandigarh is a union territory of India that serves as the capital of two states, Haryana and Punjab. The name Chandigarh translates as "The Fort of Chandi". The name is from an ancient temple called Chandi Mandir, devoted to the Hindu goddess Chandi, in the city...

 to Haryana without entering Punjab through a 4-lane highway via Yamunanagar
Yamunanagar
Yamuna nagar is a city and a municipal corporation in Yamuna Nagar district in the Indian state of Haryana. This town is known for the cluster of plywood units. The older town is called Jagadhri...

 and Panchkula
Panchkula
Panchkula is a planned city in Panchkula district, Haryana, India. It is a satellite city of the Union Territory of Chandigarh. It also shares seamless border with Mohali district in Punjab. The prestigious Chandimandir Cantonment Headquarters of the Indian Army Western Command, is also located in...

.
Haryana State has always given high priority to the expansion of electricity infrastructure, as it is one of the most important inputs for the development of the State. Haryana was the first State in the country to achieve 100% rural electrification
Electrification
Electrification originally referred to the build out of the electrical generating and distribution systems which occurred in the United States, England and other countries from the mid 1880's until around 1940 and is in progress in developing countries. This also included the change over from line...

 in 1970, first in the country to link all villages with all-weather roads and first in the country to provide safe drinking water facilities throughout the state. Haryana is well connected on the railway network also.

Communication and media

Haryana has a state-wide network of telecommunication facilities. Haryana Government has its own state-wide area network by which all government offices of 21 districts and 127 blocks across the state are connected with each other thus making it the first SWAN of the country. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited is a state-owned telecommunications company headquartered in New Delhi, India. It is the largest provider of fixed telephony and fourth largest mobile telephony provider in India, and is also a provider of broadband services...

 (BSNL) and most of the leading private sector players (such as Reliance Infocom, Tata Teleservices, Bharti Telecom, Idea
Idea
In the most narrow sense, an idea is just whatever is before the mind when one thinks. Very often, ideas are construed as representational images; i.e. images of some object. In other contexts, ideas are taken to be concepts, although abstract concepts do not necessarily appear as images...

 Vodafone Essar
Vodafone Essar
Vodafone Essar, formerly Hutchison Essar, is a cellular operator in India that covers 23 telecom circles in India. It is based in Mumbai. On July 2011, Vodafone Group agreed terms for the buy-out of its partner Essar from its Indian mobile phone business. The UK firm paid $5.46 billion to its...

, Aircel
Aircel
Aircel group is a mobile phone service provider in India. It offers both prepaid and postpaid GSM cellular phone coverage throughout India. The Aircel group is a joint venture between Maxis Communications Berhad of Malaysia and Sindya Securities & Investments Private Limited, whose current...

, Uninor
Uninor
Uninor is a mobile operator in India. The company holds Unified Access Service licences to offer mobile telephony services in each of India’s 22 telecom circles, and has received spectrum to roll out services in 21 of these...

 and Videocon
Videocon
Videocon is an industrial conglomerate with interests all over the world, and is a Indian multinational company. The group has 17 manufacturing sites in India and plants in China, Poland, Italy and Mexico. It is also the third largest picture tube manufacturer in the world...

) have operations in the state. Important areas around Delhi are also an integral part of the local Delhi Mobile Telecommunication System. This network system would easily cover major towns like Faridabad
Faridabad
Faridabad is a city in the south-east of Haryana state in northern India, in Faridabad district. It lies at 28º 25' 16" N Latitude and 77º 18' 28" E Longitude. The district shares its boundaries with the National Capital and Union Territory of Delhi to its north, Gurgaon district to the west and...

, Gurgaon
Gurgaon
Gurgaon is the second largest city in the Indian state of Haryana. Gurgaon is the industrial and financial center of Haryana. It is located 30 km south of national capital New Delhi, about 10 kilometers from Dwarka Sub City and 268 km south of Chandigarh, the state capital...

, Bahadurgarh
Bahadurgarh
Bahadurgarh is a city and a municipal council with 31 wards in Jhajjar district in the state of Haryana, India. It is called "Gateway of Haryana" and famous for its delicious Pakoras.It is home to many upcoming industries...

 and Kundli. The major newspapers of Haryana are New Bright Star, Aaj Samaj, Dainik Tribune, Punjab Kesari
Punjab Kesari
Punjab Kesari is a Hindi-language newspaper published from many centres in Punjab and Haryana in India....

, Jag Bani, Dainik Jagran
Dainik Jagran
Dainik Jagran is a Hindi language daily broadsheet newspaper in India. According to the IRS Q1 2010, Dainik Jagran ranks No. 1 among the dailies with a Total Readership of 54,254,000.-Overview:...

, The Tribune
The Tribune
The Tribune is an Indian English-language daily newspaper published from Chandigarh, New Delhi, Jalandhar, Dehradun and Bathinda. It was founded on 2 February 1881, in Lahore , by Sardar Dyal Singh Majithia, a public-spirited philanthropist, and is run by a trust comprising five eminent persons as...

, Amar Ujala, Hindustan Times
Hindustan Times
Hindustan Times is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period ....

, Dainik Bhaskar
Dainik Bhaskar
Dainik Bhaskar is an Indian Hindi-language daily newspaper published by D B Corp Ltd.. It was started in year 1958 from Bhopal, the capital city of Madhya Pradesh...

, The Times of India
The Times of India
The Times of India is an Indian English-language daily newspaper. TOI has the largest circulation among all English-language newspaper in the world, across all formats . It is owned and managed by Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd...

, Ampm News and Hari-Bhumi.

Administrative divisions

The state is divided into four divisions for administrative purpose - Ambala Division
Ambala Division
Ambala Division is one of the four divisions of Haryana State of India. The division comprises the districts of Ambala, Kaithal, Kurukshetra, Panchkula and Yamuna Nagar.-See also:*Districts of Haryana*List of villages in Haryana...

, Rohtak Division
Rohtak Division
Rohtak Division is one of the four divisions of Haryana State of India. The division comprises the districts of Jhajjar, Karnal, Panipat, Rohtak and Sonipat.-See also:*Districts of Haryana*List of villages in Haryana...

, Gurgaon Division
Gurgaon Division
Gurgaon Division is one of the four divisions of Haryana State of India. The division comprises the districts of Faridabad, Gurgaon, Mahendragarh, Mewat, Palwal and Rewari.-See also:*Districts of Haryana*List of villages in Haryana...

 and Hisar Division
Hisar Division
Hisar Division is one of the four divisions of Haryana State of India. The division comprises the districts of Bhiwani, Fatehabad, Hisar, Jind and Sirsa.It is named after the city Hisar which was a fort in the late 10th century.The fort,Gujri Mehel can still be visited and has a network of...

. There are 21 districts, 47 sub-divisions, 67 tehsils, 45 sub-tehsils and 116 blocks. Haryana has a total of 81 cities and towns and 6,759 villages.

Districts


Ambala Division
Ambala Division
Ambala Division is one of the four divisions of Haryana State of India. The division comprises the districts of Ambala, Kaithal, Kurukshetra, Panchkula and Yamuna Nagar.-See also:*Districts of Haryana*List of villages in Haryana...

  • Ambala District
    Ambala District
    Ambala district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in India. Ambala town is the administrative headquarters of the district. The district has an area of 1568.85 km².-History:...

  • Kaithal District
    Kaithal District
    Kaithal district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana, state in northern India. Kaithal town is the district headquarters. The district occupies an area of 2317 km². It has a population of 946,131 . This district is part of Ambala Division....

  • Kurukshetra District
    Kurukshetra district
    Kurukshetra district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. The town of Kurukshetra, a sacred place for the Hindus, is the administrative headquarters of this district. The district occupies an area of 1682.53 km². The district has a population of 825,454...

  • Panchkula District
    Panchkula District
    Panchkula district is the newly formed 17th district of Haryana state in India. As formed 15 August 1995, it comprises two sub divisions and two Tehsils named Panchkula and Kalka. It has 264 villages out of which 12 villages are un-inhabited and 10 villages wholly merged in towns or treated as...

  • Yamuna Nagar District
    Yamuna Nagar District
    Yamuna Nagar district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state, India. The district came into existence on 1 November 1989. It occupies an area of 1756 km²...


Gurgaon Division
Gurgaon Division
Gurgaon Division is one of the four divisions of Haryana State of India. The division comprises the districts of Faridabad, Gurgaon, Mahendragarh, Mewat, Palwal and Rewari.-See also:*Districts of Haryana*List of villages in Haryana...

  • Faridabad District
    Faridabad District
    Faridabad district is one of the 21 districts in Haryana, and Faridabad city is the district headquarters. Delhi-Mathura National Highway No.2 passes through the centre of the District. The district occupies an area of 2151 km². The district has a population of 2,193,276...

  • Palwal District
    Palwal district
    Palwal district is the 21st district of Haryana state in northern India. Palwal city is the headquarters of this district.The city is situated at a distance of 60 km from Delhi on the Delhi-Mathura highway. The latitude of the town is 28° 40' N and longitude is 76° 59' E...

  • Gurgaon District
    Gurgaon District
    Gurgaon district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. Gurgaon city is the administrative headquarters of the district. The population is 1,660,289 . .It is the southern-most district of Haryana...

  • Mahendragarh District
    Mahendragarh District
    Mahendragarh district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. The district occupies an area of 1,859 km². The district has a population of 812,022. Narnaul town is the administrative headquarters of the district...

  • Mewat District
    Mewat District
    Mewat district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. The district was carved out as the 20th district of Haryana from erstwhile Gurgaon and Hathin Block of Faridabad districts on 4 April 2005...

  • Rewari District
    Rewari District
    Rewari district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state, India. The administrative headquarters of this district, Rewari city is the biggest city in this district. It is located in southern Haryana...


Hisar Division
Hisar Division
Hisar Division is one of the four divisions of Haryana State of India. The division comprises the districts of Bhiwani, Fatehabad, Hisar, Jind and Sirsa.It is named after the city Hisar which was a fort in the late 10th century.The fort,Gujri Mehel can still be visited and has a network of...

  • Bhiwani District
    Bhiwani District
    Bhiwani district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. Bhiwani was created on 22 December 1972.The district headquarter is situated in Bhiwani town. The district occupies an area of . It is situated between 28.19 deg. & 29.05 deg. north latitudes and 75.26 deg. and 76.28...

  • Fatehabad District
    Fatehabad District
    Fatehabad is one of the twenty one districts of Haryana state, India.- Origin of the name of the district :The district derives its name from the headquarters town Fatehabad. The town was founded by Firoz Shah Tughlak in the 14th century. He named it after his son Fateh Khan, as Fatehabad...

  • Hisar District
    Hisar District
    Hisar district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state, India. Hisar city serves as the district headquarters. The district is also part of Hisar division, which is headed by a commissioner who belongs to the Indian Administrative Service....

  • Jind District
    Jind district
    Jind district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. Jind town is the administrative headquarters of the district. It is part of Hisar Division....

  • Sirsa District
    Sirsa district
    Sirsa district is one of the districts of Haryana state, India. Sirsa is the district headquarters, and is located on National Highway 10 and 250 km away from Delhi.-Origin of name:The district is named after its headquarters, Sirsa...


Rohtak Division
Rohtak Division
Rohtak Division is one of the four divisions of Haryana State of India. The division comprises the districts of Jhajjar, Karnal, Panipat, Rohtak and Sonipat.-See also:*Districts of Haryana*List of villages in Haryana...

  • Jhajjar District
    Jhajjar District
    Jhajjar district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India.Jhajjar district was carved out of Rohtak district on July 15, 1997. The district headquarters is situated in Jhajjar. Other towns in the district are Bahadurgarh and Beri. Bahadurgarh was founded by Rathi Jats and...

  • Karnal District
    Karnal District
    Karnal district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. Karnal town is the administrative headquarters of the district. Other major towns in this district are Assandh, Gharaunda, Nilokheri, Indri and Uncha Siwana. This district is part of Rohtak Division.-History:Karnal...

  • Panipat District
    Panipat District
    Panipat district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. The historical town of Panipat is the administrative headquarters of the district. The district occupies an area of 1268 km².-History:...

  • Rohtak District
    Rohtak District
    Rohtak district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. It is located in the southeast of Haryana and northwest of Delhi, bounded by Jind and Sonipat districts to the north, Jhajjar and Sonipat districts to the east, and Hissar, Sirsa, and Bhiwani districts to the west...

  • Sonipat District
    Sonipat district
    Sonipat district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India. Sonipat town is the district headquarters. It is a part of National Capital Region along with Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Mewat, Palwal, Rewari, Jhajjar, Rohtak, Panipat, Alwar, Bhiwadi Industrial Town, Noida,...


Education

The state of Haryana has made tremendous progress in the field of higher education
Higher education
Higher, post-secondary, tertiary, or third level education refers to the stage of learning that occurs at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institutes of technology...

 since its inception. SCERT Haryana Gurgaon
Gurgaon
Gurgaon is the second largest city in the Indian state of Haryana. Gurgaon is the industrial and financial center of Haryana. It is located 30 km south of national capital New Delhi, about 10 kilometers from Dwarka Sub City and 268 km south of Chandigarh, the state capital...

 was established in April 1979. It was the conglomeration of State Institute of Education and State Institute of Science, to provide new dimensions to school education. It has been the endeavor of the government to make educational facilities available to the poorest of children. 32 primary schools, 69 middle schools and 101 high schools were upgraded to middle, high and senior secondary respectively during the year 2004-05. Now accessibility to schooling is available within the radius
Radius
In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any line segment from its center to its perimeter. By extension, the radius of a circle or sphere is the length of any such segment, which is half the diameter. If the object does not have an obvious center, the term may refer to its...

 of 1.10 km, 1.38 km, 1.66 km and 2.79 km at the primary, middle, high and senior secondary levels respectively. During 2001-02, there were 11,013 primary schools, 1,918 middle schools, 3,023 high schools and 1,301 senior secondary schools in the state. Haryana Board of School Education
Haryana Board of School Education
Haryana Board of Education is the authority which conducts the Public Examinations at Middle, Matric and Senior Secondary levels twice a year in the state of Haryana through the affiliated schools.-History:...

, established in September 1969 and shifted to Bhiwani
Bhiwani
Bhiwani is a city and a municipal council in Bhiwani district in the state of Haryana, India. It is known as the city of temples. Besides being a seat of spiritual learning, the city has been the centerstage of regional politics. The city is hometown to three of Haryana's chief ministers: Bansi...

 in 1981, conducts public examinations at middle, matriculation, and senior secondary levels twice a year. Over seven lac candidates attend annual examinations in February and March, and 150,000 attend supplementary examinations each November. The Board also conducts examinations for Haryana Open School at senior and senior secondary levels twice a year. The Haryana government provides free education to women up to the Bachelor's Degree level.

North Haryana is more developed in terms of education and agriculture because of more fertile land and water availability. People from South Haryana were mostly government employees, soldiers and politicians but agriculture has picked up a lot in recent years as a result of efforts from the Haryana Agricultural University
Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University
Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University popularly known as HAU, is one of Asia's biggest agricultural universities, located at Hisar in the Indian state of Haryana. It is named after India's seventh prime minister, Choudhary Charan Singh...

, Hissar
Hisar, India
Hisar city, previously spelled Hissar, is the administrative headquarters of Hisar district, in the state of Haryana, in northwestern India. Hisar was founded in 1354 CE, as Hissar-e-Firoza by Firoz Shah Tughlaq, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. on the demolished ruins...

.

Leading institutes for Technical and Engineering Education in Haryana are YMCA University of Science and Technology, NIT Kurukshetra, Maharishi Markandeshwar Engineering College, Mullana, University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kurukshetra University, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology
Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University Of Science and Technology
Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, formerly Chhotu Ram State College of Engineering, Murthal started in 1987 and is the first government engineering college in the State of Haryana...

, Manav Rachna College Of Engineering
Manav Rachna College Of Engineering
Manav Rachna College Of Engineering is a private college of engineering in the state of Haryana, India. It was established in 2004 as a member of the group Manav Rachna Educational Institutions. Manav Rachna College Of Engineering is affiliated with Maharishi Dayanand University, in Rohtak...

 and the Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences
Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences
The Technological Institute of Textile and Sciences "TITS" , founded in 1943, offers engineering programs and postgraduate programs.The institute provides lectures by in-house and visiting faculty, expert lectures, discussions, seminars, project assignments and visits to industries and project...

, Bhiwani
Bhiwani
Bhiwani is a city and a municipal council in Bhiwani district in the state of Haryana, India. It is known as the city of temples. Besides being a seat of spiritual learning, the city has been the centerstage of regional politics. The city is hometown to three of Haryana's chief ministers: Bansi...

. Earlier YMCA University of Science and Technology was known by the name of "YMCA Institute of Engineering" before it has been granted University status since 1st Dec., 2009 (Established by Haryana State Legislative Act No. 21 of 2009 & Recognized by UGC Act 1956 u/s 22 to Confer Degrees), NIT Kurukshetra was known by the name of Regional Engineering College, Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra is a land of historical and religious importance. Historically the land belonged to Punjab now a district in Haryana state of India. It is a holy place and is also known as Dharmakshetra . According to the Puranas, Kurukshetra is named after King Kuru, the ancestor of Kauravas and...

. There are seven universities in the state. Technical education and management studies are provided by YMCA University of Science and Technology at Faridabad, Maharishi Dayanand University
Maharishi Dayanand University
Maharshi Dayanand University is a public university located at Rohtak, Haryana, India. Established in 1976 and named after the great saint Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati, the varsity is a premier institution of higher education in the region. The university offers courses in different fields of study...

 at Rohtak have a University Institute of Engineering & Technology, University Campus (UIET, Rohtak), Kurukshetra University
Kurukshetra University
Kurukshetra University was established in 1956 in Kurukshetra in Haryana, India, situated 160 km from Delhi, and member of Association of Commonwealth Universities The Kurukshetra University was the dream of the then Punjab Governor, Sir Chandeshwar Prasad Narayan Singh, a great Sanskrit...

 at Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra is a land of historical and religious importance. Historically the land belonged to Punjab now a district in Haryana state of India. It is a holy place and is also known as Dharmakshetra . According to the Puranas, Kurukshetra is named after King Kuru, the ancestor of Kauravas and...

, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology
Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology
Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, was founded in 1995. The jurisdiction of the university extends to the courses being run in the areas of science, technology, engineering, pharmacy and management.-History:...

 at Hisar
Hisar, India
Hisar city, previously spelled Hissar, is the administrative headquarters of Hisar district, in the state of Haryana, in northwestern India. Hisar was founded in 1354 CE, as Hissar-e-Firoza by Firoz Shah Tughlaq, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. on the demolished ruins...

 and Chaudhary Devi Lal University
Chaudhary Devi Lal University
Chaudhary Devi Lal University, named after Chaudhary Devi Lal, the former Deputy Prime Minister of India was established by the Government of Haryana on April 5, 2003. The University, located at Sirsa 256 km from Delhi and 285km from Chandigarh, has a sprawling campus of on the Barnala Road...

 at Sirsa, Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana. Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University
Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University
Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University popularly known as HAU, is one of Asia's biggest agricultural universities, located at Hisar in the Indian state of Haryana. It is named after India's seventh prime minister, Choudhary Charan Singh...

 at Hisar is one of the biggest agricultural universities in Asia. It is engaged in education, research and development related to agriculture. The Holy Land where the University stands was first transformed into a centre of learning in 1936 by Bhagat Phool Singh Ji when he started a Gurukul for girls. The Gurukul was opened after he opened a boys Gurukul in 1919 in Bhainswal Kalan which today is the South Campus of the University. The Gurukul, started with only three students grew in size, stature and reputation with time and in November 2006, the Haryana Legislative Assembly passed a Legislative Notification, vide no. 31/2006 making the Gurukul a full-fledged State University

The National Dairy Research Institute
National Dairy Research Institute
The National Dairy Research Institute or the NDRI Karnal is India's premier institute for dairy research. The institute was accorded the status of a Deemed University in the year 1989...

 at Karnal
Karnal
Karnal is an important city and the headquarters of Karnal District in the Indian state of Haryana.Karnal is said to have been founded by the Kauravas in the Mahabharata era for the king Karna, a mythological hero and a key figure in the epic tale...

 provides education in the field of dairy science. It has been upgraded to the level of a Deemed University
Deemed University
Deemed university is a status of autonomy granted to high performing institutes and departments of various universities in India. This status of ‘Deemed-to-be-University’, is granted by Department of Higher Education, Union Human Resource Development Ministry, on the advice of the University Grants...

. There are medical colleges in Rohtak, Mullana and Agroha. Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak
Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak
Pt. B.D. Sharma , i.e. Pandit Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, is a premier post graduate medical institute in North India located in the city of Rohtak in Haryana.The institute offers various courses in major specialties and super specialties of medicine.Pt...

 is a premier post-graduate medical institute in North India offering courses in major specialties and super specialties of medicine. There is also a Management Development Institute in Gurgaon
Gurgaon
Gurgaon is the second largest city in the Indian state of Haryana. Gurgaon is the industrial and financial center of Haryana. It is located 30 km south of national capital New Delhi, about 10 kilometers from Dwarka Sub City and 268 km south of Chandigarh, the state capital...

.The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences
Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences
The Technological Institute of Textile and Sciences "TITS" , founded in 1943, offers engineering programs and postgraduate programs.The institute provides lectures by in-house and visiting faculty, expert lectures, discussions, seminars, project assignments and visits to industries and project...

 came into existence in 1947.

Sports

Haryana has produced some of the best Indian players in a variety of sports. In 2010 Delhi Commonwealth Games 22 out of 38 Gold Medals came from Haryana. During the 33rd National games held in Assam
Assam
Assam , also, rarely, Assam Valley and formerly the Assam Province , is a northeastern state of India and is one of the most culturally and geographically distinct regions of the country...

 in 2007, Haryana stood 4th in the nation with a medal tally of 80, including 30 Gold, 22 Silver and 28 Bronze medals. In team sports, Haryana is the national champion in men's volleyball
Volleyball
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules.The complete rules are extensive...

 and women's hockey
Hockey
Hockey is a family of sports in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.-Etymology:...

. Haryana is a traditional powerhouse in games like Kabbadi, Kho-kho, Judo
Judo
is a modern martial art and combat sport created in Japan in 1882 by Jigoro Kano. Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the object is to either throw or takedown one's opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue one's opponent with a grappling maneuver, or force an...

, Boxing
Boxing
Boxing, also called pugilism, is a combat sport in which two people fight each other using their fists. Boxing is supervised by a referee over a series of between one to three minute intervals called rounds...

, Volleyball
Volleyball
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules.The complete rules are extensive...

 and Wrestling
Wrestling
Wrestling is a form of grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds. A wrestling bout is a physical competition, between two competitors or sparring partners, who attempt to gain and maintain a superior position...

. Sports in the state are managed by the Department of Sports & Youth Affairs, Haryana. Nahar Singh Stadium
Nahar Singh Stadium
The Nahar Singh Stadium is a cricket stadium in the Indian city of Faridabad.Nahar Singh cricket stadium in Faridabad was built in 1981. The first match, a Ranji trophy game between Haryana and Services was played in 1982 from November 22-24...

 for international cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

 was built in Faridabad
Faridabad
Faridabad is a city in the south-east of Haryana state in northern India, in Faridabad district. It lies at 28º 25' 16" N Latitude and 77º 18' 28" E Longitude. The district shares its boundaries with the National Capital and Union Territory of Delhi to its north, Gurgaon district to the west and...

 in the year 1981. This ground has the capacity to hold around 25,000 people as spectators. Tejli Sports Complex is an Ultra-Modern sports complex in Yamunanagar
Yamunanagar
Yamuna nagar is a city and a municipal corporation in Yamuna Nagar district in the Indian state of Haryana. This town is known for the cluster of plywood units. The older town is called Jagadhri...

. The Tau Devi Lal Stadium
Tau Devi Lal Stadium
Tau Devi Lal Stadium is a multi-purpose sports complex located in Gurgaon within the state of Haryana, India. The site currently consists of two sports venues in addition to several practice facilities: the Tau Devi Lal Cricket Ground and the Tau Devi Lal Football Stadium.It is the home ground of...

 in Panchkula
Panchkula
Panchkula is a planned city in Panchkula district, Haryana, India. It is a satellite city of the Union Territory of Chandigarh. It also shares seamless border with Mohali district in Punjab. The prestigious Chandimandir Cantonment Headquarters of the Indian Army Western Command, is also located in...

 is a multi-sport complex. It came into prominence because of the Indian Cricket League
Indian Cricket League
The Indian Cricket League was a private cricket league funded by Zee Entertainment Enterprises that operated between 2007 and 2009 in India...

's inaugural Twenty20 tournament. Astroturf hockey grounds in Nehru Stadium, Gurgaon and Shahbad, Kurukshetra. Haryana even have a dedicated sports school MNSS at Rai, Sonepat which is affiliated to Sports Authority of India
Sports Authority of India
The Sports Authority of India is a body set up by the Government of India. It was created in 1984 to help promote sport throughout the country. Presently, it has seven regional centres at Bangalore, Gandhinagar, Kolkata, Sonepat, Delhi, Mumbai and Imphal and two sub-centres at Guwahati and...

.

At the 2008 Olympics, Vijender Singh Beniwal won a middleweight (75 kg) bronze medal and Vikas Krishan Yadav
Vikas Krishan Yadav
Vikas Krishan Yadav is an Indian male boxer from Bhiwani district in Haryana, who won a gold medal in the 2010 Asian Games in the Lightweight category.-Life:...

  boxer from Bhiwani
Bhiwani
Bhiwani is a city and a municipal council in Bhiwani district in the state of Haryana, India. It is known as the city of temples. Besides being a seat of spiritual learning, the city has been the centerstage of regional politics. The city is hometown to three of Haryana's chief ministers: Bansi...

 district won a gold medal in the 2010 Asian Games in the Lightweight category. Manoj Kumar
Manoj Kumar (boxer)
Manoj Kumar Kaltagediya is an Indian boxer who won a gold medal in the light welterweight division at the 2010 Commonwealth Games...

 of village Rajound
Rajound
Rajound is a city in Kaithal District of Haryana State in India. Its co ordinates are 29°34'35"N 76°28'56"EThis is an administrative block and Sub Tehsil. Its population according to 2001 census is 15,335. Male population is 8,147 female population is 7,188. Rajound is located on State Highway...

, Kaithal district
Kaithal District
Kaithal district is one of the 21 districts of Haryana, state in northern India. Kaithal town is the district headquarters. The district occupies an area of 2317 km². It has a population of 946,131 . This district is part of Ambala Division....

 won a gold medal in light welterweight ctegory at the 2010 Delhi Commonwealth Games.

Haryana Sports Policy, 2009

Haryana has adopted a new sports policy on 21 August 2009, when Haryana Cabinet which met under the Chairmanship of Chief Minister, Mr Bhupinder Singh Hooda, approved the Sports Policy, 2009.

In the 2010 Commonwealth Games, most of India's male wrestlers were from Haryana.

Health

  • Haryana Civil Medical Services
    Haryana Civil Medical Services
    Haryana Civil Medical Services is the government service in the department of health in Haryana. Doctors are recruited by Haryana Government to work in various government hospitals of Haryana state....

     (HCMS)
  • NRHM, National Rural Health Mission


See also

  • Pal'G'
  • Saini
    Saini
    Saini is a Rajput descent caste of India. Sainis, also known as Shoorsaini in Puranic literature, are now found by their original name only in Punjab and in the neighboring states of Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh...

  • ROR
    ROR
    The acronym ROR may refer to:* Ror community or the Ror caste of North India* ROR, the IATA code for Palau International Airport* Rate of return, a comparison of the money earned or lost on an investment to the amount of money invested...

  • Jat
  • Ahirwal
  • Gurgaon
    Gurgaon
    Gurgaon is the second largest city in the Indian state of Haryana. Gurgaon is the industrial and financial center of Haryana. It is located 30 km south of national capital New Delhi, about 10 kilometers from Dwarka Sub City and 268 km south of Chandigarh, the state capital...

  • Haryanvi
  • List of people from Haryana


External links

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