Uttar Pradesh
Overview
 
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , (formerly: United Province
United Province
The United Provinces, was a province of British India and later of Independent India, which came into existence on 1 April 1937 in result of the shortening of United Provinces of British India...

s; ) is a state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 located in the northern part of India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity. Were it a nation in its own right, Uttar Pradesh would be the world's fifth most populous country ahead of Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

, a country thirty-five times larger in territorial area than Uttar Pradesh.,

Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India, after the Indian state of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

, contributing 8.34% to India's total GDP in the financial year 2010.

With an area of 93933 mi2, Uttar Pradesh covers a large part of the highly fertile and densely populated upper Gangetic plain.
Encyclopedia
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , (formerly: United Province
United Province
The United Provinces, was a province of British India and later of Independent India, which came into existence on 1 April 1937 in result of the shortening of United Provinces of British India...

s; ) is a state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 located in the northern part of India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity. Were it a nation in its own right, Uttar Pradesh would be the world's fifth most populous country ahead of Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

, a country thirty-five times larger in territorial area than Uttar Pradesh.,

Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India, after the Indian state of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

, contributing 8.34% to India's total GDP in the financial year 2010.

With an area of 93933 mi2, Uttar Pradesh covers a large part of the highly fertile and densely populated upper Gangetic plain. It shares an international border with Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

 to the north along with the Indian state of Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand , formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Land of Gods due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found throughout the state, some of which are among Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship...

, Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh is a state in Northern India. It is spread over , and is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab on the west and south-west, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh on the south, Uttarakhand on the south-east and by the Tibet Autonomous Region on the east...

 to the north-west, Haryana
Haryana
Haryana is a state in India. Historically, it has been a part of the Kuru region in North India. The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar . It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south...

, Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 and Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 on the west, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

 on the south, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh is a state in Central India, formed when the 16 Chhattisgarhi-speaking South-Eastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained separate statehood on 1 November 2000....

 and Jharkhand
Jharkhand
Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east...

 on the south east and Bihar
Bihar
Bihar is a state in eastern India. It is the 12th largest state in terms of geographical size at and 3rd largest by population. Almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, which is the highest proportion in India....

 on the east. The administrative and legislative capital of Uttar Pradesh is Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

 and the industrial capital is Kanpur. The state's high court is based at Allahabad
Allahabad
Allahabad , or Settled by God in Persian, is a major city of India and is one of the main holy cities of Hinduism. It was renamed by the Mughals from the ancient name of Prayaga , and is by some accounts the second-oldest city in India. It is located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh,...

 with a bench in state capital Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

. It is home to many historical cities, including Allahabad
Allahabad
Allahabad , or Settled by God in Persian, is a major city of India and is one of the main holy cities of Hinduism. It was renamed by the Mughals from the ancient name of Prayaga , and is by some accounts the second-oldest city in India. It is located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh,...

, Varanasi
Varanasi
-Etymology:The name Varanasi has its origin possibly from the names of the two rivers Varuna and Assi, for the old city lies in the north shores of the Ganga bounded by its two tributaries, the Varuna and the Asi, with the Ganges being to its south...

, Kanpur, Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

, Agra
Agra
Agra a.k.a. Akbarabad is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, west of state capital, Lucknow and south from national capital New Delhi. With a population of 1,686,976 , it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh and the 19th most...

 and Meerut. Kanpur is the largest city.Other important cities are Jhansi
Jhansi
Jhansi Hindi:झाँसी, , Marathi: झाशी, is a historical city of India. Jhansi is the administrative headquarters of Jhansi District and Jhansi Division. The original walled city grew up around its stone fort, which crowns a neighboring rock. This district is on the bank of river Betwa.The National...

, Varanasi
Varanasi
-Etymology:The name Varanasi has its origin possibly from the names of the two rivers Varuna and Assi, for the old city lies in the north shores of the Ganga bounded by its two tributaries, the Varuna and the Asi, with the Ganges being to its south...

, Allahabad
Allahabad
Allahabad , or Settled by God in Persian, is a major city of India and is one of the main holy cities of Hinduism. It was renamed by the Mughals from the ancient name of Prayaga , and is by some accounts the second-oldest city in India. It is located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh,...

, Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur is a city in the eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, near the border with Nepal. It is the administrative headquarters of Gorakhpur District and Gorakhpur Division. Gorakhpur is one of the proposed capitals of the Purvanchal state which is yet to be formed...

, Meerut, Agra
Agra
Agra a.k.a. Akbarabad is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, west of state capital, Lucknow and south from national capital New Delhi. With a population of 1,686,976 , it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh and the 19th most...

, Aligarh, Bareilly
Bareilly
Bareilly is a prominent city in Bareilly district in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Standing on the Ramganga river, it is the capital of the Bareilly division and the geographical region Rohilkhand...

, Ghaziabad, Muzaffarnagar
Muzaffarnagar
Muzaffarnagar is a major city and a municipal board in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The city was established in Mughal period by a Sayyid Jagirdar, Munawar Lashkar Ali, and so named in honour of his father, Muzaffar Ali Khan. It is the headquarters of the Muzaffarnagar district. It is a...

, and Noida
Noida
Noida , short for the New Okhla Industrial Development Area, is an area in India under the management of the New Okhla Industrial Development Authority . Noida came into administrative existence on 17 April 1976 and celebrates 17 April as "Noida Day". It was set up as part of an urbanization...

.

Uttar Pradesh has a very vital place in the culture of India; it is the birthplace of Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

 and admirer of its derived Vedic
Vedic
Vedic may refer to:* the Vedas, the oldest preserved Indic texts** Vedic Sanskrit, the language of these texts** Vedic period, during which these texts were produced** Vedic pantheon of gods mentioned in Vedas/vedic period...

, Jainism
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

, Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 and Sikhism
Sikhism
Sikhism is a monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, by Guru Nanak Dev and continued to progress with ten successive Sikh Gurus . It is the fifth-largest organized religion in the world and one of the fastest-growing...

 beliefs, UP has been the ancient seat of Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 religion, learning and culture
Culture
Culture is a term that has many different inter-related meanings. For example, in 1952, Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn compiled a list of 164 definitions of "culture" in Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions...

, and has many important sites of Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 pilgrimage. The State also has several sites important to Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

: the Chaukhandi Stupa
Chaukhandi Stupa
Chaukhandi Stupa is an important Buddhist stupa in Sarnath, located 13 kilometres from Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. Stupas are descendents of burial mounds and serve as a shrine for a relic of the Buddha.-History:...

 marks the spot where Buddha
Gautama Buddha
Siddhārtha Gautama was a spiritual teacher from the Indian subcontinent, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from the Indian...

 met his first disciples, while the Dhamek Stupa
Dhamek Stupa
Dhamek Stupa is a massive stupa located at Sarnath, 13 km away from Varanasi in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India....

 in Sarnath
Sarnath
Sarnath or Sārnātha is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. Sarnath is located 13 kilometres north-east of Varanasi, in Uttar Pradesh, India...

 commemorates Buddha's first sermon. Also the town of Kushinagar
Kushinagar
Kushinagar , Kusinagar or Kusinara is a town and a nagar panchayat in Kushinagar district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is an important Buddhist pilgrimage site, where Gautama Buddha is believed to have attained Parinirvana after his death.-Demographics: India census, Kushinagar had a...

 is where Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
Siddhārtha Gautama was a spiritual teacher from the Indian subcontinent, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from the Indian...

 died.

Throughout its history, the region of Uttar Pradesh was sometimes divided between smaller kingdoms and at other times formed an important part of larger empires that arose on its east or west, including the Magadha, Nanda, Mauryan
Maurya Empire
The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 321 to 185 BC...

, Sunga
Sunga Empire
The Sunga Empire or Shunga Empire was a royal Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled vast areas of the Indian Subcontinent from around 185 to 73 BCE. The dynasty was established by Pusyamitra Sunga, after the fall of the Maurya Empire...

, Kushan
Kushan Empire
The Kushan Empire originally formed in the early 1st century AD under Kujula Kadphises in the territories of ancient Bactria on either side of the middle course of the Oxus in what is now northern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and southern Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.During the 1st and early 2nd centuries...

, Gupta
Gupta Empire
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed approximately from 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. Founded by Maharaja Sri-Gupta, the dynasty was the model of a classical civilization. The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the...

, Gurjara, Rashtrakuta, Pala
Pala Empire
The Pāla Empire was one of the major middle kingdoms of India existed from 750–1174 CE. It was ruled by a Buddhist dynasty from Bengal in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent, all the rulers bearing names ending with the suffix Pala , which means protector. The Palas were often described...

 and Mughal
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 empires.

The Indo-Gangetic plain
Indo-Gangetic plain
The northern Plains also known as the Indo - Gangetic Plain and The North Indian River Plain is a large and fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, parts of southern Nepal and virtually all of Bangladesh...

, that spans most of the state, is also the birth place of the Indo-Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

ic syncretic culture of the medieval period. It holds much of the heritage of the Mughal Empire, including the world famous mausoleum Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal is a white Marble mausoleum located in Agra, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal...

 built by Shah Jehan, the magnificent tomb of Mughal Emperor Akbar the Great in Agra and Akbar's capital-palace in Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri is a city and a municipal board in Agra district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Built near the much older Sikri, the historical city of Fatehabad, as it was first named, was constructed by Mughal emperor Akbar beginning in 1570...

. It was a centre of nationalism during the British colonial period and has continued to play a prominent role in Indian political and cultural movements. The state has a rich heritage of traditional crafts and cottage industries of various types that employ highly skilled craftsmen and artisans.

Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

s constitute 80% and its derived Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

s, Jains and Buddhists constitute 1.5% of the population in the state. Islam
Islam in India
Islam is the second-most practiced religion in the Republic of India after Hinduism, with more than 13.4% of the country's population ....

 is practised by about 18% of the population while the remaining 2% is made up of Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

s as well as tribal religious groups.

Evolution of the State

The area has undergone several name changes and territorial demarcations since the early 19th century, i.e., after the British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

 had established its supremacy in the Gangetic plains. In 1833 the then Bengal Presidency
Bengal Presidency
The Bengal Presidency originally comprising east and west Bengal, was a colonial region of the British Empire in South-Asia and beyond it. It comprised areas which are now within Bangladesh, and the present day Indian States of West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Meghalaya, Orissa and Tripura.Penang and...

 of the Company was divided into two parts, one of which became Presidency of Agra
Presidency of Agra
Agra Presidency was one of the six Northwestern Provinces of British India , lying nearly in their centre; area, 9,479 sq. m.; pop...

; in 1836 the Agra
Presidency of Agra
Agra Presidency was one of the six Northwestern Provinces of British India , lying nearly in their centre; area, 9,479 sq. m.; pop...

 area was named North-Western Provinces
North-Western Provinces
The North-Western Provinces was an administrative region in British India which succeeded the Ceded and Conquered Provinces and existed in one form or another from 1836 until 1902, when it became the Agra Province within the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh .-Area:The province included all...

 and placed under a Lieutenant Governor by the Company. In 1877, the two provinces of Agra
North-Western Provinces
The North-Western Provinces was an administrative region in British India which succeeded the Ceded and Conquered Provinces and existed in one form or another from 1836 until 1902, when it became the Agra Province within the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh .-Area:The province included all...

 and Oudh (Oudh was occupied by the Company, in 1858), were placed under one Colonial administrator of the British Crown; he was called Lieutenant Governor of the North-Western Provinces and Chief Commissioner of Oudh. In 1902 the name was changed to United Provinces of Agra and Oudh
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh
The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was a province of India under the British Raj, which existed from 1902 to 1947; the official name was shortened by the Government of India Act 1935 to United Provinces, by which the province had been commonly known, and by which name it was also a province of...

 with Lieutenant Governor of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh as administrator; in 1921 Lieutenant Governorship was elevated to Governorship and the name of the province was changed to United Provinces of British India
United Provinces of British India
The United Provinces of British India, more commonly known as the United Provinces, was a province of British India, which came into existence on 3 January 1921 as a result of the renaming of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. It corresponded approximately to the combined regions of the...

. On April 1, 1937, the name was shortened to United Province
United Province
The United Provinces, was a province of British India and later of Independent India, which came into existence on 1 April 1937 in result of the shortening of United Provinces of British India...

s. On independence from the British colonial rule in 1947, the princely states of Rampur
Rampur, Uttar Pradesh
Rampur is a city and a municipality located in Rampur District in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Rampur district is located at Longitude 78-0-54 to 69-0-28 East and Latitude 28-25 to 29-10 North and spans an area of 2,367 km².It also gave its name to a former princely state of British...

, Banares
Kingdom of Kashi
The Kingdom of Kashi was an independent Bhumihar Brahmin state until 1194, became a British territory in 1775, and became a state in 1911. It is the site of Ramnagar Fort and its museum, which are the repository of the history of the kings of Benares and since the 18th century has been the home of...

 and Tehri-Garwal
Garhwal Kingdom
Garhwal Kingdom was a princely state in north-western Uttarakhand, India, ruled by the Panwar dynasty. It was founded in 888 AD and existed until it was annexed by the Gorkhas in 1803...

 were merged into the United Provinces. In 1950, the name of United Provinces was changed to Uttar Pradesh. In 2000 a separate Himalayan state, Uttaranchal, (now named Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand , formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Land of Gods due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found throughout the state, some of which are among Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship...

), was carved out of Uttar Pradesh.

Prehistory, legends and ancient period

Archeological finds in Uttar Pradesh confirm presence of Stone Age
Stone Age
The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric period, lasting about 2.5 million years , during which humans and their predecessor species in the genus Homo, as well as the earlier partly contemporary genera Australopithecus and Paranthropus, widely used exclusively stone as their hard material in the...

 homo sapiens hunter-gatherers in Chhatarpalia, Mahugarh, Parisdhia, Lalitpur
Lalitpur District, Uttar Pradesh
Lalitpur District is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state of India. Lalitpur district is a part of Jhansi Division. Lalitpur is the main town and administrative headquarters. The district occupies an area of 5,039 km²....

, Nihi and Gopipur, between 85±11 and 72±8 kyr (thousand years ago) before present (BP); Middle Paleolithic and later the Upper Paleolithic artifacts dated at 21–31 kyr BP; Mesolithic
Mesolithic
The Mesolithic is an archaeological concept used to refer to certain groups of archaeological cultures defined as falling between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic....

/Microlithic hunter-gatherer
Hunter-gatherer
A hunter-gatherer or forage society is one in which most or all food is obtained from wild plants and animals, in contrast to agricultural societies which rely mainly on domesticated species. Hunting and gathering was the ancestral subsistence mode of Homo, and all modern humans were...

's settlement, near Pratapgarh
Pratapgarh, Uttar Pradesh
Pratapgarh also called Bela, Bela Pratapgarh, Partapgarh or Partabgarh, is a city and nagar panchayat of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the administrative headquarters of Pratapgarh district, part of the Faizabad Division...

, around 10550–9550 CE; villages, domesticated cattle, sheep or goats and evidence of plants and agriculture as early as 6000 CE – although, most dates range between c. 4000 and 1500 CE – thus initiating a sequence which extends into the Iron Age
Iron Age
The Iron Age is the archaeological period generally occurring after the Bronze Age, marked by the prevalent use of iron. The early period of the age is characterized by the widespread use of iron or steel. The adoption of such material coincided with other changes in society, including differing...

, beginning from Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India...

 and Harappa Culture finds in the Saharanpur division
Saharanpur Division
Saharanpur division is an administrative geographical unit of Uttar Pradesh state of India. The city of Saharanpur is the administrative headquarters of the division.- Administrative jurisdiction :...

 through the Vedic period
Vedic period
The Vedic period was a period in history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. The time span of the period is uncertain. Philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Rigveda, the oldest of the Vedas, was composed roughly between 1700–1100 BCE, also...

.

The ancient Mahajanapada era kingdom of Kosala
Kosala
Kosala was an ancient Indian region, corresponding roughly in area with the region of Awadh in present day Uttar Pradesh. According to the Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya and the Jaina text, the Bhagavati Sutra, Kosala was one of the Solasa Mahajanapadas in 6th century BCE and its cultural and...

 in Ayodhya – where, according to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama
Rama
Rama or full name Ramachandra is considered to be the seventh avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism, and a king of Ayodhya in ancient Indian...

 of the Ramayana
Ramayana
The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic. It is ascribed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu canon , considered to be itihāsa. The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of India and Nepal, the other being the Mahabharata...

 epic reigned – was located here. Krishna
Krishna
Krishna is a central figure of Hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita. He is the supreme Being and considered in some monotheistic traditions as an Avatar of Vishnu...

 – another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

 epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation (Avatar
Avatar
In Hinduism, an avatar is a deliberate descent of a deity to earth, or a descent of the Supreme Being and is mostly translated into English as "incarnation," but more accurately as "appearance" or "manifestation"....

) of Hindu god Vishnu
Vishnu
Vishnu is the Supreme god in the Vaishnavite tradition of Hinduism. Smarta followers of Adi Shankara, among others, venerate Vishnu as one of the five primary forms of God....

 – is believed to be born in the city of Mathura. The aftermath of Mahabharata war is believed to have taken place in the area between the Doab
Doab
A Doab is a term used in India and Pakistan for a "tongue" or tract of land lying between two confluent rivers...

 region of Western Uttar Pradesh
Western Uttar Pradesh
Western Uttar Pradesh, sometimes simply referred to as West U.P., is a region in India that comprises the western districts of Uttar Pradesh state, including the areas of Rohilkhand and Braj. The region has some demographic, economic and cultural patterns which are distinct from other parts of...

 and Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

, (in what was Kuru Mahajanapada), during the reign of the Pandava
Pandava
In the Hindu epic Mahābhārata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu , by his two wives Kunti and Madri. Their names are Yudhisthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva. Although, Karna is told by Lord Krishna that according to the laws and ethics he is the first son of Kunti making...

 king Yudhishtira. The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in Northwestern India, around 1000 BCE. The revered Swaminarayan – mentioned in the Brahma Purana and Vishwaksena Samhita as the manifestation of God – was born in the village of Chhapaiya
Chhapaiya
Chhapaiya is a village in Gonda District in the state of Uttar Pradesh about 50 km from district headquarter Gonda and 40 kilometers from the major city of Ayodhya.-Geography:Chhapaiya is located at .-Points of interest:...

.

Most of the empire building invasions of North India, from the east as well as the west, passed through the vast swathe of Gangetic plains of what today is Uttar Pradesh. Control over this region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Mauryan
Maurya Empire
The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 321 to 185 BC...

 (320–200 BCE), Kushan
Kushan Empire
The Kushan Empire originally formed in the early 1st century AD under Kujula Kadphises in the territories of ancient Bactria on either side of the middle course of the Oxus in what is now northern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and southern Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.During the 1st and early 2nd centuries...

 (100–250 CE) and Gupta
Gupta Empire
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed approximately from 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. Founded by Maharaja Sri-Gupta, the dynasty was the model of a classical civilization. The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the...

 (350–600 CE) Gurjara-Pratihara (650–1036 CE) empires.
Following the Hun invasions that broke Guptas' empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj
Kannauj
Kannauj , also spelt Kanauj, is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The city's name is traditionally derived from the term Kanyakubja . Kannauj is an ancient city, in earlier times the capital...

. During the reign of Harshavardhana (590–647 CE), the Kannauj empire was at its zenith; spanning from Punjab
Punjab region
The Punjab , also spelled Panjab |water]]s"), is a geographical region straddling the border between Pakistan and India which includes Punjab province in Pakistan and the states of the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh and some northern parts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi...

 and Gujarat to Bengal
Bengal
Bengal is a historical and geographical region in the northeast region of the Indian Subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Today, it is mainly divided between the sovereign land of People's Republic of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, although some regions of the previous...

 and Orissa
Orissa
Orissa , officially Odisha since Nov 2011, is a state of India, located on the east coast of India, by the Bay of Bengal. It is the modern name of the ancient nation of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Maurya Emperor Ashoka in 261 BC. The modern state of Orissa was established on 1 April...

 – and parts of central India, north of the Narmada River
Narmada River
The Narmada , also called Rewa is a river in central India and the fifth largest river in the Indian subcontinent. It is the third largest river that completely flows within India after Ganges and Godavari...

 – it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain
Indo-Gangetic plain
The northern Plains also known as the Indo - Gangetic Plain and The North Indian River Plain is a large and fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, parts of southern Nepal and virtually all of Bangladesh...

. A patron of Buddhism and the University at Nalanda
Nalanda
Nālandā is the name of an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India.The site of Nalanda is located in the Indian state of Bihar, about 55 miles south east of Patna, and was a Buddhist center of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. It has been called "one of the...

, Harsha organized theological debates and also patronised art and literature. A noted author on his own merit, he wrote three Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 plays. Many communities in various parts of India boast of being descendants of migrants from Kannauj, reflecting its glory in the past. Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, to be invaded and ruled mostly by Gurjar Pratiharass, who also challenged Bengal's mighty Pala Empire
Pala Empire
The Pāla Empire was one of the major middle kingdoms of India existed from 750–1174 CE. It was ruled by a Buddhist dynasty from Bengal in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent, all the rulers bearing names ending with the suffix Pala , which means protector. The Palas were often described...

's control of the region.

Medieval

The fall of the post-Harshavardhana Gurjar Pratihara Empire of north India came when the Turko-Afghan Muslim rulers moved into present day Uttar Pradesh. Much of the state formed part of the various Indo-Islamic empires (Sultanates) after 1000 CE and was ruled from their capital, Delhi.

Later, in Mughal
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 times, U.P. became the heartland of their vast empire; they called the place Hindustan, which is used to this day as the name for India in several languages. Mughal rulers Babur and Humanyun had their capital in Delhi. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri , birth name Farid Khan, also known as Sher Khan , was the founder of the short-lived Sur Empire in northern India, with its capital at Delhi, before its demise in the hands of the resurgent Mughal Empire...

, took the reigns of U.P. after defeating Humanyun, the Mughal king, who ran away to Kabul. Sher Shah's son, Islam Shah, ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior. After the death of Islam Shah, his prime minister Hemu
Hemu
Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, Hemu Vikramaditya or simply Hemu was a Hindu Emperor of India during the sixteenth century, in medieval times...

 became the de facto ruler of U.P., Bihar, MP and western parts of Bengal. Hemu had won in all 22 battles spanning entire North India. He defeated Emperor Akbar's forces at Agra
Agra
Agra a.k.a. Akbarabad is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, west of state capital, Lucknow and south from national capital New Delhi. With a population of 1,686,976 , it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh and the 19th most...

 and Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 and established Hindu Raj (which lasted one month) in U.P. on 7 October 1556. He was bestowed the title of Vikramaditya
Vikramaditya
Vikramaditya was a legendary emperor of Ujjain, India, famed for his wisdom, valour and magnanimity. The title "Vikramaditya" was later assumed by many other kings in Indian history, notably the Gupta King Chandragupta II and Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya .The name King Vikramaditya is a...

 at his coronation or Rajyabhishake at Purana Quila in Delhi and was titled as Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya. Hemu died in the Second Battle of Panipat
Second battle of Panipat
The Second Battle of Panipat was fought between the forces of Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, popularly called Hemu, the Hindu king who was ruling North India from Delhi, and the army of Jalal ud-Din Muhammad Akbar, on November 5, 1556...

, and U.P. came under Emperor Akbar's rule. Agra
Agra
Agra a.k.a. Akbarabad is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, west of state capital, Lucknow and south from national capital New Delhi. With a population of 1,686,976 , it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh and the 19th most...

 and Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri is a city and a municipal board in Agra district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Built near the much older Sikri, the historical city of Fatehabad, as it was first named, was constructed by Mughal emperor Akbar beginning in 1570...

 were the capitals of Emperor Akbar. At its zenith, the Mughal Empire covered almost the entire Indian subcontinent (including present day Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh), which was ruled at different times from Delhi, Agra and Allahabad.

When the Mughal Empire disintegrated, their last territory remained confined to the Doab region of Hindustan and Delhi. Other areas of Hindustan (U.P.) were now ruled by different rulers: Awadh
Awadh
Awadh , also known in various British historical texts as Oudh or Oude derived from Ayodhya, is a region in the centre of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which was before independence known as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh...

 was ruled by the Nawabs of Awadh, Rohilkhand
Rohilkhand
Rohilkhand is a region of northwestern Uttar Pradesh state of India.Rohilkhand lies on the upper Ganges alluvial plain and has an area of about 25,000 km²/10,000 square miles...

 by Afghans, Bundelkhand
Bundelkhand
Bundelkhand anciently known as Chedi Kingdom is a geographic region of central India...

 by the Marathas and Benaras by its own king, while Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

 controlled Kumaon-Garhwal as a part of Greater Nepal
Greater Nepal
Greater Nepal is a concept referring to the state of Nepal extending beyond present boundaries to include territories ceded to the British East India Company under the Sugauli Treaty that ended the Anglo-Nepalese War in 1814–16...

. The state's capital city of Lucknow was established by the Muslim Nawabs of Awadh in the 18th century.

(oudh stands for Awadh)

Modern-colonial

Starting from Bengal
Bengal
Bengal is a historical and geographical region in the northeast region of the Indian Subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Today, it is mainly divided between the sovereign land of People's Republic of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, although some regions of the previous...

 in the later half of the 18th century, a series of battles for North Indian lands finally gave the British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

 accession over this state's territories – including the territories of Bundelkhand, Kumaon and Benaras rulers – and the last Mughal territories of Doab and Delhi. When the Company included Ajmer
Ajmer
Ajmer , formerly written as Ajmere, is a city in Ajmer District in Rajasthan state in India. Ajmer has a population of around 800,000 , and is located west of the Rajasthan state capital Jaipur, 200 km from Jodhpur, 274 km from Udaipur, 439 km from Jaisalmer, and 391 km from...

 and Jaipur
Jaipur
Jaipur , also popularly known as the Pink City, is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. Founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber, the city today has a population of more than 3.1 million....

 kingdoms in this northern territory, they named it the "North-Western Provinces
North-Western Provinces
The North-Western Provinces was an administrative region in British India which succeeded the Ceded and Conquered Provinces and existed in one form or another from 1836 until 1902, when it became the Agra Province within the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh .-Area:The province included all...

" (of Agra). Today, the area may seem large compared to several of the Republic of India's present 'mini-states' – no more than the size of earlier 'divisions' of the British era – but at the time it was one of the smallest British provinces. Its capital shifted twice between Agra and Allahabad.
Due to dissatisfaction with British rule, a serious rebellion erupted in various parts of North India; Meerut cantonment
Cantonment
A cantonment is a temporary or semi-permanent military or police quarters. The word cantonment is derived from the French word canton meaning corner or district, as is the name of the Cantons of Switzerland. In South Asia, the term cantonment also describes permanent military stations...

's sepoy, Mangal Pandey
Mangal Pandey
Mangal Pandey was a sepoy in the 34th Regiment of the Bengal Native Infantry of the English East India Company. He is widely known in India as one of its first freedom fighters...

, is widely credited as its starting point. It came to be known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to...

. After the revolt failed the British attempted to divide the most rebellious regions by reorganizing the administrative boundaries of the region, splitting the Delhi region from ‘NWFP of Agra’ and merging it with Punjab
Punjab (British India)
Punjab was a province of British India, it was one of the last areas of the Indian subcontinent to fall under British rule. With the end of British rule in 1947 the province was split between West Punjab, which went to Pakistan, and East Punjab, which went to India...

, while the Ajmer
Ajmer
Ajmer , formerly written as Ajmere, is a city in Ajmer District in Rajasthan state in India. Ajmer has a population of around 800,000 , and is located west of the Rajasthan state capital Jaipur, 200 km from Jodhpur, 274 km from Udaipur, 439 km from Jaisalmer, and 391 km from...

- Marwar
Marwar
Marwar is a region of southwestern Rajasthan state in western India. It lies partly in the Thar Desert. In Rajasthani dialect "wad" means a particular area. The word Marwar is derived from Sanskrit word 'Maruwat'. English translation of the word is 'The region of desert'., The Imperial Gazetteer...

 region was merged with Rajputana
Rajputana
Rājputāna was the pre-1949 name of the present-day Indian state of Rājasthān, the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. George Thomas was the first in 1800 A.D., to term this region as Rajputana...

 and Oudh was incorporated into the state. The new state was called the 'North Western Provinces of Agra and Oudh', which in 1902 was renamed as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh
The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was a province of India under the British Raj, which existed from 1902 to 1947; the official name was shortened by the Government of India Act 1935 to United Provinces, by which the province had been commonly known, and by which name it was also a province of...

. It was commonly referred to as the United Provinces or its acronym UP.
In 1920, the capital of the province was shifted from Allahabad to Lucknow. The high court continued to be at Allahabad, but a bench was established at Lucknow. Allahabad continues to be an important administrative base of today's Uttar Pradesh and has several administrative headquarters.

Uttar Pradesh continued to be central to Indian politics and was especially important in modern Indian history as a hotbed of both the Indian Independence Movement
Indian independence movement
The term Indian independence movement encompasses a wide area of political organisations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending first British East India Company rule, and then British imperial authority, in parts of South Asia...

 and the Pakistan Movement
Pakistan Movement
The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan refers to the historical movement to have an independent Muslim state named Pakistan created from the separation of the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent, partitioned within or outside the British Indian Empire. It had its origins in the...

. Nationally known figures such as Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru , often referred to with the epithet of Panditji, was an Indian statesman who became the first Prime Minister of independent India and became noted for his “neutralist” policies in foreign affairs. He was also one of the principal leaders of India’s independence movement in the...

 were among the leaders of the movement in UP. The All India Kisan Sabha
All India Kisan Sabha
All India Kisan Sabha , was the name of the peasants front of the undivided Communist Party of India , an important peasant movement formed by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati in 1936, and which later split into two organizations, by the same name.-History:...

 (AIKS) was formed at the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

 on 11 April 1936 with the legendary nationalist Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
Swami Sahajanand Saraswati , born in a Jijhoutia Brahminfamily of Ghazipur of Uttar Pradesh state of India, was an ascetic of Dashnami Order of Adi Shankara Sampradaya as well as a nationalist and peasant leader of India...

 elected as its first President, in order to address the long standing grievances of the peasantry and mobilise them against the zamindari landlords' attacks on their occupancy rights, thus sparking the Farmers' movement in India.

During the Quit India Movement of 1942, Ballia
Ballia
Ballia is a city with a municipal board in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The eastern boundary of the city lies at the junction of the Ganges and the Ghaghara...

 district overthrew the colonial authority and installed an independent administration under Chittu Pandey. Ballia became known then as Baghi Ballia (Rebel Ballia) for this significant contribution in India's freedom movement.

Post-independence

After independence, the state was renamed Uttar Pradesh ("northern province") by its first chief minister, Govind Ballabh Pant
Govind Ballabh Pant
Bharat Ratna Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant was a statesman of India, an Indian independence activist, and one of the foremost political leaders from Uttarakhand and of the movement to establish Hindi as the official language of India.-Early life:Govind Ballabh Pant was born on September 10, 1887 in...

. Pant was well acquainted with and close to Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru , often referred to with the epithet of Panditji, was an Indian statesman who became the first Prime Minister of independent India and became noted for his “neutralist” policies in foreign affairs. He was also one of the principal leaders of India’s independence movement in the...

 (the first Prime Minister of free India) and was also popular in the Congress Party
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

. He established such a good reputation in Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

 that Nehru called him to Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

, the capital and seat of Central Government of the country, to make him Home Minister of India in 27 December 1954. He was succeeded by Dr. Sampoornanand, a classicist Sanskrit scholar. Following a political crisis in Uttar Pradesh, initiated by Kamlapati Tripathi and C.B.Gupta, Sampurnanand was asked to resign as CM in 1960 and sent to Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 as the Governor of Rajasthan, paving the way for Gupta and Tripathi to become Chief Ministers.

Sucheta Kripalani served as India's first woman chief minister from October 1963 until March 1967, when a two-month long strike by state employees caused her to step down. After her, Chandra Bhanu Gupta assumed the office of Chief Minister with Laxmi Raman Acharya
Laxmi Raman Acharya
Laxmi Raman Acharya was born on 2 November 1914 in Alwar, Rajasthan as the eldest son of Late Shri Rewati Raman Acharya who was a revenue minister in the princely state of Alwar and later on quit his high profile position due to the British leaning of the King and joined the Indian National...

 as Finance Minister, but the government lasted for only two years due to the confusion and chaos which ended only with the defection of Charan Singh from the Congress with a small set of legislators. He set up a party called the Jana Congress, which formed the first non-Congress government in U.P. and ruled for over a year.

Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna
Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna
Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna was a Congress Party leader and former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh; he later joined Bharatiya Lok Dal and worked with Charan Singh.-Early life:...

 was chief minister for Congress Party government for part of the 1970s. He was dismissed by the Central Government headed by Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhara was an Indian politician who served as the third Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms and a fourth term . She was assassinated by Sikh extremists...

, along with several other non-Congress chief ministers, shortly after the imposition of the widely unpopular Emergency, when Narain Dutt Tewari – later chief minister of Uttarakhand – became chief minister. The Congress Party lost heavily in 1977 elections, following the lifting of the Emergency, but romped back to power in 1980, when Mrs. Gandhi handpicked the man who would later become her son's principal opposition, V.P. Singh, to become Chief Minister.

Creation of the state of Uttarakhand

On 9 November 2000, the Himalayan portion of the state, comprising the Garhwal
Garhwal Division
Garhwal is the north-western region and administrative division of the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand which is home to the Garhwali people. Lying in the Himalayas, It is bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Kumaon region, on the south by Uttar Pradesh state, and on the north-west by...

 and Kumaon
Kumaon Division
For Kumaoni/Kumauni People see Kumauni PeopleKumaon or Kumaun is one of the two regions and administrative divisions of Uttarakhand, a mountainous state of northern India, the other being Garhwal. It includes the districts of Almora, Bageshwar, Champawat, Nainital, Pithoragarh, and Udham Singh Nagar...

 divisions and Haridwar district
Haridwar District
Haridwar district is a district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is headquartered at Haridwar which is also its largest city. The district is ringed by the districts Dehradun in the north and east, Pauri Garhwal in the east and the Uttar Pradesh districts of Muzaffarnagar and Bijnor in the...

, was formed into a new state 'Uttaranchal', now called Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand , formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Land of Gods due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found throughout the state, some of which are among Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship...

, meaning the 'Northern Segment' state.

Proposal to split into smaller states

After the split of Uttarakhand in 2000, numerous groups have proposed that the state of Uttar Pradesh be further split into smaller states. Those who support this reorganization argue this as a bid to improve governance of one of the poorest states in India. With a population greater than Brazil, and divergent needs of the population across the state, it is difficult to propose, agree on and then deliver on public policies necessary for inclusive growth of its citizens. The complicated federal structure of India, wherein many locally pressing development projects proposed by states such as Uttar Pradesh require central government approval, complicate matters and cause bureaucratic delays running into years. Splitting the state into smaller states, these supporters claim would foster development, decentralization of power, and accountability. Those who oppose this initiative argue that the split is motivated by political needs.,,

In November 2011, Uttar Pradesh chief minister Mayawati announced she would table the proposal to divide UP into four smaller states in the winter session of the state assembly starting November 21. Her cabinet approved the proposal, and thereafter the democratically elected representatives of the state assembly approved the proposal to split the state into four smaller states.

The four parts will be Paschim Pradesh, Awadh Pradesh, Bundelkhand and Poorvanchal. The proposed new states are currently western UP, central UP, southwestern UP and eastern UP, respectively.

The proposal is now expected to be considered by the central government of India.

Geography

Uttar Pradesh shares an international border with Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

 and is bounded by the Indian states of Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand , formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Land of Gods due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found throughout the state, some of which are among Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship...

, Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh is a state in Northern India. It is spread over , and is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab on the west and south-west, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh on the south, Uttarakhand on the south-east and by the Tibet Autonomous Region on the east...

, Haryana
Haryana
Haryana is a state in India. Historically, it has been a part of the Kuru region in North India. The name Haryana is found mentioned in the 12th century AD by the apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar . It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south...

, Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

, Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh is a state in Central India, formed when the 16 Chhattisgarhi-speaking South-Eastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained separate statehood on 1 November 2000....

, Jharkhand
Jharkhand
Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east...

 and Bihar
Bihar
Bihar is a state in eastern India. It is the 12th largest state in terms of geographical size at and 3rd largest by population. Almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, which is the highest proportion in India....

. The state can be divided into two distinct hypsographical regions.

The larger Gangetic Plain region is in the north: it includes the Ganges-Yamuna Doab
Doab
A Doab is a term used in India and Pakistan for a "tongue" or tract of land lying between two confluent rivers...

, the Ghaghra plains, the Ganges plains and the Terai
Terai
The Terai is a belt of marshy grasslands, savannas, and forests located south of the outer foothills of the Himalaya, the Siwalik Hills, and north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and their tributaries. The Terai belongs to the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands ecoregion...

. It has highly fertile alluvial soils and flat topography (slope 2 m/km) broken by numerous ponds, lakes and rivers.

The smaller Vindhya Hills
Vindhya Range
The Vindhya Range is a range of older rounded mountains and hills in the west-central Indian subcontinent, which geographically separates the Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India.- Introduction :...

 and Plateau region is in the south: it is characterised by hard rock strata and varied topography of hills, plains, valleys and plateau; limited availability of water makes the region relatively arid.

Rivers and Lakes

Main article:, Hydrology of Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh has more than 31 larger and smaller rivers among them holy Ganga, Yamuna
Yamuna
The Yamuna is the largest tributary river of the Ganges in northern India...

, Sarayu
Sarayu
The Sarayu is a river that flows through the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. This river is of ancient significance, finding mentions in the Vedas and the Ramayana. The Sarayu forms at the confluence of the Karnali and Mahakali in Bahraich District...

 and Ghaghara
Ghaghara River
Karnali or Ghaghara is a perennial trans-boundary river originating on the Tibetan Plateau near Lake Mansarovar. It cuts through the Himalayas in Nepal and joins the Sarda River at Brahmaghat in India. Together they form the Ghaghra River, a major left bank tributary of the Ganges. With a length of...

 are larger and of very much religious importance in Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

.

Flora and fauna

Uttar Pradesh has 2.34% land under forest cover now. In spite of alarming deforestation and poaching of wild life, a diverse flora and fauna exists. Several species of trees, large and small mammals, reptiles and insects are found in the belt of temperate
Temperate
In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. The changes in these regions between summer and winter are generally relatively moderate, rather than extreme hot or cold...

 upper mountainous forests; medicinal plants are also found wild here, or are now grown on plantations. Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands
The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands is a narrow lowland ecoregion at the base of the Himalayas, about wide and a continuation of the Gangetic Plain colloquially called Terai in the Ganges Basin east to Nepal, then Dooars in West Bengal, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Assam east to the Brahmaputra River...

 support cattle
Cattle
Cattle are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos primigenius...

. Moist deciduous
Deciduous
Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off", and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally, and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe...

 trees grow in the upper Gangetic plain, including its riverbanks. In fact, this vast plain is so fertile and life supporting that any thing, which can live or grow anywhere, will do so here. Ganges and its tributaries are the habitat
Habitat
* Habitat , a place where a species lives and grows*Human habitat, a place where humans live, work or play** Space habitat, a space station intended as a permanent settlement...

 of sameer a variety of large and small reptiles, amphibians, fresh-water fish and crab
Crab
True crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" , or where the reduced abdomen is entirely hidden under the thorax...

s. Mostly scrubs, trees like babool and animals like chinkara
Chinkara
The Chinkara is a species of gazelle found in south Asia.-Habitat and Distribution:It lives in grasslands and desert areas in India, Bangladesh and parts of Iran and Pakistan...

 are found in the arid Vindhyas. The state’s important plants and animals include the following:

Trees: pine
Pine
Pines are trees in the genus Pinus ,in the family Pinaceae. They make up the monotypic subfamily Pinoideae. There are about 115 species of pine, although different authorities accept between 105 and 125 species.-Etymology:...

, rhododendrons, silver fir
Silver Fir
Abies alba, commonly known as the European silver fir, is a fir native to the mountains of Europe, from the Pyrenees north to Normandy, east to the Alps and the Carpathians, and south to southern Italy and northern Serbia.-Description:...

, deodar, saal, oak
Oak
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus , of which about 600 species exist. "Oak" may also appear in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus...

, teak
Teak
Teak is the common name for the tropical hardwood tree species Tectona grandis and its wood products. Tectona grandis is native to south and southeast Asia, mainly India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Burma, but is naturalized and cultivated in many countries, including those in Africa and the...

, sheesham, mango
Mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to India from where it spread all over the world. It is also the most cultivated fruit of the tropical world. While...

, neem
Tamarind
Tamarind is a tree in the family Fabaceae. The genus Tamarindus is monotypic .-Origin:...

, banyan
Banyan
A banyan is a fig that starts its life as an epiphyte when its seeds germinate in the cracks and crevices on a host tree...

, peepal, imli, jamun, mahua
Madhuca longifolia
Madhuca longifolia, commonly known as mahwa or mahua, is an Indian tropical tree found largely in the central and north Indian plains and forests. It is a fast-growing tree that grows to approximately 20 meters in height, possesses evergreen or semi-evergreen foliage, and belongs to the family...

, semal
Bombax ceiba
Bombax ceiba, like other trees of the genus Bombax, is commonly known as cotton tree or tree cotton. This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flowers with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. It produces a capsule which, when ripe,...

, gular
Common fig
The Common fig is a deciduous tree growing to heights of up to 6 m in the genus Ficus from the family Moraceae known as Common fig tree. It is a temperate species native to the Middle East.-Description:...

 and dhak
Butea monosperma
Butea monosperma is a species of Butea native to tropical and sub-tropical parts of the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia, ranging across India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, and western Indonesia...

.

Medicinal plants: hingan
Balanites roxburghii
Balanites roxburghii is a spiny, evergreen tree. It is common in open sandy plains of the Indian peninsula, western Rajasthan, west Bengal, Maharashtra and drier parts of India.- Names :...

, Dhak, rauwolfia
Rauwolfia
Rauvolfia is a genus of evergreen trees and shrubs in the dogbane family, Apocynaceae. The genus is named to honor Leonhard Rauwolf. The approximately 85 species in the genus can mainly be found in tropical regions...

, sepentina
Rauwolfia serpentina
Rauvolfia serpentina, or 'snakeroot' or 'sarpagandha' is a species of flowering plant in the family Apocynaceae.-Medicinal uses:It is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it has the name shégēn mù or yìndù shémù .Rauwolfia serpentina contains a number of...

, hexandrum
Podophyllum hexandrum
The perennial herb Podophyllum hexandrum , bearing the common names Himalayan mayapple or Indian may apple, is native to the lower elevations in and surrounding the Himalaya. It is low to the ground with glossy green, drooping, lobed leaves on its few stiff branches, and it bears a pale pink...

, podophyllum
Podophyllum
Podophyllum is a genus of six species of herbaceous perennial plants in the family Berberidaceae, native to eastern Asia and eastern North America...

.

Large vertebrates: elephant
Elephant
Elephants are large land mammals in two extant genera of the family Elephantidae: Elephas and Loxodonta, with the third genus Mammuthus extinct...

, tiger
Tiger
The tiger is the largest cat species, reaching a total body length of up to and weighing up to . Their most recognizable feature is a pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with lighter underparts...

, bear
Bear
Bears are mammals of the family Ursidae. Bears are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, with the pinnipeds being their closest living relatives. Although there are only eight living species of bear, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern...

, neelgai, wild pig, deer
Deer
Deer are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. Species in the Cervidae family include white-tailed deer, elk, moose, red deer, reindeer, fallow deer, roe deer and chital. Male deer of all species and female reindeer grow and shed new antlers each year...

, wolf, jackal
Jackal
Although the word jackal has been historically used to refer to many small- to medium-sized species of the wolf genus of mammals, Canis, today it most properly and commonly refers to three species: the black-backed jackal and the side-striped jackal of sub-Saharan Africa, and the golden jackal of...

, fox
Fox
Fox is a common name for many species of omnivorous mammals belonging to the Canidae family. Foxes are small to medium-sized canids , characterized by possessing a long narrow snout, and a bushy tail .Members of about 37 species are referred to as foxes, of which only 12 species actually belong to...

, langoor, porcupine
Porcupine
Porcupines are rodents with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that defend or camouflage them from predators. They are indigenous to the Americas, southern Asia, and Africa. Porcupines are the third largest of the rodents, behind the capybara and the beaver. Most porcupines are about long, with...

. The Swamp deer or Barasingha
Barasingha
The Barasingha or Swamp deer is a deer species currently found in isolated localities in north and central India, and southwestern Nepal, and is extinct in Pakistan and Bangladesh....

 is the state animal of Uttar Pradesh.

Birds: peacock, gray quail, pigeon, swallow
Swallow
The swallows and martins are a group of passerine birds in the family Hirundinidae which are characterised by their adaptation to aerial feeding...

, maina
Myna
The myna is a bird of the starling family . This is a group of passerine birds which occur naturally only in southern and eastern Asia...

, Indian parakeet
Parakeet
Parakeet is a term for any one of a large number of unrelated small to medium sized species of parrot, that generally have long tail feathers...

, crow
Crow
Crows form the genus Corvus in the family Corvidae. Ranging in size from the relatively small pigeon-size jackdaws to the Common Raven of the Holarctic region and Thick-billed Raven of the highlands of Ethiopia, the 40 or so members of this genus occur on all temperate continents and several...

 and duck
Duck
Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the Anatidae family of birds, which also includes swans and geese. The ducks are divided among several subfamilies in the Anatidae family; they do not represent a monophyletic group but a form taxon, since swans and geese are not considered...

. The saras crane
Crane (bird)
Cranes are a family, Gruidae, of large, long-legged and long-necked birds in the order Gruiformes. There are fifteen species of crane in four genera. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back...

 is the state bird of Uttar Pradesh.

Reptiles: crocodile
Crocodile
A crocodile is any species belonging to the family Crocodylidae . The term can also be used more loosely to include all extant members of the order Crocodilia: i.e...

, gharial
Gharial
The gharial , , also called Indian gavial or gavial, is the only surviving member of the once well-represented family Gavialidae, a long-established group of crocodilians with long, slender snouts...

, goh, snake
Snake
Snakes are elongate, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes that can be distinguished from legless lizards by their lack of eyelids and external ears. Like all squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping scales...

s, chameleon
Chameleon
Chameleons are a distinctive and highly specialized clade of lizards. They are distinguished by their parrot-like zygodactylous feet, their separately mobile and stereoscopic eyes, their very long, highly modified, and rapidly extrudable tongues, their swaying gait, the possession by many of a...

 and other lizard
Lizard
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with nearly 3800 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica as well as most oceanic island chains...

s.

Fish: Rohu
Rohu
Rohi or Rohu is a fish of the carp family Cyprinidae, found commonly in rivers and freshwater lakes in and around South Asia and South-East Asia. It is a herbivore. It is treated as a delicacy in Bangladesh, Nepal and the Indian states of Orissa, Assam, West Bengal, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh...

, catla
Catla
Catla catla, , also known as Indian Carp, is the only member of the genus Catla, of the carp family Cyprinidae. It is a fish with a large protruding lower jaw. It is commonly found in rivers and freshwater lakes in India , Nepal, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Pakistan...

, khusa, parhan, patra, moi
Threadfin
Threadfins are silvery grey perciform marine fish of the family Polynemidae. Found in tropical to subtropical waters throughout the world, the threadfin family contains nine genera and 33 species...

, korouch and singhi
Singhi
Singhi is a town located in Sarawak, Malaysia. It is located several kilometers southwest of Kuching.-Coordinates:* Latitude = 1.5* Longitude = 110.1667* Latitude = 1° 30' 0 N* Longitude = 110° 10' 0 E...

.

According to Hindu legend, Lord Rama’s warrior devotee Hanuman
Hanuman
Hanuman , is a Hindu deity, who is an ardent devotee of Rama, a central character in the Indian epic Ramayana and one of the dearest devotees of lord Rama. A general among the vanaras, an ape-like race of forest-dwellers, Hanuman is an incarnation of the divine and a disciple of Lord Rama in the...

 had brought life saving Sanjivani herbs from a mountain of this, or possibly the breakaway Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand , formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Land of Gods due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found throughout the state, some of which are among Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship...

, region.

Climate

The climate of Uttar Pradesh is predominantly subtropical, but weather conditions change significantly with location and seasons:

Temperature: Depending on the elevation, the average temperatures vary from 12.5–17.5 °C (54.5–63.5 F) in January to 27.5 – in May and June. The highest temperature recorded in the State was 49.9 °C (121.8 °F) at Gonda on 8 May 1958.

Rainfall: Rainfall in the State ranges from 1000 – in the east to 600 – in the west. About 90% of the rainfall occurs during the southwest Monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

, lasting from about June to September. With most of the rainfall concentrated during this four-month period, floods are a recurring problem and cause heavy damage to crops, life, and property, particularly in the eastern part of the state, where the Himalayan-origin rivers flow with a very low north-south gradient.

Snowfall: In the Himalayan region of the State, annual snowfall averaging 3 to 5 metres (10 to 15 feet) is common between December and March.

Droughts: Periodic failure of monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

s results in drought conditions and crop failure.

Constituent regions

The state comprises several distinct regions:
  • The Doab
    Doab
    A Doab is a term used in India and Pakistan for a "tongue" or tract of land lying between two confluent rivers...

     region which runs along UP’s western border from north to south; this region is further divided into three zones:
    • The Upper Doab in the north-west,
    • The Middle Doab in the west,
      • including the Braj
        Braj
        Braj is a region mainly in Uttar Pradesh of India, around Mathura-Vrindavan. Braj, though never a clearly defined political region in India but is very well demarcated culturally, is considered to be the land of Krishna and is derived from the Sanskrit word vraja...

        -bhumi in the trans-Yamuna
        Yamuna
        The Yamuna is the largest tributary river of the Ganges in northern India...

         area,
    • The Lower Doab
      Doab
      A Doab is a term used in India and Pakistan for a "tongue" or tract of land lying between two confluent rivers...

       in the south-centre,
  • The Rohilkhand
    Rohilkhand
    Rohilkhand is a region of northwestern Uttar Pradesh state of India.Rohilkhand lies on the upper Ganges alluvial plain and has an area of about 25,000 km²/10,000 square miles...

     region in the north;
  • The Awadh
    Awadh
    Awadh , also known in various British historical texts as Oudh or Oude derived from Ayodhya, is a region in the centre of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which was before independence known as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh...

    (or Oudh), the historic country of Kosala
    Kosala
    Kosala was an ancient Indian region, corresponding roughly in area with the region of Awadh in present day Uttar Pradesh. According to the Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya and the Jaina text, the Bhagavati Sutra, Kosala was one of the Solasa Mahajanapadas in 6th century BCE and its cultural and...

    s in the centre;
  • The northern parts of Bundelkhand
    Bundelkhand
    Bundelkhand anciently known as Chedi Kingdom is a geographic region of central India...

     in the south;
  • The northern parts of Bagelkhand
    Bagelkhand
    Bagelkhand or Baghelkhand, is a region in central India, in northeastern Madhya Pradesh state. It includes the Madhya Pradesh districts of Anuppur, Rewa, Satna, Shadol, Sidhi, and Umaria....

     in the south-east; and
  • The south-eastern part of the state, commonly called Purvanchal
    Purvanchal
    Purvanchal is a geographic region of north-central India, which comprises the eastern end of Uttar Pradesh state...

     ("Eastern Province"), which is adjacent to the Bhojpur district
    Bhojpur district, Bihar
    Bhojpur district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state in eastern India. Arrah town is the administrative headquarters of this district.-History:...

     of Bihar.

Administrative divisions and districts (as in 2010)

The state of Uttar Pradesh consists of seventy five districts
Districts of Uttar Pradesh
The Indian state of Uttar Pradesh borders with Nepal and the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttarakhand and National Capital Territory of Delhi. The Himalayas lies in the north of the state and the Deccan Plateau is at the south...

, which are grouped into eighteen divisions:-

Agra Division
Agra Division
Agra Division is an administrative unit of Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Agra Division consists of:-*Agra District*Firozabad District*Mainpuri District*Mathura District...

, Aligarh Division
Aligarh Division
Aligarh division is an administrative unit of Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Aligarh division consists of:-*Aligarh District*Etah District*Mahamayanagar District*Kanshiram Nagar District-See also:Districts of Uttar Pradesh...

, Allahabad Division
Allahabad Division
Allahabad division is an administrative unit of Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.The original Allahabad division consisted of all the districts of the lower Doab, viz.:-* Etawah district* Farrukhabad district* Kanpur district* Fatehpur district...

, Azamgarh Division
Azamgarh Division
Azamgarh division is an administrative unit of Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Azamgarh division consists of:-* Azamgarh District* Ballia District* Mau District-See also:* Districts of Uttar Pradesh...

, Bareilly Division
Bareilly Division
Bareilly division is an administrative geographical unit of Uttar Pradesh state of India. Bareilly is the administrative headquarters of the division. Currently , the division consists of districts of* Bareilly District* Badaun District...

, Basti Division
Basti Division
Basti Division is an administrative geographical unit of Uttar Pradesh state of India. Basti is the administrative headquarters of the division. Currently , the division consists following districts:* Basti,* Sidhartha Nagar, and* Sant Kabir Nagar....

, Chitrakoot Division
Chitrakoot Division
Chitrakoot Division is an administrative division of Uttar Pradesh state in northern India. It includes the districts of :* Banda,* Chitrakoot,* Hamirpur, and* Mahoba....

, Devipatan Division
Devipatan Division
Devipatan division is an administrative geographical unit of Uttar Pradesh state of India. Currently , the division consists of districts of :* Gonda,* Bahraich,* Shravasti, and* Balarampur.Gonda is headquarter of this division....

, Faizabad Division
Faizabad Division
See also: Faizabad Faizabad division is an administrative geographical unit of Uttar Pradesh state in India. Faizabad is the administrative headquarters of the division. The division consists of districts of :* Faizabad,...

, Gorakhpur Division
Gorakhpur Division
Gorakhpur division is an administrative geographical unit of Uttar Pradesh state in northern India. Gorakhpur is the administrative headquarters of the division. Currently , the division consists of districts of Gorakhpur, Kushinagar, Deorria, and Maharajganj....

, Jhansi Division
Jhansi Division
Jhansi Division is one of 17 divisions of Uttar Pradesh state in northern India. It includes Jhansi, Jalaun, and Lalitpur districts. The city of Jhansi is the administrative center. The division is part of the historic Bundelkhand region, which includes a portion of southern Uttar Pradesh and...

, Kanpur Division
Kanpur Division
Kanpur division is an administrative geographical unit of Uttar Pradesh state of India. Kanpur is the administrative headquarters of the division...

, Lucknow Division
Lucknow Division
Lucknow division is an administrative geographical unit of Uttar Pradesh state of India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of the division. As of 2005, the division consists ofLucknow, Hardoi, Lakhimpur Kheri, Raebareli, Sitapur, and Unnao....

, Meerut Division
Meerut Division
Meerut division is an administrative geographical unit of Uttar Pradesh state of India. Meerut is the administrative headquarters of the division. Currently, the division consists of districts of Meerut, Bulandshahr, Buddha Nagar, Ghaziabad, and Bagh Path....

, Mirzapur Division
Mirzapur Division
-About Mirzapur Mandal:Mirzapur division is an administrative geographical unit of Uttar Pradesh state of India. Mirzapur is the administrative headquarters of the division...

, Moradabad Division
Moradabad Division
Moradabad division is an administrative geographical unit of Uttar Pradesh state of India. Moradabad is the administrative headquarters of the division. Currently , the division consists of districts of Moradabad, Bijnor, Rampur, Jyotiba Rao Phule Nagar and Bhim Nagar. muslims are main community....

, Saharanpur Division
Saharanpur Division
Saharanpur division is an administrative geographical unit of Uttar Pradesh state of India. The city of Saharanpur is the administrative headquarters of the division.- Administrative jurisdiction :...

 and Varanasi Division
Varanasi Division
Varanasi division is an administrative geographical unit of Uttar Pradesh state of India. Varanasi is the administrative headquarters of the division. Currently , the division consists of districts of Varanasi, Chandauli, Ghazipur, and Jaunpur....

.

Municipal Corporations
Following are Municipal Corporation
Municipal corporation
A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which...

s (Nagar Nigam
Nagar Nigam
Nagar nigam or municipal corporations in India are state government formed departments that works for the development of a city, which has a population of more than one million...

) in UP
  1. Agra
    Agra
    Agra a.k.a. Akbarabad is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, west of state capital, Lucknow and south from national capital New Delhi. With a population of 1,686,976 , it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh and the 19th most...

  2. Aligarh
  3. Allahabad
    Allahabad
    Allahabad , or Settled by God in Persian, is a major city of India and is one of the main holy cities of Hinduism. It was renamed by the Mughals from the ancient name of Prayaga , and is by some accounts the second-oldest city in India. It is located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh,...

  4. Bareilly
    Bareilly
    Bareilly is a prominent city in Bareilly district in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Standing on the Ramganga river, it is the capital of the Bareilly division and the geographical region Rohilkhand...

  5. Ghaziabad
  6. Gorakhpur
    Gorakhpur
    Gorakhpur is a city in the eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, near the border with Nepal. It is the administrative headquarters of Gorakhpur District and Gorakhpur Division. Gorakhpur is one of the proposed capitals of the Purvanchal state which is yet to be formed...

  7. Jhansi
    Jhansi
    Jhansi Hindi:झाँसी, , Marathi: झाशी, is a historical city of India. Jhansi is the administrative headquarters of Jhansi District and Jhansi Division. The original walled city grew up around its stone fort, which crowns a neighboring rock. This district is on the bank of river Betwa.The National...

  8. Kanpur
  9. Lucknow
    Lucknow
    Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

  10. Meerut
  11. Moradabad
    Moradabad
    Moradabad is a city and a municipal corporation in Moradabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It was established in 1600 by prince Murad, the son of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan; as a result the city came to be known as Moradabad. It is the administrative headquarters of...

  12. Saharanpur
    Saharanpur
    Saharanpur is a city and a Municipal Corporation in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. It is the administrative headquarters of Saharanpur District as well as Saharanpur Division...

  13. Varanasi
    Varanasi
    -Etymology:The name Varanasi has its origin possibly from the names of the two rivers Varuna and Assi, for the old city lies in the north shores of the Ganga bounded by its two tributaries, the Varuna and the Asi, with the Ganges being to its south...


Spacial Status
  1. NOIDA
    Noida
    Noida , short for the New Okhla Industrial Development Area, is an area in India under the management of the New Okhla Industrial Development Authority . Noida came into administrative existence on 17 April 1976 and celebrates 17 April as "Noida Day". It was set up as part of an urbanization...




Largest Urban Area-2011 Census
  1. Kanpur(2920067)
  2. Lucknow
    Lucknow
    Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

    (2901474)

Figures based on the census 2011 (http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/paper2/data_files/india2/Million_Plus_UAs_Cities_2011.pdf)
Cities Under JNNURM
  1. Lucknow
    Lucknow
    Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

  2. Kanpur
  3. Allahabad
    Allahabad
    Allahabad , or Settled by God in Persian, is a major city of India and is one of the main holy cities of Hinduism. It was renamed by the Mughals from the ancient name of Prayaga , and is by some accounts the second-oldest city in India. It is located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh,...

  4. Varanasi
    Varanasi
    -Etymology:The name Varanasi has its origin possibly from the names of the two rivers Varuna and Assi, for the old city lies in the north shores of the Ganga bounded by its two tributaries, the Varuna and the Asi, with the Ganges being to its south...

  5. Agra
    Agra
    Agra a.k.a. Akbarabad is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, west of state capital, Lucknow and south from national capital New Delhi. With a population of 1,686,976 , it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh and the 19th most...

  6. Meerut
  7. Mathura


According to latest data released by http://censusindia.gov.in there are 7 cities in the state having population more than 1 million while the number of cities having population more than 5 lakhs are 16.

Demographics

Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in India with a population of 199,581,477 million people as of 1 March 2011. If it were a separate country, Uttar Pradesh would be the world's fifth most populous nation, next only to China, India, the United States of America and Indonesia.
As of the 2001 census of India, about 80% of Uttar Pradesh population is Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

, while Muslims make up around 18% of the population. The remaining population consists of Sikhs, Buddhists, Christians and Jains
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

.

The peripheral regions of Uttar Pradesh, are home to a number of tribal communities such as Agaria
Agaria
Agaria is one of little Steel industry in India. The Agarias declined rapidly after the import of English steel in India was promoted during the 19th century and the weapons and utensils were made using English steel....

, Baiga, Bhar
Bhar
The Bhar are a Hindu caste found in North India. They are also known as Rajbhar. British historian General Cunningham said that Bhars are branch of the Ahir tribe.-History and origin:...

, Bhoksa, Bind
Bind (tribe)
The Bind are scheduled caste, found in North India. They are also known as Chatai Bin or Chai.-History and origin:They originate from the Vindhya hills in central India. According to their traditions, the daughter of Nisadh, on the way to her husband's house, was passing by a river, when she was...

, Chero
Chero
The Chero are scheduled caste, found in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, in North India.-History and origin:The community claim to have originally been Chandravanshi Rajputs. Other members of the tribe claim to be Nagvanshi. The Chero are essentially one of many tribal communities, such as...

, Gond
Gondi people
The Gondi, Goindi or Gond people are people in central India, spread over the states of Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra , Chhattisgarh, northern Andhra Pradesh, and Western Orissa. With over four million people, they are the largest tribe in Central India.The Gondi language is related to...

, Kol and Korwa
Korwa people
Korba people are one of the scheduled tribes of India. They live in hills and forest of Chhotanagpur; the bordering area of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand. They are socially and economically poor and outsiders often look down on them because of this...

. Five of these tribal communities have been recoginised by the Government of India as disadvantaged scheduled tribes, viz. Tharus, Boksa
Boksa (tribe)
Bhoksa or sometimes pronounced Buksa are indigenous people living mainly in the Indian states of Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh. They are most concentrated in the Dehradun and Nainital in the Kumaon foothills of the outer Himalayas...

s, Bhotia, Jaunswaris and Rajis.

Politics

The State Assembly (Vidhan Sabha
Vidhan Sabha
The Vidhan Sabha or the Legislative Assembly is the lower house or the sole house of the provincial legislature in the different states of India. The same name is also used for the lower house of the legislatures for two of the union territories, Delhi and Pondicherry...

) has 403 electoral constituencies. In the Uttar Pradesh Elections, 2007, Mayawati
Mayawati
Mayawati is the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, India. She heads the Bahujan Samaj Party, which represents the Bahujans or Dalits, the weakest strata of Indian society. This is her fourth term as Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh...

's Bahujan Samaj Party
Bahujan Samaj Party
The Bahujan Samaj Party is a centrist national political party in India with socialist leanings. It was formed to chiefly represent Bahujans , referring to people from the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Castes as well as Buddhists. The party claims to be inspired by the...

 achieved unexpected majority status, leading to her emergence as the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh. This is the first time, since 1991 victory of the Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
The Bharatiya Janata Party ,; translation: Indian People's Party) is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Indian National Congress. Established in 1980, it is India's second largest political party in terms of representation in the parliament...

 (BJP) with a majority, that a single party has gained absolute majority; the last two decades having been mostly dominated by various coalitions among the Samajwadi Party
Samajwadi Party
Samajwadi Party is a political party in India. It is based in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It describes itself as a democratic socialist party...

, Bharatiya Janata Party, and the Bahujan Samaj Party. One characteristic of the BSP win in 2007 was the amalgamation of Brahmin
Brahmin
Brahmin Brahman, Brahma and Brahmin.Brahman, Brahmin and Brahma have different meanings. Brahman refers to the Supreme Self...

 votes into this Dalit dominated party, as opposed to the decades-old trend of deep-rooted electoral divisions in the state between Dalits, Upper Castes, Muslims and different OBC groups, which tend to vote in blocks.
Mayawati, having won 206 seats, took the oath of secrecy for the post of UP's next CM on 13 May 2007. She became Chief Minister for the fourth time. Along with her 19 cabinet rank
Cabinet rank
A person who is of Cabinet rank holds a ministerial position in a government. They sit in Cabinet and form the highest body of leadership in a government.-United Kingdom:...

 ministers, 21 Ministers of State
Minister of State
Minister of State is a title borne by politicians or officials in certain countries governed under a parliamentary system. In some countries a "minister of state" is a junior minister, who is assigned to assist a specific cabinet minister...

 holding Independent Charge were also sworn in by the Governor T. V. Rajeswar
T. V. Rajeswar
T. V. Rajeswar is a former Indian Police Service officer, former Intelligence Bureau chief and former Governor of Sikkim, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.-Career:...

. Some of the prominent names of her cabinet colleagues are: Awadhpal Singh,, Badshah Singh, Nasimuddin Siddiqui, Rakesh Dhar Tripathi, Ratanlal Ahirwar and Sudhir Goyal. Former Chief Minister Mulayam Singh Yadav
Mulayam Singh Yadav
Mulayam Singh Yadav in Hindi मुलायम सिंह यादव is an Indian politician and has influence mainly in Uttar Pradesh state of India...

's Samajwadi Party stood second in State with 97 seats.

Political leadership

The state has a record of providing national leadership; eight of India's fourteen Prime Ministers
Prime Minister of India
The Prime Minister of India , as addressed to in the Constitution of India — Prime Minister for the Union, is the chief of government, head of the Council of Ministers and the leader of the majority party in parliament...

 were from Uttar Pradesh. They are:
  • Jawaharlal Nehru
    Jawaharlal Nehru
    Jawaharlal Nehru , often referred to with the epithet of Panditji, was an Indian statesman who became the first Prime Minister of independent India and became noted for his “neutralist” policies in foreign affairs. He was also one of the principal leaders of India’s independence movement in the...

    ,
  • Lal Bahadur Shastri
    Lal Bahadur Shastri
    Lal Bahadur Srivastava Shastri was the second Prime Minister of the Republic of India and a significant figure in the Indian independence movement.-Early life:...

    ,
  • Indira Gandhi
    Indira Gandhi
    Indira Priyadarshini Gandhara was an Indian politician who served as the third Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms and a fourth term . She was assassinated by Sikh extremists...

    ,
  • Rajiv Gandhi
    Rajiv Gandhi
    Rajiv Ratna Gandhi was the sixth Prime Minister of India . He took office after his mother's assassination on 31 October 1984; he himself was assassinated on 21 May 1991. He became the youngest Prime Minister of India when he took office at the age of 40.Rajiv Gandhi was the elder son of Indira...

    ,
  • Choudhary Charan Singh
    Choudhary Charan Singh
    Chaudhary Charan Singh was the fifth Prime Minister of the Republic of India, serving from 28 July 1979 until 14 January 1980.Born into a Jat family in 1902, Charan Singh entered politics as part of the Independence Movement...

    ,
  • Vishwanath Pratap Singh,
  • Chandra Shekhar
    Chandra Shekhar
    Chandra Shekhar Singh was the eighth Prime Minister of India.-Early years:He was born on 1 July 1927 to a Rajput farming family in Ibrahimpatti - Ballia in eastern Uttar Pradesh. Chandra Shekhar Singh did his Master of Arts at Allahabad University. He was known as a firebrand in student politics...

     and
  • Atal Bihari Vajpayee
    Atal Bihari Vajpayee
    Atal Bihari Vajpayee is an Indian statesman who served as the tenth Prime Minister of India three times – first for a brief term of 13 days in 1996, and then for two terms from 1998 to 2004. After his first brief period as Prime Minister in 1996, Vajpayee headed a coalition government from...

    , who represented a UP constituency,his ancestors were from Uttar Pradesh though he was born in Gwalior.


The contemporary political scene is also interesting in the national context. Heirs-apparent to the Nehru-Gandhi family have adopted UP as their home state. Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

 President Sonia Gandhi
Sonia Gandhi
Sonia Gandhi is an Italian-born Indian politician and the President of the Indian National Congress, one of the major political parties of India. She is the widow of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi...

 represents Rae Bareli and her son Rahul Gandhi
Rahul Gandhi
Rahul Gandhi is an Indian politician and member of the parliament of India, representing the Amethi constituency. His political party is the Indian National Congress.-Early life and career:...

 Amethi
Amethi
Amethi is a city and a municipal board in Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Nagar district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the headquarters of the district. Amethi district officially named after Chhatrapati Sahuji Maharaj, is a newest and 72nd district in the state of Uttar Pradesh in...

, Sultanpur
Sultanpur District
Sultanpur District is a district in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. The district is a part of Faizabad Division. Its administrative head is Sultanpur.-History:...

. Indira Gandhi's younger daughter-in-law Maneka Gandhi
Maneka Gandhi
Maneka Gandhi is an Indian politician, animal rights activist, environmentalist, former model and widow of the Indian politician, Sanjay Gandhi. She has been a minister in four governments, and has authored a number of books in the areas of etymology, law and animal welfare...

 is a seven time BJP Parliamentarian from Aonla
Aonla
Aonla may mean:*Indian gooseberry is a deciduous tree of the Phyllanthaceae family*Aonla, Uttar Pradesh - a place in Uttar Pradesh, India*Aonla Aonla was a capital of Rohilkand...

, UP, while her son Varun Gandhi
Varun Gandhi
Feroze Varun Gandhi is an Indian politician and a Member of Parliament , a member of the 15th Lok Sabha. He is the son of the late Sanjay Gandhi and Maneka Gandhi and belongs to the Gandhi-Nehru family. He is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party National Executive and the youngest National...

 has also made his debut as a BJP politician and is a member of Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
The Lok Sabha or House of the People is the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by direct election under universal adult suffrage. As of 2009, there have been fifteen Lok Sabhas elected by the people of India...

 from Pilibhit
Pilibhit
Pilibhit |Hafizabad]]) is a city and a municipal board in the Pilibhit district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Pilibhit is the north-eastern most district of Bareilly division, situated in the Rohilkhand region of the sub-Himalayan Plateau belt on the boundary of Nepal, known for the origin...

, UP. Other prominent politicians include BJP leader and past Human Resources Development minister Dr. Murli Manohar Joshi
Murli Manohar Joshi
Murli Manohar Joshi was the Union Human Resources Development minister of India in the NDA government. Joshi is a leading member of the Bharatiya Janata Party...

, SP leader and ex-Chief Minister Mulayam Singh Yadav
Mulayam Singh Yadav
Mulayam Singh Yadav in Hindi मुलायम सिंह यादव is an Indian politician and has influence mainly in Uttar Pradesh state of India...

 whose workplace is Mainpuri and Badaun. BSP leader and now fourth time Chief Minister Mayawati
Mayawati
Mayawati is the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, India. She heads the Bahujan Samaj Party, which represents the Bahujans or Dalits, the weakest strata of Indian society. This is her fourth term as Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh...

, BJP President and ex-Chief Minister Rajnath Singh
Rajnath Singh
Rajnath Singh is a prominent Indian politician and who has served the country in many capacities. He was the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, a Cabinet Minister in the NDA regime and became the National President of the Bharatiya Janata Party, which is the single largest Opposition party in India...

, former BJP Chief Minister Kalyan Singh
Kalyan Singh
Kalayan Singh is an Indian politician from the state of Uttar Pradesh. He has served 3 times as the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh.-Role in demolition of Babri Masjid:...

, Rashtriya Lok Dal chief Ajit Singh
Chaudhary Ajit Singh
Chaudhary Ajit Singh is an Indian politician and a prominent Jat leader from Western Uttar Pradesh. He is the founder and chief of the Rashtriya Lok Dal, a political party recognised in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. He was born on 12 February 1939 at village Bhadola in the Meerut District of...

 and ex-Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and later of Uttarakhand and one of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

's most prominent leader Narayan Dutt Tiwari
Narayan Dutt Tiwari
Narayan Dutt Tiwari is an Indian political figure. He was Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh three times during the 1970s and 1980s and was Chief Minister of Uttarkhand from 2002 to 2007...

, Ex-Deputy Chief & Finance Minister Laxmi Raman Acharya
Laxmi Raman Acharya
Laxmi Raman Acharya was born on 2 November 1914 in Alwar, Rajasthan as the eldest son of Late Shri Rewati Raman Acharya who was a revenue minister in the princely state of Alwar and later on quit his high profile position due to the British leaning of the King and joined the Indian National...

, Amar Singh
Amar Singh
Amar Singh may refer to:* Amar Singh , Indian test cricketer* Amar Singh , Indian politician* Amar Singh, son of Maharana Pratap...

, Ex-Minister for State for Environment & Forest, & also Minister for Education [Vir Sen, Khurja & Hapur], Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi
Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi
Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi is a former Indian federal minister and a Bharatiya Janata Party leader. Born in Allahabad in 15 Oct 1957 he studied law and arts at Allahabad University, while Collage time he was President of Student Union Government Intermediate College Allahabad.He contested first for...

 Ex Information & Broadcasting Minister, Govt. of India, Zafar Ali Naqvi
Zafar Ali Naqvi
Zafar Ali Naqvi is an Indian politician and member of the Parliament of India, representing the Lakhimpur Kheri constituency. His political party is the Indian National Congress.-Education and Early Career:...

 Minister of Education, UP Govt. and so many national level leaders.

At the lowest tier of political pyramid the state has a large number of village councils, known as Panchayats, which are similar to those found in other states in India.

Education


The region of Uttar Pradesh had a long tradition of learning, although it had remained mostly confined to the elite class and religious establishments. Sanskrit-based education comprising the learning of Vedic
Vedic period
The Vedic period was a period in history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. The time span of the period is uncertain. Philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Rigveda, the oldest of the Vedas, was composed roughly between 1700–1100 BCE, also...

-to-Gupta periods, coupled with the later Pali
Páli
- External links :* *...

 corpus of knowledge and a vast store of ancient-to-medieval learning in Persian/Arabic languages, had formed the core of Hindu-Buddhist-Muslim education, until the rise of British power. The present schools-to-university system of education owes its inception and development here, as in the rest of the country, to foreign Christian missionaries and the British colonial administration.

Banaras Hindu University
Banaras Hindu University
Banaras Hindu University is a public university located in Varanasi, India and is one of the Central Universities of India. It is the largest residential university in Asia, with over 24,000 students in its campus. BHU was founded in 1916 by Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya under the Parliamentary...

 is a Central University located in Varanasi
Varanasi
-Etymology:The name Varanasi has its origin possibly from the names of the two rivers Varuna and Assi, for the old city lies in the north shores of the Ganga bounded by its two tributaries, the Varuna and the Asi, with the Ganges being to its south...

. It evolved out of the Central Hindu College of Varanasi, set up by Annie Besant — a colorful British lady of Irish descent — who joined hands with Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya in April 1911 for a common Hindu university at Varanasi. The Banaras Hindu University
Banaras Hindu University
Banaras Hindu University is a public university located in Varanasi, India and is one of the Central Universities of India. It is the largest residential university in Asia, with over 24,000 students in its campus. BHU was founded in 1916 by Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya under the Parliamentary...

 started functioning from 1 October 1917, with the Central Hindu College as its first constituent college. Most of the money for the university came from Hindu princes and its present 1350 acres (5.5 km²) campus was built on land donated by the Kashi Naresh
Kingdom of Kashi
The Kingdom of Kashi was an independent Bhumihar Brahmin state until 1194, became a British territory in 1775, and became a state in 1911. It is the site of Ramnagar Fort and its museum, which are the repository of the history of the kings of Benares and since the 18th century has been the home of...

. Regarded as the one among the largest residential universities in Asia, it has more than 128 independent teaching departments; several of its colleges — including science, linguistics, law, engineering (IT-BHU) and medicine (IMS-BHU
IMS-BHU
The Institute Of Medical Sciences is one of the three institutes of Banaras Hindu University in Varanasi, India and comprises three faculties:...

) — are ranked amongst the best in India. The university's total enrollment stands at just over 15,000, including international students. It will be the only university in India that will host one of the IITs
Indian Institutes of Technology
The Indian Institutes of Technology are a group of autonomous engineering and technology-oriented institutes of higher education. The IITs are governed by the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 which has declared them as “institutions of national importance”, and lays down their powers, duties,...

 on its premises, the IT-BHU, from academic session 2010.

The Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
The Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur is a Central deemed University located in Uttar Pradesh, about 15 km north-west of the city of Kanpur in the Kalyanpur suburb....

 — set up in 1960 in the industrial city of Kanpur and now known as IIT-Kanpur or IITK — is one of the famous internationally respected Indian Institutes of Technology
Indian Institutes of Technology
The Indian Institutes of Technology are a group of autonomous engineering and technology-oriented institutes of higher education. The IITs are governed by the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 which has declared them as “institutions of national importance”, and lays down their powers, duties,...

; it is primarily focused on teaching of undergraduates in engineering and related sciences and technologies and research in these fields. It is among the very few institutions which enjoys the status of Institute of National Importance
Institute of National Importance
An Institute of National Importance, in India is defined as one which serves as a pivotal player in developing highly skilled personnel within the specified region of the country/state. Institutes on the list are usually supported by the Government of India...

. It was the first college in India to start education in Computer Science.

The Indian Institute of Management Lucknow
Indian Institute of Management Lucknow
The Indian Institute of Management Lucknow is a business school located in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. It was established in 1984 by the Government of India, and is the fourth Indian Institute of Management to be established.-History:...

 is among premier management schools in India. IIM Lucknow was established in 1984 by the government of India. It was the fourth Indian Institute of Management to be established in India after IIM Calcutta, IIM Ahmedabad, and IIM Bangalore. IIM Lucknow 185 acres (74.9 ha) main campus is in Prabandh Nagar about 21 kilometres (13 mi) from Lucknow Railway Station and 31 kilometres (19 mi) from Lucknow Airport. A second campus, focusing on executive programs, was set up in Noida. According to the institute's website, IIM Lucknow is the first IIM to start an additional campus in the country.

The Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad
Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad
Motilal Nehru National Institute Of Technology is a Deemed University of National Importance as Declared by NIT Act, GOI, 2007 located in the city of Allahabad in the state of Uttar Pradesh...

 was formerly Motilal Nehru Regional Engineering College, Allahabad. It is among one of the leading institutes in the country; it was established in 1961 as a joint enterprise of the governments of India and Uttar Pradesh in accordance with the scheme of establishment of REC. With effect from June 26, 2002 the college became a deemed university and is now known as Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology and declared as an Institute of National Importance
Institute of National Importance
An Institute of National Importance, in India is defined as one which serves as a pivotal player in developing highly skilled personnel within the specified region of the country/state. Institutes on the list are usually supported by the Government of India...

. MNNIT was the first college in India to give B.Tech. degree in Computer Science and Engineering and among the very few colleges in India to have a PARAM
PARAM
PARAM is a series of supercomputers designed and assembled by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing in Pune, India. The latest machine in the series is the PARAM Yuva.Param means supreme in Sanskrit.-History:...

 supercomputer.

The Allahabad University
Allahabad University
Allahabad University , is a premier Central University located in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Its origins lie in the Muir Central College, named after Lt...

 (Hindi: इलाहाबाद विश्वविद्यालय), is a premier Central University located in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Its origins lie in the Muir Central College, named after Lt. Governor of North-Western Provinces, Sir William Muir in 1876, who suggested the idea of a Central University at Allahabad, which later evolved to the present university. At one point it was called the "Oxford of the East", and on June 24, 2005 its Central University status was restored through the University Allahabad Act, 2005, of the Parliament of India. It is the fourth oldest university of India.

The Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh Muslim University ,is a residential academic university, established in 1875 by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan as Mohammedan Angelo-Oriental College and later granted the status of Central University by an Act of the Indian Parliament in 1920...

 is a residential academic institution. This university is spread over 1.5 km2. Modeled on the British University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a public research university located in Cambridge, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest university in both the United Kingdom and the English-speaking world , and the seventh-oldest globally...

, it was established by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan in 1875 — then named Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College — and in 1920 it was granted the status of a Central University by an Act of Parliament. Located in the city of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, it was among the first institutions of higher learning set up during the British Raj.

The Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad
Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad
The Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad is an Indian Institute of Information Technology established in 1999 by the government of India. The institute was conferred deemed university status in 2000, empowering it to award degrees following the setting of its own examinations...

 was established in 1999 by the government of India. The institute was conferred deemed university status in 2000, empowering it to award degrees following the setting of its own examinations. The new campus has been developed on 100 acres (0.40 km2) of land at Deoghat, Jhalwa, on the outskirts of Allahabad. The campus and other buildings have been styled on patterns developed by mathematics professor Roger Penrose. IIITA offers a B.Tech degree in either Information Technology or Electronics and Communications Engineering. Admission is through the All India Engineering Entrance Examination (AIEEE). Foreign students are accepted based on SAT II scores. IIITA has an extension campus at Amethi, Sultanpur District, Uttar Pradesh, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Information Technology.

The Gautam Buddha Technical University
Gautam Buddha Technical University
Gautam Buddh Technical University is a state university in Uttar Pradesh, India. It is one of the biggest universities in terms of number of affiliated colleges. Gautam Buddh Technical University was formed on 1 May 2010 from the bifurcation of the erstwhile Uttar Pradesh Technical University...

 is one of the famous technical universities in India, earlier known as Uttar Pradesh Technical University
Uttar Pradesh Technical University
Uttar Pradesh Technical University was a public university in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh set up by the Government of Uttar Pradesh on May 8, 2000...

. It which provides technical education includes programs of education, research and training in Engineering, Technology, Architecture, Town Planning, Pharmacy, Applied Arts and Crafts and such other programs and areas that the central government may declare in consultation with All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE). There are five government engineering college of UPTU:
  1. Harcourt Butler Technological Institute
    Harcourt Butler Technological Institute
    Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur is an academic autonomous engineering college under the Uttar Pradesh Technical University. Its programs have been conferred autonomous status under the university. It is the second engineering institute in Uttar Pradesh after the former University of...

    , Kanpur
  2. Madan Mohan Malaviya Engineering College
    Madan Mohan Malaviya Engineering College
    Madan Mohan Malaviya Engineering College, , is a state funded autonomous engineering institute in the city of Gorakhpur in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India...

    , Gorakhpur
  3. Institute of Engineering and Technology
    Institute of Engineering and Technology
    The Institute of Engineering and Technology Lucknow is a state government-funded engineering college in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is a constituent college of Gautam Buddh Technical University .- History :The IET was established by the government of Uttar Pradesh in 1984, for imparting...

    , Lucknow
  4. Kamla Nehru Institute of Technology
    Kamla Nehru Institute of Technology
    Kamla Nehru Institute of Technology , is a state government funded engineering college in Sultanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.-History:...

    , Sultanpur
  5. Bundelkhand Institute of Engineering & Technology
    Bundelkhand Institute of Engineering & Technology
    Bundelkhand Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jhansi , is a government-funded engineering college in Uttar Pradesh, India. It is a constituent college of Gautam Buddha Technical University . It is recognised by the All India Council for Technical Education...

    , Janshi


There are many other reputed schools in the state capital Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

, including the famous Colvin Taluqdars' College,Lucknow, St. Francis' College, Lucknow
St. Francis' College, Lucknow
St. Francis' College is a Senior Secondary boys-only private school in Lucknow, India, established and administered by The Catholic Diocease of Lucknow, a charitable religious society. The college was founded in 1885 as St. Francis' School and Orphanage, with the object of imparting education in a...

 and La Martinière College
La Martiniere College
La Martiniere is a non-denominational public school in India and in France .La Martiniere Schools were founded posthumously by Major General Claude Martin in the early 19th century. Martin had acquired a large fortune while serving the Nawab of Awadh Asaf-ud-Daula and bequeathed a major part of...

. Other schools, like Loreto Convent, St Agnes' Loreto High School, CMS
City Montessori School
City Montessori School , Lucknow is a private school that offers education up to the level of under-graduation, in Lucknow, India. The school was founded in 1959 by Bharti Gandhi and Jagdish Gandhi. By 2008 its enrollment had reached 32,000 pupils, a world record...

 are also there.

A Government Degree College was set up by the Government of Uttar Pradesh
Government of Uttar Pradesh
The Government of Uttar Pradesh is a democratically elected body with the Governor as the constitutional head. The Governor of Uttar Pradesh who is appointed for a period of five years, appoints the Chief Minister and his council of ministers...

 for providing higher education
Higher education
Higher, post-secondary, tertiary, or third level education refers to the stage of learning that occurs at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institutes of technology...

 to scholars who are interested in course work and programs of higher studies. At present, 137 Government Degree Colleges
Government Degree Colleges, India
Government degree colleges in India are public sector educational institutes managed mainly through rule and regulations of government accompanied by University Grants Commission . Education in India has been categorized in the elementary, secondary and higher education...

 have been established by the state government to fulfill above criteria. The UP government administers, manages and controls these colleges through Department of Higher Education, Uttar Pradesh and follows the norms and regulations of University Grants Commission, New Delhi.

The Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow is one of the youngest central universities in the country. The jurisdiction of this residential university is over the entire state of Uttar Pradesh. The campus Vidya Vihar is located off Rae Bareli Road, about 10 km south of the Charbagh Railway Station, Lucknow. All courses offered by the university are postgraduate, innovative and non-traditional.

Economy

Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India contributing 8.34% to India's total GDP. Uttar Pradesh had been one of the famous Indian BIMARU states for long time, the term that was used for a state developing at very slow growth rate. But recently in the 11th five year plan(2007–12), Uttar Pradesh has registered 7.28% GDP growth rate against the target of 6.10% and is part of 5 states that exceeded the targets of growth rates. Rising GDP growth rate of UP is the result of current majority govt under Mayawati which has taken over power in 2007 and made significant changes in economic policy as UP had failed to attain even a GDP growth rate of 5% since Independence. Mayawati govt decided to promote the Lucknow region as another IT destination after Noida. Some IT giants like TCS have already started their campus in Lucknow since 2008-09.

The major economic activity in the state is agriculture
Agriculture in India
Agriculture in India has a significant history. Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry and logging accounted for 16.6% of the GDP in 2007, % of the total workforce and despite a steady decline of its share in the GDP, is still the largest...

; in 1991, 73% of the population in the state was engaged in agriculture and 46% of the state income was accounted for by agriculture. UP has retained its preeminent position in the country as a food-surplus state.

Uttar Pradesh is home to largest number of Small Scale industrial units in the country, with 12% of over 2.3 million units. But, industrial output has been adversely affected by erratic power supply from the UP State Electricity Board and remains far below its full production capacity. Unavailability of adequate raw materials at competitive prices is another negative factor. Also, like in most parts of India, traders and middlemen make most of the profits while the labour class lives at subsistence level.
Nevertheless, labour efficiency is higher in UP at 26 than the national average of 25.

With a solid GDP of US$20 billion, Kanpur is the largest economic hub of Uttar Pradesh - followed by Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

 - that is why Kanpur is assigned the status of economic capital of Uttar Pradesh and is the only city of the State listed in the 'Top 10 Indian cities'. Following are some of the important industrial hubs in the state:

Kanpur is the largest shoe-manufacturing centre in the country with strong leather, engineering, chemical and other booming sector Industries.

NOIDA
Noida
Noida , short for the New Okhla Industrial Development Area, is an area in India under the management of the New Okhla Industrial Development Authority . Noida came into administrative existence on 17 April 1976 and celebrates 17 April as "Noida Day". It was set up as part of an urbanization...

 is among the top IT (Information Technology
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

) destinations of the country while Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

 is an emerging one.

Meerut, a manufacturing centre of sports goods, sharp tools like scissors and also of gold ornaments, is regularly listed among the top tax-paying cities in the country.

Mirzapur
Mirzapur
Mirzapur is a city in the heart of North India, nearly 650 km between Delhi and Kolkata and also equidistant from Allahabad and Varanasi. Located in the state of Uttar Pradesh, Mirzapur has a population of a little over 205,264 and is renowned for its famous carpet and brassware industry...

 and Bhadohi
Bhadohi
Bhadohi is a city ,Lok Sabha constituency and a municipal board in Sant Ravidas Nagar district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Also known as the "Carpet City", as it is home to the largest hand-knotted carpet weaving industry hubs in South Asia...

 are manufacturing centres and worldwide exporters of carpets and cotton durries.

Moradabad
Moradabad
Moradabad is a city and a municipal corporation in Moradabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It was established in 1600 by prince Murad, the son of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan; as a result the city came to be known as Moradabad. It is the administrative headquarters of...

, a famous production centre of traditional 'Moradabadi' metalware, has emerged now as a major producer and exporter of stainless steel utensils also.

Aligarh is a manufacturing hub of brass, zinc, aluminium, iron door fittings and is also famous for its padlocks. These items are exported all over the world.

Agra
Agra
Agra a.k.a. Akbarabad is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, west of state capital, Lucknow and south from national capital New Delhi. With a population of 1,686,976 , it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh and the 19th most...

 was visited by more than 8 million domestic and 825,000 foreign tourists in 2006, followed by Varanasi
Varanasi
-Etymology:The name Varanasi has its origin possibly from the names of the two rivers Varuna and Assi, for the old city lies in the north shores of the Ganga bounded by its two tributaries, the Varuna and the Asi, with the Ganges being to its south...

, Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

, Allahabad
Allahabad
Allahabad , or Settled by God in Persian, is a major city of India and is one of the main holy cities of Hinduism. It was renamed by the Mughals from the ancient name of Prayaga , and is by some accounts the second-oldest city in India. It is located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh,...

, Vrindaban, Budaun
Budaun
Badaun or Badayun is a city in the north-central Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. According to famous British Historian George Smith Budaun was named after Ahir prince Budh. Badaun comes under upper doab of Gangatic plains. Pede from Badaun are famous throughout world.-Demographics: India...

 and Mathura.Agra
Agra
Agra a.k.a. Akbarabad is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, west of state capital, Lucknow and south from national capital New Delhi. With a population of 1,686,976 , it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh and the 19th most...

 is also famoush for handicraft items, gold jewellery and a number of small scale industries.

Sonebhadra a district in Eastern Uttar Pradesh hase many large scale industries and its southern region, known as the Energy Capital Of India, has more than a dozen of Power Plants of UPRVUNL and NTPC
NTPC
NTPC may refer to:* Nam Theun 2 Power Company* National Thermal Power Corporation, in India* Northwest Territories Power Corporation...

 around the Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar
Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar
Govind Vallabh Pant Sagar is a man made lake situated in southern region of Sonebhadra named after Bharat Ratna Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant Chief minister of United Provinces present day Uttar Pradesh was a statesman of India, an Indian independence activist, and one of the foremost political...

 which produces more than 10,000 MW. of electricity, largest in India after Dadri
Dadri
Dadri is a city and a municipal board in Gautam Buddha Nagar District in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.-Geography:Dadri is located at . It has an average elevation of 216 metres .It has world largest power project.-Demographics:...

 in Western Uttar Pradesh
Western Uttar Pradesh
Western Uttar Pradesh, sometimes simply referred to as West U.P., is a region in India that comprises the western districts of Uttar Pradesh state, including the areas of Rohilkhand and Braj. The region has some demographic, economic and cultural patterns which are distinct from other parts of...

. NCL has its headquarters in this region and is planning to build a couple of power plants each with Installed capacity of 1,000 MWs. This region has a private airport at Muirpur owned by Hindalco a subsidiary of the Aditya Birla Group
Aditya Birla Group
The Aditya Birla Group is an Indian multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Mumbai, India. It operates in 33 countries with more than 133,000 employees worldwide...

.

Economy is gearing itself to cater to contemporary Western
Western world
The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident , is a term referring to the countries of Western Europe , the countries of the Americas, as well all countries of Northern and Central Europe, Australia and New Zealand...

 tastes and life style in upper class Uttar Pradeshis; elegant shopping mall
Shopping mall
A shopping mall, shopping centre, shopping arcade, shopping precinct or simply mall is one or more buildings forming a complex of shops representing merchandisers, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit, along with a parking area — a modern, indoor version...

s are coming up in big cities to satisfy their needs. The economy also benefits from the State's thriving tourism industry.
Allahabad has glass, wire based industries. The main industrial area of Allahabad is Naini and Phulpur, where several public and private sector companies have their units, offices and factories. These include AREVA T&D India [2] (a division of multinational Areva Group), Bharat Pumps & Compressors (BPC)[3] which is a Miniratna now, Indian Telephone Industries Limited [ITI] was set up in Naini in the year 1971 for the manufacture of transmission equipment. The major products are optic fibre systems of both PDH and SDH and telephone instruments of various types, Reliance Industries - Allahabad Manufacturing Division, Hindustan Cables also called as HCL which has now been taken over by defence for its revival, Triveni Structurals Limited (TSL, a subsidiary of Bharat Yantra Nigam), GEEP battery factory etc. Indian Farmers Fertilizer Co-Operative is in Phulpur. IFFCO's Phulpur complex has two Urea production units and once was world’s largest fertiliser complex based on naphtha as feed stock. But owing to environmental concerns, it has been switched to Natural Gas based Plant
Baidyanath Ayurved has its unit in Naini, Allahabad

Transportation

The state has a large network of multimodal transportation system:

Airways: The state has four major airports and 23 airstrips. Cities that have nationally well connected. Amausi International Airport
Amausi Airport
Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport or Amausi International Airport, named after former Prime Minister of India, Chaudhary Charan Singh , is situated near Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. The airport serves as the primary civilian aviation hub for the metropolitan area of the cities of...

 in Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

 is the state's main airport. Other Domestic airports are Kanpur, Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur is a city in the eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, near the border with Nepal. It is the administrative headquarters of Gorakhpur District and Gorakhpur Division. Gorakhpur is one of the proposed capitals of the Purvanchal state which is yet to be formed...

, Agra
Agra
Agra a.k.a. Akbarabad is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, west of state capital, Lucknow and south from national capital New Delhi. With a population of 1,686,976 , it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh and the 19th most...

, Allahabad
Allahabad
Allahabad , or Settled by God in Persian, is a major city of India and is one of the main holy cities of Hinduism. It was renamed by the Mughals from the ancient name of Prayaga , and is by some accounts the second-oldest city in India. It is located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh,...

 and Varanasi
Varanasi
-Etymology:The name Varanasi has its origin possibly from the names of the two rivers Varuna and Assi, for the old city lies in the north shores of the Ganga bounded by its two tributaries, the Varuna and the Asi, with the Ganges being to its south...

.

Railways: Almost all the major as well as smaller cities of the state are linked through railways. It has largest railway network in the country; with a total length of 8,546 km (as on 2006) and the sixth largest railway density. The Railway stations of Lucknow NR, Kanpur Central, Varanasi JN, Agra Cant and Mathura JN are included in the 50 world class railway stations by Indian Railways in its annual budget.

Roadways: The state has largest road network in the country, after Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

. It boasts of 31 National Highways (NH), with a total length of 4,942 km (8.5% of total NH length in India). Approx. each and every city is connected to State highways, most important of them are SH33, SH29 and SH51. Budaun city is the key city of these highways. It has seventh highest road density in India, (1,027 km per 1000 km,2 as on 2002 ) and largest surfaced urban road network in the country (50,721 km, as on 2002). Cities of Kanpur, Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

, Bareilly
Bareilly
Bareilly is a prominent city in Bareilly district in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Standing on the Ramganga river, it is the capital of the Bareilly division and the geographical region Rohilkhand...

, Allahabad
Allahabad
Allahabad , or Settled by God in Persian, is a major city of India and is one of the main holy cities of Hinduism. It was renamed by the Mughals from the ancient name of Prayaga , and is by some accounts the second-oldest city in India. It is located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh,...

, Varanasi
Varanasi
-Etymology:The name Varanasi has its origin possibly from the names of the two rivers Varuna and Assi, for the old city lies in the north shores of the Ganga bounded by its two tributaries, the Varuna and the Asi, with the Ganges being to its south...

, Jhansi
Jhansi
Jhansi Hindi:झाँसी, , Marathi: झाशी, is a historical city of India. Jhansi is the administrative headquarters of Jhansi District and Jhansi Division. The original walled city grew up around its stone fort, which crowns a neighboring rock. This district is on the bank of river Betwa.The National...

, Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur is a city in the eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, near the border with Nepal. It is the administrative headquarters of Gorakhpur District and Gorakhpur Division. Gorakhpur is one of the proposed capitals of the Purvanchal state which is yet to be formed...

, Agra
Agra
Agra a.k.a. Akbarabad is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, west of state capital, Lucknow and south from national capital New Delhi. With a population of 1,686,976 , it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh and the 19th most...

 and Ghazipur
Ghazipur
Ghazipur , or Ghazipur City, previously spelt Ghazeepore, is a city/town and a municipal corporation and headquarter of Ghazipur district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the administrative headquarters of Ghazipur Division and Sub-division...

 are connected to a number of National Highways. The National Golden Quadrilateral
Golden Quadrilateral
The Golden Quadrilateral is a highway network connecting India's four largest metropolises: Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata, thus forming a quadrilateral of sorts. Four other top ten metropolises: Bangalore, Pune, Ahmedabad, and Surat, are also served by the network...

 of India is also passes through the cities of Agra
Agra
Agra a.k.a. Akbarabad is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, west of state capital, Lucknow and south from national capital New Delhi. With a population of 1,686,976 , it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh and the 19th most...

, Kanpur, Allahabad
Allahabad
Allahabad , or Settled by God in Persian, is a major city of India and is one of the main holy cities of Hinduism. It was renamed by the Mughals from the ancient name of Prayaga , and is by some accounts the second-oldest city in India. It is located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh,...

 and Varanasi
Varanasi
-Etymology:The name Varanasi has its origin possibly from the names of the two rivers Varuna and Assi, for the old city lies in the north shores of the Ganga bounded by its two tributaries, the Varuna and the Asi, with the Ganges being to its south...

 within the state. With an existing expressway between Lucknow and Kanpur, new expressways are coming up between Agra and Noida
Yamuna Expressway
Yamuna Expressway , formerly known as Taj Expressway project was conceived with the idea of reducing the travel time between Noida and Agra...

 and between Noida and Ballia
Ganga Expressway
The Ganga Expressway Project was launched by Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Mayawati after coming to power in 2007. The project aims to construct a 1047 km access controlled eight-laned expressway running along the Ganga River...

 ( through Unnao
Unnao
The town of Unnao is the headquarters of Unnao District in Uttar Pradesh, India between Kanpur and Lucknow. It is approximately 18 km from Kanpur & 60 km from Lucknow . It is connected to these two cities by roadway as well as by railway. The nearest airport is at Amausi about...

-Kanpur). The State Government’s road transport company Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) serves nationalized routes in the state for intrastate and interstate transport. The State also set up the Uttar Pradesh Expressways Industrial Development Authority
Uttar Pradesh Expressways Industrial Development Authority
The Uttar Pradesh Expressways Industrial Development Authority is an authority set up by the Government of Uttar Pradesh to develop Expressway Projects in the state.The authority is set up to develop the following expressway projects:* Ganga Expressway...

 with the task of developing 7 new expressways.

Waterways: A long stretch of the river Ganges – from Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh) to Haldia
Haldia
Haldia has a typical moderate climate with winter temperatures ranging from a low of around 7 degrees Celsius to a high of 22 degrees Celsius. Winters are chilly and is when the residents hold the Haldia Utsav festival. Summers can be very hot and humid. Usual summer temperatures in May, the...

 (West Bengal) – has been declared as National Waterway
Inland Waterways Authority of India
India has an extensive network of inland waterways in the form of rivers, canals, backwaters and creeks. The total navigable length is 14,500 km, out of which about 5200 km of river and 4000 km of canals can be used by mechanised crafts...

 (NW)-I and 600 km of the total NW-I lies in Uttar Pradesh.

Although, the state has a large and diversified transportation network, its condition and functioning need substantial improvement.

Sports

Presently, common sports of Uttar Pradesh are of two distinct genre: the Traditional Sports and the modern sports of mainly European origin.

Traditional sports, now played mostly as a past time, include wrestling
Wrestling
Wrestling is a form of grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds. A wrestling bout is a physical competition, between two competitors or sparring partners, who attempt to gain and maintain a superior position...

, swimming, kabaddi
Kabaddi
Kabaddi is a South Asian team sport...

 and track- or water
Water
Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state . Water also exists in a...

-sports played according to local traditional rules and without use of modern gears; some times, display of martial skills using a sword or ‘Pata’ (stick) etc. form the basis of sports. Due to lack of organized patronage and requisite facilities, these sports are surviving mostly as individuals' hobbies or local competitive events, e.g. in interested schools.

Modern sports – the indoor, field and track games – are popular, especially among the educated class, but the State has yet to attain all-round national standing in most of them. Field hockey
Field hockey
Field Hockey, or Hockey, is a team sport in which a team of players attempts to score goals by hitting, pushing or flicking a ball into an opposing team's goal using sticks...

 is very popular and Uttar Pradesh has produced some of the finest players in India.

Olympic hockey player Dhyan Chand
Dhyan Chand
Dhyan Chand ; born August 29, 1905 in Allahabad, United Provinces, British India. – Died:December 3, 1979), was an Indian field hockey player, regarded as one of the greatest field hockey players of all time...

 was born on 29 August 1905, in Allahabad
Allahabad
Allahabad , or Settled by God in Persian, is a major city of India and is one of the main holy cities of Hinduism. It was renamed by the Mughals from the ancient name of Prayaga , and is by some accounts the second-oldest city in India. It is located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh,...

, Uttar Pradesh. Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor of Germany, was so impressed by Dhyan Chand's performance in the Berlin Olympic
1936 Summer Olympics
The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain on April 26, 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona...

 hockey finals that he offered to elevate 'Lance Naik
Lance Naik
Lance Naik is the equivalent rank to Lance Corporal in the Pakistan and Indian Armies and before 1947, in the British Indian Army, ranking below Naik. In cavalry units the equivalent is Acting Lance Daffadar. Like a British Lance Corporal, he wore a single rank chevron....

' Dhyan Chand to the rank of a Colonel
Colonel
Colonel , abbreviated Col or COL, is a military rank of a senior commissioned officer. It or a corresponding rank exists in most armies and in many air forces; the naval equivalent rank is generally "Captain". It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures...

 if he migrated to Germany; Chand had declined the offer.

Cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

 has become more popular than field hockey
Hockey
Hockey is a family of sports in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.-Etymology:...

. U.P. won its first Ranji Trophy
Ranji Trophy
The Ranji Trophy is a domestic first-class cricket championship played in India between different city and state sides, equivalent to the County Championship in England and the Sheffield Shield in Australia...

 tournament in February 2006, beating Bengal
Bengal
Bengal is a historical and geographical region in the northeast region of the Indian Subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Today, it is mainly divided between the sovereign land of People's Republic of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, although some regions of the previous...

 in the final. It can also boast of its 3 or 4 players normally finding a place in the national side.
Green Park Stadium
Green Park Stadium
Green Park Stadium is a 60,000 capacity floodlit multi-purpose stadium located in Kanpur, India, and the home of the Uttar Pradesh cricket team. The stadium is under the control of the Sports Department Uttar Pradesh...

, Kanpur is the only one internationally recognized cricket stadium in Uttar Pradesh.

Others

Green Park Stadium
Green Park Stadium
Green Park Stadium is a 60,000 capacity floodlit multi-purpose stadium located in Kanpur, India, and the home of the Uttar Pradesh cricket team. The stadium is under the control of the Sports Department Uttar Pradesh...

 in Kanpur is one of the oldest cricket venues in India and has witnessed some of India's most famous victories.
Greater Noida International Sports City in Greater Noida
Greater Noida
Greater Noida is located in the Gautam Budh Nagar district of the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh . It is under the purview of the National Capital Region of India...

 possess India's first formula-one trackBuddh International Circuit a venue for Indian Grand Prix
Indian Grand Prix
The Indian Grand Prix is a race in the calendar of the FIA Formula One World Championship. It is currently held at the Buddh International Circuit in Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India...

 and an international cricket stadium (Greater Noida Cricket Stadium
Greater Noida Cricket Stadium
Greater Noida Cricket Stadium is an under-construction cricket stadium in Greater Noida, India. It is being built along with the Buddh International Circuit and is expected to be completed by the end of the year 2011. It will seat 40,000 spectators initially, but will gradually be increased to...

) is being built along with the Buddh International Circuit. It will seat 40,000 spectators initially, but will gradually be increased to 100,000.

Tourism

Uttar Pradesh attracts a large number of visitors, both national and international; with more than 71 million domestic tourists (in 2003) and almost 25% of the All-India foreign tourists visiting Uttar Pradesh, it is one of the top tourist destinations in India. There are two regions in the state where a majority of the tourists go, viz. the Agra circuit and the Hindu pilgrimage circuit.

The city of Agra
Agra
Agra a.k.a. Akbarabad is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, west of state capital, Lucknow and south from national capital New Delhi. With a population of 1,686,976 , it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh and the 19th most...

, gives access to three World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

s: Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal is a white Marble mausoleum located in Agra, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal...

, Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Agra Fort, is a monument situated at Agra, is a UNESCO World Heritage site located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is about 2.5 km northwest of its more famous sister monument, the Taj Mahal...

 and the nearby Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri is a city and a municipal board in Agra district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Built near the much older Sikri, the historical city of Fatehabad, as it was first named, was constructed by Mughal emperor Akbar beginning in 1570...

. Taj Mahal is a mausoleum built by Mughal
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal born as Arjumand Banu Begum was a Mughal Empress and chief consort of emperor Shah Jahan...

. It is cited as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage". Agra Fort is about 2.5 km northwest of its much more famous sister monument, the Taj Mahal. The fort can be more accurately described as a walled palatial city. Fatehpur Sikri was the world famous 16th century capital city near Agra, built by the Mughal emperor Akbar the Great
Akbar the Great
Akbar , also known as Shahanshah Akbar-e-Azam or Akbar the Great , was the third Mughal Emperor. He was of Timurid descent; the son of Emperor Humayun, and the grandson of the Mughal Emperor Zaheeruddin Muhammad Babur, the ruler who founded the Mughal dynasty in India...

, whose mausoleum
Tomb of Akbar the Great
The Tomb of Akbar the Great is an important Mughal architectural masterpiece, built 1605-1613, set in 48 Ha of grounds in Sikandra, a suburb of Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India.-History:...

 in Agra is also worth a visit.
Dayal Bagh
Dayal Bagh
Dayal Bagh means 'Garden' of 'Mercy' , inferring "Garden of the Merciful Lord." It is the headquarters of the Radhasoami Satsang, located in Agra of the Braj region of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is a spiritual/science campus, i.e. the holy place of the Radhasoami Faith, where the 8th revered...

 in Agra is a modern day temple and popular tourist sight. Its lifelike sculptures in marble are unique in India. Agra's dubious modern attractions include Asia's largest Spa as well as Asia's first and only 6D theatre.

The pilgrimage circuit includes the holiest of the Hindu holy cities on the banks of sacred rivers Ganges
Ganges River
The Ganges or Ganga, , is a trans-boundary river of India and Bangladesh. The river rises in the western Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, and flows south and east through the Gangetic Plain of North India into Bangladesh, where it empties into the Bay of Bengal. By discharge it...

 and the Yamuna
Yamuna
The Yamuna is the largest tributary river of the Ganges in northern India...

: Varanasi
Varanasi
-Etymology:The name Varanasi has its origin possibly from the names of the two rivers Varuna and Assi, for the old city lies in the north shores of the Ganga bounded by its two tributaries, the Varuna and the Asi, with the Ganges being to its south...

 (also considered world's oldest city), Ayodhya (birth place of Lord Rama), Mathura (birth place of Lord Krishna), Vrindavan
Vrindavan
Vrindavan also known as Vraj is a town in the Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh, India...

 (the village where Lord Krishna spent his childhood), and Allahabad
Allahabad
Allahabad , or Settled by God in Persian, is a major city of India and is one of the main holy cities of Hinduism. It was renamed by the Mughals from the ancient name of Prayaga , and is by some accounts the second-oldest city in India. It is located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh,...

 (the confluence or 'holy-sangam' of the sacred Ganges-Yamuna rivers).

Varanasi
Varanasi
-Etymology:The name Varanasi has its origin possibly from the names of the two rivers Varuna and Assi, for the old city lies in the north shores of the Ganga bounded by its two tributaries, the Varuna and the Asi, with the Ganges being to its south...

 is widely considered to be one of the oldest cities in the world. It is famous for its ghats
Ghats
As used in many parts of South Asia, the term ghat refers to a series of steps leading down to a water body, usually a holy river. In Bengali-speaking regions, this set of stairs can lead down to something as small as a pond or as large as a major river....

 (bathing steps along the river), full of pilgrims year round who come to bathe in the sacred Ganges River.
Mathura is world-famous for its colourful celebrations of the Holi
Holi
Holi , is a religious spring festival celebrated by Hindus. Holi is also known as festival of Colours. It is primarily observed in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and countries with large Indic diaspora populations following Hinduism, such as Suriname, Malaysia, Guyana, South Africa, Trinidad, United...

 festival, which attracts many tourists also – thanks partly to the hype, which the Indian film industry has given to this highly entertaining socio-religious festival.

Thousands gather at Allahabad
Allahabad
Allahabad , or Settled by God in Persian, is a major city of India and is one of the main holy cities of Hinduism. It was renamed by the Mughals from the ancient name of Prayaga , and is by some accounts the second-oldest city in India. It is located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh,...

 to take part in the Magh Mela festival, which is held on the banks of the Ganges. This festival is organised on a larger scale every 12th year and is called the Kumbha Mela, where over 10 million Hindu pilgrims congregate – proclaimed as one of the largest gathering of human beings in the world.

Budaun
Budaun
Badaun or Badayun is a city in the north-central Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. According to famous British Historian George Smith Budaun was named after Ahir prince Budh. Badaun comes under upper doab of Gangatic plains. Pede from Badaun are famous throughout world.-Demographics: India...

 is also a city which attracts thousands of tourists annually. Its religious city with many historical monuments and tombs of many famous people.

The historically important towns of Sarnath
Sarnath
Sarnath or Sārnātha is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. Sarnath is located 13 kilometres north-east of Varanasi, in Uttar Pradesh, India...

 and Kushinagar
Kushinagar
Kushinagar , Kusinagar or Kusinara is a town and a nagar panchayat in Kushinagar district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is an important Buddhist pilgrimage site, where Gautama Buddha is believed to have attained Parinirvana after his death.-Demographics: India census, Kushinagar had a...

 are located not far from Varanasi. Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
Siddhārtha Gautama was a spiritual teacher from the Indian subcontinent, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from the Indian...

 gave his first sermon at Sarnath after his enlightenment and died at Kushinagar; both are important pilgrimage sites for Buddhists. Also at Sarnath are the Pillars of Ashoka
Pillars of Ashoka
The pillars of Ashoka are a series of columns dispersed throughout the northern Indian subcontinent, erected or at least inscribed by the Mauryan king Ashoka during his reign in the 3rd century BCE. Originally, there must have been many pillars but only nineteen survive with inscriptions. Many are...

 and the Lion Capital of Ashoka, both important archaeological artifacts with national significance. At a distance of 80 km from Varanasi, Ghazipur
Ghazipur
Ghazipur , or Ghazipur City, previously spelt Ghazeepore, is a city/town and a municipal corporation and headquarter of Ghazipur district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the administrative headquarters of Ghazipur Division and Sub-division...

 is famous not only for its Ganges Ghats but also for the Tomb of British potentate Lord Cornwallis, maintained by the Archeological Survey of India.

Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

, the capital of Uttar Pradesh, has several beautiful historical monuments such as Bara Imambara
Bara Imambara
Bara Imambara is an imambara complex in Lucknow, India, built by Asaf-ud-daulah, Nawab of Lucknow, in 1784. It is also called the Asafi Imambara.Bara means big, and an imambara is a shrine built by Shia Muslims for the purpose of Azadari...

 and Chhota Imambara
Chhota Imambara
Chhota Imambara , also known as Hussainabad Imambara is an imposing monument located in the city of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. Built by Muhammad Ali Shah, The third Nawab of Avadh in 1838, it was to serve as his own mausoleum...

. It has also preserved the damaged complex of the Oudh-period British Resident's quarters, which are being restored.

Some of the main natuaral protected areas in Uttar Prdesh are:-
  • Dudhwa National Park
    Dudhwa National Park
    Dudhwa National Park is located in the Terai of Uttar Pradesh, India and covers an area of 680 km2 with a buffer area of almost 190 km2. In altitude it ranges from about to . The international border with Nepal forms the northern boundary, and the River Suheli the southern boundary. Its...

     is one of the best tiger reserves in the country.
  • Pilibhit Tiger Reserve
    Pilibhit Tiger Reserve
    -Introduction:Pilibhit is one of the few well forested districts in Uttar Pradesh. According to an estimate of year 2004, Pilibhit district has over 800 km2 forests, constituting roughly 23 per cent of the district’s total area....

     – home to the Tiger Reserve.
  • Sandi Bird Sanctuary
    Sandi Bird Sanctuary
    Sandi Bird Sanctuary is a bird sanctuary in Hardoi district of Uttar Pradesh, India.The sanctuary is located at a distance of 19 km on Hardoi-Sandi Road in Hardoi district of Uttar Pradesh...

     - houses about 20,000 migratory birds annually.
  • Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary
    Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary
    Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary is a part of the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve, and is located in Uttar Pradesh near the India-Nepal border, in the Terai area of Bahraich district...

     – the most concentrated sanctuary in India with a large population of tigers as well as leopards – situated in Bahraich
    Bahraich
    Bahraich is a city and a municipal board in Bahraich district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Located on the Saryu River, a tributary of river Ghaghra, Bahraich is 125 km north-east of Lucknow, the state capital. The towns of Barabanki, Gonda, Balrampur, Lakhimpur and Sitapur share...

     and bordering Nepal
    Nepal
    Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

     is also worth a visit.


Some areas require a special permit
Foreigners (Protected Areas) Order 1958 (India)
The Foreigners Order 1958 states that a Protected Area Permit is required for non-Indian citizens to visit certain areas in India . Certain requirements have to be fulfilled in order to get this permit. Indian citizens, who are not resident in these areas need a Inner Line Permit to enter these...

 for non-Indians to visit.

Architecture

Architectural legacies of the past millennia of Uttar Pradesh survive to varying extent. The oldest of them fall within the purview of archeology or mythology; religious places in the State – identifiable in the narratives of Puranas
Puranas
The Puranas are a genre of important Hindu, Jain and Buddhist religious texts, notably consisting of narratives of the history of the universe from creation to destruction, genealogies of kings, heroes, sages, and demigods, and descriptions of Hindu cosmology, philosophy, and geography.Puranas...

 and other sacred literature of Indian religions – have architectural edifices that are very old and have been built over repeatedly in course of time.

Medieval kings and emperors have left imposing monuments: forts, palaces, temples, mosques and mausoleums, whose external and internal grandeur recalls the opulence of those times. British colonial architecture is still seen in many cities' judicial buildings, hospitals, banks, post offices, police stations, and railway stations.

Art and craft

Uttar Pradesh is famous for its rich heritage of art and craft. Most famous centres are the following:
  • Agra
    Agra
    Agra a.k.a. Akbarabad is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, west of state capital, Lucknow and south from national capital New Delhi. With a population of 1,686,976 , it is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh and the 19th most...

     since the Mughal
    Mughal Empire
    The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

     era has been home to numerous Mughal crafts, including the Pietra Dura
    Pietra dura
    Pietra dura or pietre dure , called parchin kari in South Asia, is a term for the technique of using cut and fitted, highly-polished colored stones to create images. It is considered a decorative art...

    , still practiced today.
  • Aligarh is famous for its Lock around the world; Aligarh Muslim University is famous for Education in whole world.
  • Bareilly
    Bareilly
    Bareilly is a prominent city in Bareilly district in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Standing on the Ramganga river, it is the capital of the Bareilly division and the geographical region Rohilkhand...

      boasts for its Zari work
    Zardozi
    Zardozi or Zar-douzi work is a type of embroidery in Iran, India and Pakistan.-Iran:Zardozi is on of the most important elements of Persian cultural signs and Handicrafts. It is named around the country by names such Zar-douzi , Kam-douzi , Gol-douzi and Kaman-douzi...

    , (a type of fabric decoration), 'Jhumka' - an intricate ear-rings or ear-pendants, Manja
    Manja (kite)
    Manja , is the abrasive string used with fighter kites in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Chile, India, Nepal and Pakistan. It is gummed, coloured and coated with powdered glass. In Brazil, the mix of glue and powered glass is called "cerol"....

     and Surma (Kohl (cosmetics)
    Kohl (cosmetics)
    Kohl is an ancient eye cosmetic. It was made by grinding galena and other ingredients. It is widely used in South Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and parts of West Africa to darken the eyelids and as mascara for the eyelashes...

    ).
  • Firozabad
    Firozabad
    Firozabad is a city in India, in the state of Uttar Pradesh.The ancient name of this town was Chandwar nagar; it is said that once in reign of Akbar the great, revenue was being brought through the city. it was looted by the people who lived here...

    , the city of bangles, is also a hub for crafting many glass accessories. The glass artifacts produced in its factories are of high value and are exported all over the country and around the world.
  • Kannauj
    Kannauj
    Kannauj , also spelt Kanauj, is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The city's name is traditionally derived from the term Kanyakubja . Kannauj is an ancient city, in earlier times the capital...

     is well known for oriental perfumes, scents and rose water and also for traditional tobacco products.
  • Kanpur is internationally known for its leather craft; shoes and other leather items are made here for the Indian market and exported to foreign countries as well. Kanpur is also known as Leather City of the World.
  • Khurja
    Khurja
    Khurja is a city in the Bulandshahr district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is situated around 85 km from Delhi...

     is famous for its ceramics pottery; in fact, the entire state is famous for its pottery not only in India but also around the world.
  • Lucknow
    Lucknow
    Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

    , the capital, boasts of its cloth work and embroidery (chikan
    Chikan (embroidery)
    Chikan is a traditional embroidery style from Lucknow, India. Literally translated, the word means embroidery. Believed to have been introduced by Nur Jehan, Mughal emperor Jahangir's wife, it is one of Lucknow's most famous textile decoration styles....

    ) work on silk
    Silk
    Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The best-known type of silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity...

     and cotton garments.
  • Allahabad
    Allahabad
    Allahabad , or Settled by God in Persian, is a major city of India and is one of the main holy cities of Hinduism. It was renamed by the Mughals from the ancient name of Prayaga , and is by some accounts the second-oldest city in India. It is located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh,...

     is known for its National Institute of Art & Craft College.
  • Bhadohi
    Bhadohi
    Bhadohi is a city ,Lok Sabha constituency and a municipal board in Sant Ravidas Nagar district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Also known as the "Carpet City", as it is home to the largest hand-knotted carpet weaving industry hubs in South Asia...

     is known for its carpets, a craft which dates back to the 16th century, during the reign of Mughal Emperor, Akbar and is believed to have established when centuries ago, some Iran
    Iran
    Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

    ian master weavers stopped at Madhosingh village, near Khamaria
    Khamaria
    Khamaria is a town and a nagar panchayat in Sant Ravidas Nagar District in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.-Demographics: India census, Khamaria had a population of 27,581. Males constitute 48% of the population and females 52%. Khamaria has an average literacy rate of 36%, well below the...

    , in Bhadohi while travelling in India, and subsequently set up looms here. Bhadohi carpets received the Geographical Indication
    Geographical indication
    A geographical indication is a name or sign used on certain products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin...

     (GI) tag in 2010, and also known as dollar-city; beside this, it is one of the highest revenue generating districts of UP.
  • Moradabad
    Moradabad
    Moradabad is a city and a municipal corporation in Moradabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It was established in 1600 by prince Murad, the son of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan; as a result the city came to be known as Moradabad. It is the administrative headquarters of...

     is well known for its metal-ware, especially brass artifacts.
  • Pilibhit
    Pilibhit
    Pilibhit |Hafizabad]]) is a city and a municipal board in the Pilibhit district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Pilibhit is the north-eastern most district of Bareilly division, situated in the Rohilkhand region of the sub-Himalayan Plateau belt on the boundary of Nepal, known for the origin...

     is known for its wooden footwear (locally called Paduka
    Paduka
    Paduka is the name of India's oldest, most quintessential footwear. It is little more than a sole with a post and knob, which is engaged between the big and second toe....

     or Khadaon) and also for flutes made of wooden pipes. Flutes are exported to Europe, America and other countries.
  • Saharanpur
    Saharanpur
    Saharanpur is a city and a Municipal Corporation in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. It is the administrative headquarters of Saharanpur District as well as Saharanpur Division...

     is known all over India and abroad for its wood-carving items produced there.
  • Varanasi
    Varanasi
    -Etymology:The name Varanasi has its origin possibly from the names of the two rivers Varuna and Assi, for the old city lies in the north shores of the Ganga bounded by its two tributaries, the Varuna and the Asi, with the Ganges being to its south...

     Mubarakpur(Azamgarh) is famous for its Banarasi
    Banarasi
    Banarasi saris are saris made in Varanasi, a city which is also called "Benares." These saris are historically considered to be among the finest saris in India and are known for their gold and silver brocade, fine silk and opulent embroidery, and being highly sought after...

     sari
    Sari
    A sari or sareeThe name of the garment in various regional languages include: , , , , , , , , , , , , , is a strip of unstitched cloth, worn by females, ranging from four to nine metres in length that is draped over the body in various styles. It is popular in India, Bangladesh, Nepal,...

    s and silk. A banarasi sari is an essential part of any marriage in the state.
  • Gorakhpur
    Gorakhpur
    Gorakhpur is a city in the eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, near the border with Nepal. It is the administrative headquarters of Gorakhpur District and Gorakhpur Division. Gorakhpur is one of the proposed capitals of the Purvanchal state which is yet to be formed...

     is famous for its beautiful teracotta statues and handcraft cloths.
  • Nizamabaad Azamgarh is famous for black pottery.

Language and literature

Uttar Pradesh is often referred to as the 'Hindi heartland of India'. While the languages of state administration are Hindi, established by the Uttar Pradesh Official Language Act, 1951, and Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

, established by the Amendment to the same in 1989, the native languages of the state are considered. Both language are the common populace as well as the State and Central Governmental authorities. Linguistically, the state spreads across the Central, East-Central and Eastern zones of the Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
The Indo-Aryan languages constitutes a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family...

, the major native languages of the state being, Awadhi, Bundeli
Bundeli
Bundeli is a Western Hindi language spoken in the Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh and in southern parts of Uttar Pradesh...

, Braj Bhasha, Kannauji
Kannauji
Kannauji language is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in parts of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh...

 and the vernacular form of Khari boli, which also forms the basis for the standardised Hindi and Urdu registers. Bhojpuri is spoken in the east and Bagheli
Bagheli
Bagheli is a language of the Baghelkhand region of central India. It is often considered to be a dialect of Hindi language, and is classified such by the Indian Census Report ....

 is spoken on the southwestern fringes of the state. The state government promotes the native dialects in cultural festivals – education in the dialects, however, is negligible. Moreover, the literature of the two main literary dialects of the medieval era, Braj Bhasha and Awadhi, is considered to be subsumed under Hindi literature
Hindi literature
Hindi literature , is broadly divided into four prominent forms or styles, being Bhakti ; Shringar ; Veer-Gatha ; and Adhunik...

. While once these two dialects were the main literary vehicles in the region, any progress in literature in them or any of the other native languages is negligible.

Uttar Pradesh is the seat of Hindi literature, and has produced many legendary writers and poets like Jaishankar Prasad
Jaishankar Prasad
Jaishankar Prasad , one of the most famous figures in modern Hindi literature as well as Hindi theatre.- Biography :...

, Maithili Sharan Gupt
Maithili Sharan Gupt
Maithilisharan Gupt was one of the most important modern Hindi poets. He is considered among the pioneers of Khari Boli poetry and wrote in Khari Boli at a time when most Hindi poets favoured the use of Brajbhasha.- Early life :Born Chirgaon, Jhansi in a Gahoi family...

, Munshi Premchand
Munshi Premchand
Munshi Premchand , was a famous writer of modern Hindi-Urdu literature. He is generally recognized in India as the foremost Hindi-Urdu writer of the early twentieth century...

, Suryakant Tripathi Nirala, Babu Gulabrai
Babu Gulabrai
Babu Gulabrai was one of the greatest literary figures of modern Hindi literature.-Biography:...

, Sachchidananda Hirananda Vatsyayan 'Agyeya', Rahul Sankrityayan
Rahul Sankrityayan
Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan , who is called the Father of Hindi Travel literature, was one of the most widely-traveled scholars of India, spending forty-five years of his life on travels away from his home. He became a buddhist monk and eventually took up Marxist Socialism...

, Harivansh Rai Bachchan, Dharamvir Bharati
Dharamvir Bharati
Dr. Dharamvir Bharati was a renowned Hindi poet, author, playwright and a social thinker of India. He was the Chief-Editor of the popular Hindi weekly magazine Dharmayug....

, Subhadra Kumari Chauhan
Subhadra Kumari Chauhan
Subhadra Kumari Chauhan was an Indian poetess famous for her emotionally charged Hindi songs.-Early life:Born in Nihalpur village in Allahabad District in Uttar Pradesh. She initially studied in the Crosthwaite Girls’ School in Allahabad and passed the middle-school examination in 1919...

, Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi
Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi
Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi was a noted Indian Hindi writer. Adhunikkaal, or the Modern period of the Hindi literature is divided into four phases, and he represents the second phase, known as the Dwivedi Yug after him, which was preceded by the Bharatendu Yug , followed by the Chhayavad Yug and the...

, Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
Swami Sahajanand Saraswati , born in a Jijhoutia Brahminfamily of Ghazipur of Uttar Pradesh state of India, was an ascetic of Dashnami Order of Adi Shankara Sampradaya as well as a nationalist and peasant leader of India...

, Dushyant Kumar
Dushyant Kumar
Dushyant Kumar , was a poet of modern Hindi-Urdu literature. In India, he is generally recognized as one of the foremost Hindi-Urdu poet during the twentieth century. He was also a Dramatist, Litterateur and Gazal writer.-Early life:Dushyant Kumar was born at Navada Village of Bijnor District in...

, Hazari Prasad Dwivedi
Hazari Prasad Dwivedi
Acharya' Hazari Prasad Dwivedi was a Hindi novelist, literary historian, essayist, critic and scholar...

, Chandramani Brahmdutt, Acharya Kuber Nath Rai
Acharya Kuber Nath Rai
Acharya Kuber Nath Rai was a writer and scholar of Hindi Literature and Sanskrit.-Early life:He was born in Matsa village, Ghazipur, Uttar Pradesh in a Brahmin of bhumihar Brahmin clan family...

, Bharatendu Harishchandra
Bharatendu Harishchandra
Bharatendu Harishchandra is known as the father of modern Hindi literature as well as Hindi theatre. He is considered one of the greatest Hindi writers of modern India. A recognized poet, he was also a trend setter in Hindi prose-writing...

, Kamleshwar Prasad Saxena, Shivmangal Singh Suman
Shivmangal Singh Suman
Shivmangal Singh 'Suman was a noted Hindi Poet and Academician.Upon his death, the then Prime Minister of India, said, "Dr Shiv Mangal Singh ‘Suman’ was not only a powerful signature in the field of Hindi poetry, but he was also the custodian of the collective consciousness of his time...

, Pushpa Singh Visan, Mahadevi Varma
Mahadevi Varma
Mahadevi Varma best known as an outstanding Hindi poet, was a freedom fighter, woman's activist and educationist from India. She is widely regarded as the "modern Meera". She was a major poet of the Chhayavaad generation, a period of romanticism in Modern Hindi poetry ranging from 1914-1938...

, Vibhuti Narain Rai
Vibhuti Narain Rai
Vibhuti Narain Rai did M.A. in English Literature from Allahabad University in the year 1971. He joined Indian Police Service in 1975 and was allotted Uttar Pradesh cadre. He served many sensitive districts as Superintendent of Police....

, Pushpendra Naagar and many more.
Uttar Pradesh state symbols
Animal
Animal
Animals are a major group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their life. Most animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and...

Swamp Deer
Bird
Bird
Birds are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic , egg-laying, vertebrate animals. Around 10,000 living species and 188 families makes them the most speciose class of tetrapod vertebrates. They inhabit ecosystems across the globe, from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Extant birds range in size from...

Sarus Crane
Sarus Crane
The Sarus Crane is a large non-migratory crane found in parts of the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia and Australia. The tallest of the flying birds, standing at a height of up to 1.8 m , they are conspicuous and iconic species of open wetlands...

Dance Kathak
Kathak
Kathak is one of the eight forms of Indian classical dances, originated from Uttar Pradesh, India. This dance form traces its origins to the nomadic bards of ancient northern India, known as Kathaks, or storytellers...

Flower Brahm Kamal
Language Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

Sport
Sport
A Sport is all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical fitness and provide entertainment to participants. Sport may be competitive, where a winner or winners can be identified by objective means, and may require a degree...

Field Hockey
Hockey
Hockey is a family of sports in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.-Etymology:...

, Cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

, Kabaddi
Kabaddi
Kabaddi is a South Asian team sport...

Tree Ashok, Mango
Mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to India from where it spread all over the world. It is also the most cultivated fruit of the tropical world. While...


Dance and music

The state is home to a very ancient tradition in dance and music. During the eras of Guptas
Gupta Empire
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed approximately from 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. Founded by Maharaja Sri-Gupta, the dynasty was the model of a classical civilization. The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the...

 and Harsh Vardhan
Harsha
Harsha or Harsha Vardhana or Harshvardhan was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India from 606 to 647 AD. He was the son of Prabhakara Vardhana and younger brother of Rajya Vardhana, a king of Thanesar, Haryana...

, Uttar Pradesh was a major centre for musical innovation. Swami Haridas
Swami Haridas
Swami Haridas was a spiritual poet and classical musician. Credited with a large body of devotional compositions, especially in the Dhrupad style, he is also the founder of the Haridasi school of mysticism, still found today in North India. His work influenced both the classical music and the...

 was a great saint-musician who championed Hindustani classical music
Hindustani classical music
Hindustani classical music is the Hindustani or North Indian style of Indian classical music found throughout the northern Indian subcontinent. The style is sometimes called North Indian Classical Music or Shāstriya Sangeet...

. Tansen
Tansen
Mia Tansen is considered among the greatest composer-musicians in Hindustani classical music. He was an extraordinarily gifted vocalist, known for a large number of compositions, and also an instrumentalist who popularized and improved the rabab .He was among the Navaratnas at the court of the...

, the great musician in Mughal Emperor Akbar's court, was a disciple of Swami Haridas
Swami Haridas
Swami Haridas was a spiritual poet and classical musician. Credited with a large body of devotional compositions, especially in the Dhrupad style, he is also the founder of the Haridasi school of mysticism, still found today in North India. His work influenced both the classical music and the...

. The raga
Raga
A raga is one of the melodic modes used in Indian classical music.It is a series of five or more musical notes upon which a melody is made...

s sung by Tansen were believed to be so powerful that they could bring rain, or light a fire, when recited.

Kathak
Kathak
Kathak is one of the eight forms of Indian classical dances, originated from Uttar Pradesh, India. This dance form traces its origins to the nomadic bards of ancient northern India, known as Kathaks, or storytellers...

, a classical dance form, involving gracefully coordinated movements of feet and arms along with the entire body, grew and flourished in Uttar Pradesh. Wajid Ali Shah
Wajid Ali Shah
Wajid Ali Shah was the fifth King of Oudh, holding the position from 13 February 1847 to 7 February 1856....

, the last Nawab of Awadh
Nawab of Awadh
The Nawab of Awadh is the title of rulers who governed the state of Awadh in India in the 18th and 19th century. The Nawabs of Awadh originated form Persia-Establishment:...

, was a great patron and a passionate champion of Kathak. Today, the state is home to two prominent schools of this dance form, namely, Lucknow Gharana
Gharana
In Hindustani music, a gharānā is a system of social organization linking musicians or dancers by lineage or apprenticeship, and by adherence to a particular musical style. A gharana also indicates a comprehensive musicological ideology. This ideology sometimes changes substantially from one...

 and Banaras Gharana.

In modern times, Uttar Pradesh has given to the world music legends like Anup Jalota
Anup Jalota
Anup Jalota is an Indian singer/musician, best known for his performances in the Indian musical form, the bhajan and the Urdu form of poetry: ghazal.He is popularly known as the Bhajan Samraat .-Early life:...

, Baba Sehgal
Baba Sehgal
Baba Sehgal, a Khatri Sikh, is an Indian rapper and actor. Brought up in Lucknow, he was famous in the mid 1990s. He is credited as the first Indian rapper to jump on the Indipop bandwagon, and released an album which got frequent airplay on MTV India...

, Girija Devi
Girija Devi
Girija Devi is an Indian classical singer of the Banaras gharana. She performs classical and light classical music and has helped elevate the profile of thumri.-Early life:Girija Devi was born in Varanasi, India in 1929...

, Gopal Shankar Misra
Gopal Shankar Misra
Gopal Shankar Misra was an Indian musician and music teacher, who played the vichitra veena.-Inheriting music:...

, Hari Prasad Chaurasia, Kishan Maharaj
Kishan Maharaj
Pandit Kishan Maharaj was an Indian tabla player who belonged to the Benares gharana of Hindustani classical music.-Early life and background:...

, Naushad Ali, Pandit Ravi Shankar, Shubha Mudgal
Shubha Mudgal
Shubha Mudgal is a well-known Indian singer of Hindustani classical music, Khayal, Thumri, Dadra, and popular Indian Pop music.She has been awarded the 1996 National Film Award for Best Non-Feature Film Music Direction for 'Amrit Beej', the 1998 Gold Plaque Award for Special Achievement in Music,...

, Siddheshwari Devi
Siddheshwari Devi
Siddheswari Devi was a Hindustani singer from Varanasi, India, known as Maa . Born in 1907, she lost her parents early and was brought up by her aunt, the noted singer Rajeshwari Devi.-Initiation into Music:...

, Talat Mehmood, and Ustad Bismillah Khan. The legendary Ghazal
Ghazal
The ghazal is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in 6th century...

 singer Begum Akhtar
Begum Akhtar
Akhtari Bai Faizabadi or Begum Akhtar was a well known Indian singer of Ghazal, Dadra and Thumri.She received the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award for vocal music, and was awarded Padma Shri and Padma Bhushan by Govt. of India...

 was also a native of Uttar Pradesh; "Ae Mohabbat Tere anjaam pe rona aaya" is said to be one of her best musical performances of all times. Uttar Pradesh is also the birthplace of British pop legend Sir Cliff Richard
Cliff Richard
Sir Cliff Richard, OBE is a British pop singer, musician, performer, actor, and philanthropist who has sold over an estimated 250 million records worldwide....

. The Bhatkhande Music Institute
Bhatkhande Music Institute
Bhatkhande Music Institute is a renowned music institute in Lucknow. Established in 1926 by Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande, it was declared a deemed university by University Grants Commission in 2000, and offers music education in Vocal Music, Instrumental, Rhythms, Dance, Musicology and Research and...

 University at Lucknow is named after the great musician Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande.

The region's folk heritage includes songs called rasiya (known and especially popular in Braj
Braj
Braj is a region mainly in Uttar Pradesh of India, around Mathura-Vrindavan. Braj, though never a clearly defined political region in India but is very well demarcated culturally, is considered to be the land of Krishna and is derived from the Sanskrit word vraja...

), which celebrate the divine love of Radha
Radha
Radha , also called Radhika, Radharani and Radhikarani, is the childhood friend and lover of Krishna in the Bhagavata Purana, and the Gita Govinda of the Vaisnava traditions of Hinduism...

 and Shri Krishna. These songs are accompanied by large drums known as bumb and are performed at many festivals. Other folk dances or folk theater forms include:
  • Khayal
  • Naqal – (mimicry)
  • Nautanki
    Nautanki
    Nautanki is one of the most popular folk operatic theater performance traditions of South Asia, particularly in northern India. Before the advent of Bollywood , Nautanki was the single most popular form of entertainment in the villages and towns of northern India...

  • Qawwali
    Qawwali
    Qawwali is a form of Sufi devotional music popular in South Asia, particularly in the Punjab and Sindh regions of Pakistan, Hyderabad, Delhi, and other parts of northern India...

  • Raslila
  • Swang
  • Ramlila
    Ramlila
    Ramlila is a dramatic folk re-enactment of the life of Lord Ram, ending up in ten day battle between Lord Ram and Ravan, as described in the Hindu religious epic, the Ramayana...

    , which includes enacting the entire Ramayana
    Ramayana
    The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic. It is ascribed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu canon , considered to be itihāsa. The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of India and Nepal, the other being the Mahabharata...

    .


Lokrang Sanskritik Samiti – an organisation of Jogia Janubi Patti, Fazilanagar, Kushinagar – is doing research work in the field of Folk-songs, Folk-artists and Folk-cultures. In the month of May, every year the Samiti organises its function "Lokrang". More than 150 artists and writers participate in this programme.

Cuisine

Uttar Pradesh has a rich tradition of sumptuous vegetarian and non-vegetarian food preparations and of sweetmeats, seen at their best on formal occasions.
A formal vegetarian meal of Uttar Pradesh consists of chapati
Chapati
Chapati or Chapatti or Chapathi is an unleavened flatbread from the Indian subcontinent. Versions of it are found in Turkmenistan and in East African countries Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania...

s, roti
Roti
Roti is generally a South Asian bread made from stoneground wholemeal flour, traditionally known as atta flour, that originated and is consumed in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka. It is also consumed in parts of the Southern Caribbean, particularly in Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and...

s (flatbread) and/or puri
Puri (food)
Puri ,Hindi पूरी , Urdu: بوری, Tamil பூரி , Kannada ಪೂರಿ , Oriya ପୁରି, is an unleavened Indian bread, commonly consumed in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan and other countries of South Asia. It is eaten for breakfast or as a snack or light meal.Puri is most commonly served at breakfast...

s (deep fried puffed flatbreads), daal (thick lentil soup), rice (boiled white rice), vegetable curries (one or more of dry/fried and semi-liquid curries each), curd, pickles, papad (thin spicy crackers) and a variety of sweets ( gulab jamuns, rasmalai, rabri, jalebi, laddoos of varying varieties, pethas, kheer, gujhiys and many others). It is normally served in metal dishes and traditionally eaten without the use of cutlery, sitting on the bare floor. When a large gathering is to be feasted in a traditional manner, food may also be served on disposable, flat platters (called 'pattal'), which are made by intertwining broad leaves of certain trees. Samosa
Samosa
A samosa is a stuffed, deep fried,snack that is very popular in the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, Central Asia and Southwest Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, the Mediterranean, the Horn of Africa, North Africa and South Africa...

s, Chaat
Chaat
Chaat is a term describing savoury snacks, typically served at road-side tracks from stalls or carts in India. With its origins in east India, chaat has become immensely popular in the rest of India and the rest of South Asia...

 and pakora
Pakora
Pakora is a fried snack found across South Asia. Pakoras are created by taking one or two ingredients such as onion, eggplant, potato, spinach, plantain, cauliflower, tomato, chilli, or occasionally bread or chicken and dipping them in a batter of gram flour and then deep-frying them...

s are among the favourite snacks and have its root from Uttar Pradesh.

A non-vegetarian meal consists of many varieties of meat- or rice-preparations that have evolved in the region, and are now nationally and internationally known as the Moghlai cuisine; some of these are: kebab
Kebab
Kebab is a wide variety of meat dishes originating in Middle East and later on adopted by the Middle East, and Asia Minor, and now found worldwide. In English, kebab with no qualification generally refers more specifically to shish kebab served on the skewer...

, kofta, korma
Korma
Korma is a dish originating in South Asia or Central Asia which can be made with yoghurt, cream, nut and seed pastes or coconut milk; it is usually considered a type of curry...

, keema
Keema
Keema, Kheema, or Qeema is a traditional Indian meat dish. Originally this word meant minced meat. It is typically minced mutton curry with peas or potatoes. Keema can be made from almost any meat, can be cooked by stewing or frying, and can be formed into kababs...

, pulao
Pilaf
Pilaf is a dish in which rice is cooked in a seasoned broth . In some cases, the rice may also attain its brown color by being stirred with bits of cooked onion, as well as a large mix of spices...

, biryani
Biryani
Biryani, biriani, or beriani is a set of rice-based foods made with spices, rice and meat, fish, eggs or vegetables. The name is derived from the Persian word beryā which means "fried" or "roasted"....

, paratha
Paratha
A paratha/parantha/parauntha is an Indian flat-bread that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Paratha is an amalgamation of the words parat and atta which literally means layers of cooked dough...

s (plain or stuffed), halwa, firni etc. In addition, a selection from the above vegetarian dishes may be present among the food spread. Traditionally, food is served in metal-ware or ceramic crockery, eaten directly with bare hands or (sometimes) with spoons, sitting on the ground covered with a flooring material like cloth-sheet or carpet.

The Awadh region has its own distinct Nawab
Nawab
A Nawab or Nawaab is an honorific title given to Muslim rulers of princely states in South Asia. It is the Muslim equivalent of the term "maharaja" that was granted to Hindu rulers....

i style cuisine, the most famous cuisine of Awadhi Region is Tunday Kabab with various kinds of biryani
Biryani
Biryani, biriani, or beriani is a set of rice-based foods made with spices, rice and meat, fish, eggs or vegetables. The name is derived from the Persian word beryā which means "fried" or "roasted"....

s, kebab
Kebab
Kebab is a wide variety of meat dishes originating in Middle East and later on adopted by the Middle East, and Asia Minor, and now found worldwide. In English, kebab with no qualification generally refers more specifically to shish kebab served on the skewer...

s and breads. Kebabs are also of different types - Kakori Kebabs, Galawati Kebabs, Shami Kebabs, Boti Kababs, Patili-ke-Kababs, Ghutwa Kababs and Seekh Kababs are among the known varieties.

Uttar Pradesh has a range of finest hotels and restaurants of India catering to all tastes and budgets.

Makkhan Malai, 'Malai Ki Gilori' of Ram Asrey (an oldest shop of pure ghee sweets, established in 1805) Chowk, the famous Tundey Kebabs, named after the one-armed chef Haji Murad Ali, and 'Kakori kebabs' are very popular with food lovers. The kebabs of Tunday Kababi, with their melt-in-the-mouth taste, are famous all over India. Situated in a small lane in the bustling chowk area, more than 100 year old 'Tunday Kababi' original shop serves only its special 'Galavati Kababs' and 'Parathas'.

Other famous restaurants are 'Dastarkhwan', 'Naushijaan', and 'Nawabs'.

The Chaat
Chaat
Chaat is a term describing savoury snacks, typically served at road-side tracks from stalls or carts in India. With its origins in east India, chaat has become immensely popular in the rest of India and the rest of South Asia...

 in Lucknow is one of the best in the country. There are quite a few places serving outstanding chaat, like Shukla Chaat and Moti Mahal in Hazratganj
Hazratganj
Hazratganj is situated in the heart of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.It has a term associated with it "Ganjing" , Ganjing is a term used to describe ambling in the wide lanes and bylanes of city's Hazratganj market. It is a busy shopping area, where most of the bazaars of Lucknow are located and is...

, Radhey Lal in Aliganj and gomti nagar, Chhappan Bhog in Sadar and Neel Kanth in Gomti Nagar
Gomti Nagar
Gomti Nagar is an area in North Indian city of Lucknow consisting of both residential and business settlements. It is one of the largest and upcoming areas of Lucknow...

, and famous Jagdish Chaat House in old lucknow Chowk. And among sweets lucknow's rewadi is famous all over India.

After a delicious dinner, one can have Paan
Paan
Paan, from the word pān is an Indian, Pakistani, Uttarvarshi and Southeast Asian tradition of chewing betel leaf with areca nut and slaked lime paste, and katha brown powder paste, with many regional and local variations...

 at any of the innumerable Paan vendors.

Dress

The people of Uttar Pradesh wear a variety of native- and Western-style dress. Traditional styles of dress include colourful draped garments - such as sari
Sari
A sari or sareeThe name of the garment in various regional languages include: , , , , , , , , , , , , , is a strip of unstitched cloth, worn by females, ranging from four to nine metres in length that is draped over the body in various styles. It is popular in India, Bangladesh, Nepal,...

 for women and dhoti
Dhoti
The dhoti or pancha is the traditional men's garment in the in India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. A similar garment is worn in some rural areas of Punjab province in Pakistan, but the use is fast declining...

 or lungi
Lungi
The Lungi , also known as a sarong , is a traditional garment worn around the waist in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Burma, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Horn of Africa and the southern Arabian Peninsula...

 for men - and tailored clothes such as salwar kameez for women and kurta
Kurta
A kurta is a traditional item of clothing worn in Afghanistan, Pakistan , Nepal, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. It is a loose shirt falling either just above or somewhere below the knees of the wearer, and is worn by both men and women...

-pyjama
Pajamas
Pajamas, also spelled pyjamas , can refer to several related types of clothing. The original paijama are loose, lightweight trousers fitted with drawstring waistbands and worn in South and West Asia by both sexes...

 for men. Men also often sport a head-gear like topi
Topi
The Tsessebe , is one of five subspecies in the binomial class D. lunatus. The other subspecies include Korrigum , Tiang , Coastal Topi , and Topi . Tesessebe are found primarily in Zambia, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and South Africa...

 or pagri
Pagri
Pagri or Phari is a town in Yadong County in the Tibet Autonomous Region , China, near the border with Bhutan. Population 2121...

. Sherwani
Sherwani
Sherwani is a long coat-like garment worn in South Asia, very similar to an Achkan or doublet, and is traditionally associated with the Muslim aristocracy of the northern Indian subcontinent....

 is a more formal male dress and is frequently worn along with chooridar on festive occasions. European-style trousers and shirts are also common among the men.

Festivals

Religious practices are as much an integral part of everyday life, and a very public affair, as they are in the rest of India. Therefore, not surprisingly, many festivals are religious in origin, although several of them are celebrated irrespective of caste and creed.

Among the most important Hindu festivals are Diwali
Diwali
Diwali or DeepavaliThe name of the festival in various regional languages include:, , , , , , , , , , , , , popularly known as the "festival of lights," is a festival celebrated between mid-October and mid-December for different reasons...

, Holi
Holi
Holi , is a religious spring festival celebrated by Hindus. Holi is also known as festival of Colours. It is primarily observed in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and countries with large Indic diaspora populations following Hinduism, such as Suriname, Malaysia, Guyana, South Africa, Trinidad, United...

 and Dashehra
Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami also known as Dasara, is one of the most important festivals celebrated in various forms, across India, Nepal and Bangladesh...

, which are also observed with equal fervour by Jains
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

 and Sikhs.Ten days of Ramlila
Ramlila
Ramlila is a dramatic folk re-enactment of the life of Lord Ram, ending up in ten day battle between Lord Ram and Ravan, as described in the Hindu religious epic, the Ramayana...

 takes place during the period of navratri and on the 10th day, epithet of Raavan
Raavan
Raavan is a 2010 Hindi film directed, written and produced by Mani Ratnam. It stars Abhishek Bachchan, Aishwarya Rai and Vikram in the lead roles while Govinda, Ravi Kishan, Nikhil Dwivedi, Tejaswini Kolhapure and Priyamani feature in key supporting roles...

 is burnt with great fervour. Durga puja
Durga Puja
Durga puja ; দুর্গা পূজা,ଦୁର୍ଗା ପୂଜା,‘Worship of Durga’), also referred to as Durgotsava ; , is an annual Hindu festival in South Asia that celebrates worship of the Hindu goddess Durga. It refers to all the six days observed as Mahalaya, Shashthi, Maha Saptami, Maha Ashtami, Maha Navami and...

 is also observed in many parts of the state during navratri. Bārah Wafāṭ
Mawlid
Mawlid or sometimes ميلاد , mīlād is a term used to refer to the observance of the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad which occurs in Rabi' al-awwal,...

, Eid
Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Fitr, Id-ul-Fitr, or Id al-Fitr , often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting . Eid is an Arabic word meaning "festivity," while Fiṭr means "breaking the fast"...

, Bakreed
Eid ul-Adha
Eid al-Adha or "Festival of Sacrifice" or "Greater Eid" is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide to commemorate the willingness of Abraham to sacrifice his son Ishmael as an act of obedience to God, before God intervened to provide him with a sheep— to sacrifice...

 and Birthdate of Imam Ali ibn Abitalib are recognized official Muslim religious festivals. Moharram, though the day of Ashura
Day of Ashura
The Day of Ashura is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram.It is commemorated by Shia Muslims as a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala on 10...

 is official holiday but Shiites consider it as a day of mourning and not a festival as some people believe. Mahavir Jayanti
Mahavir Jayanti
In Jainism, Mahavir Janma Kalyanak is the most important religious holiday. It celebrates the birth of Mahavira, the last Tirthankara. On the Gregorian calendar, the holiday occurs either in March or April....

 is celebrated by Jains, Buddha Jayanti
Vesak
Vesākha is a holiday observed traditionally by Buddhists in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and the South East Asian countries of Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Burma, and Indonesia...

 by Buddhists, Guru Nanak Jayanti by Sikhs and Christmas
Christmas
Christmas or Christmas Day is an annual holiday generally celebrated on December 25 by billions of people around the world. It is a Christian feast that commemorates the birth of Jesus Christ, liturgically closing the Advent season and initiating the season of Christmastide, which lasts twelve days...

 by the Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

s. Other festivals include Ram navami, Chhath
Chhath
Chhath is an ancient Hindu festival dedicated to the Hindu Sun God, Surya, also known as Surya Shashti. The Chhath Puja is performed in order to thank Surya for sustaining life on earth and to request the granting of certain wishes. The Sun, considered the god of energy and of the life-force, is...

 puja, Krishna
Krishna
Krishna is a central figure of Hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita. He is the supreme Being and considered in some monotheistic traditions as an Avatar of Vishnu...

-janmashtami, Mahashivratri, etc.

Media

Uttar Pradesh is well integrated into the national media network:

Radio broadcasts: Broadcasting was started in India in 1936 by All India Radio
All India Radio
All India Radio , officially known since 1956 as Akashvani , is the radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati. Established in 1936, it is the sister service of Prasar Bharati's Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster. All India Radio is one of the largest radio networks...

 (abbreviated as AIR), now officially known as Akashvani. Today, it is the sister service of Doordarshan
DoorDarshan
Doordarshan is an Indian public service broadcaster, a division of Prasar Bharati. It is one of the largest broadcasting organizations in India in terms of the infrastructure of studios and transmitters. Recently, it has also started Digital Terrestrial Transmitters. On September 15, 2009,...

, the national television broadcaster; both are a division of Prasar Bharati
Prasar Bharati
Prasar Bharati is India's largest public broadcaster. It is an autonomous body set up by an Act of Parliament and comprises Doordarshan television network and All India Radio which were earlier media units of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.Prasar Bharati was...

 (Broadcasting Corporation of India), an autonomous corporation of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting
Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India)
The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting is a branch of the Government of India is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules and regulations and laws relating to information, broadcasting, the press and films in India....

, Government of India
Government of India
The Government of India, officially known as the Union Government, and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 28 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India...

. Broadcasts in several languages are being aired in the State from a number of transmission stations by Akashwani.

Television: Telecasting had begun in India in 1959, with test educational telecasting in New Delhi
New Delhi
New Delhi is the capital city of India. It serves as the centre of the Government of India and the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is situated within the metropolis of Delhi. It is one of the nine districts of Delhi Union Territory. The total area of the city is...

. Doordarshan started black-and-white small-screen programming in the mid 1970s and 1982 saw colour version of TV. Several private TV Channels, functioning now at national level, have become a vibrant and very effective part of the media. Satellite
Satellite
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavour. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon....

-telecasting has revolutionized their reach. Telecasts of important cricket matches draw enormous viewers; even street-side TV-sets attract crowds of cricket fans.

Newspapers and magazines etc. A number of periodicals are published in Hindi, English and Urdu. Growth of journalism had its roots as much in the initiative of resident Britons as in the Indian freedom movement and the need for dissemination of other news and messages of socio-religious reforms. The Pioneer was founded in Allahabad
Allahabad
Allahabad , or Settled by God in Persian, is a major city of India and is one of the main holy cities of Hinduism. It was renamed by the Mughals from the ancient name of Prayaga , and is by some accounts the second-oldest city in India. It is located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh,...

 in 1865 by George Allen, an Englishman. It was brought out three times a week from 1865 to 1869 and daily thereafter. In 1866, a supplement, the Pioneer Mail, consisting mostly of advertisements, was added to the publication. Also from Allahabad, a nationalist newspaper The National Herald
Manikonda Chalapathi Rau
Manikonda Chalapathi Rau was an eminent Indian journalist and an authority on the Nehruvian thought. Rau was the reputed editor of the English daily National Herald of Lucknow for over thirty years . The National Herald was founded by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1938. He has also authored several books...

 had started publication, under the patronage of the Nehrus and M.C. Rau as its editor, during the British period. In 1909, Madan Mohan Malviya, started The Leader
The Leader (Allahabad newspaper)
The Leader was one of the most influential English-language newspapers in India during British Raj. Founded by Madan Mohan Malviya, the paper was published in Allahabad. Under C. Y. Chintamani, a dynamic editor from 1909 to 1934, it acquired a large readership in North India...

, from Allahabad
Allahabad
Allahabad , or Settled by God in Persian, is a major city of India and is one of the main holy cities of Hinduism. It was renamed by the Mughals from the ancient name of Prayaga , and is by some accounts the second-oldest city in India. It is located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh,...

, with C. Y. Chintamani
C. Y. Chintamani
Sir C.Y. Chintamani was an Indian editor, journalist, liberal politician and parliamentarian of the early 20th century. He was born on Telugu new year day at Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh, India. He was called "Pope of Indian Journalism" by Sri V.S...

, as its editor from 1909 to 1934. Sidque, a famous Urdu weekly, was started in that period by the highly respected intellectual Moulana Abdul Maajid Daryabadi for reforming the Indo-Islamic society. Presently, all major national level dailies are publishing their ‘City Editions’ from several major cities of the state. The State's own ‘native’ publications – dailies/ weeklies/ monthlies – are numerous, and mostly in Hindi and Urdu languages. Some Hindi language dailies, e.g. Amar Ujala and Dainik Jagran
Dainik Jagran
Dainik Jagran is a Hindi language daily broadsheet newspaper in India. According to the IRS Q1 2010, Dainik Jagran ranks No. 1 among the dailies with a Total Readership of 54,254,000.-Overview:...

, have a wide circulation, with their local editions being published from several important cities. National Herald now publishes an Urdu version also. At still lower level, locally published newspapers and literary weeklies and monthlies are extremely large in number.

Audio-visual production: In spite of its large size, Bollywood
Bollywood
Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai , Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing...

 level Production of films for the silver screen
Silver screen
A silver screen, also known as a silver lenticular screen, is a type of projection screen that was popular in the early years of the motion picture industry and passed into popular usage as a metonym for the cinema industry...

, or of informative short documentary films of high standard, has not grown in Uttar Pradesh. However, writers and artists from the State have continued to contribute – as song and story writers, music composers and lyricists, actors, directors and producers and earn name and fame in centres of the Indian film industry.

Regions of Uttar Pradesh

  • Upper Doab
    Doab
    A Doab is a term used in India and Pakistan for a "tongue" or tract of land lying between two confluent rivers...

  • Middle Doab
    Doab
    A Doab is a term used in India and Pakistan for a "tongue" or tract of land lying between two confluent rivers...

  • Lower Doab
    Doab
    A Doab is a term used in India and Pakistan for a "tongue" or tract of land lying between two confluent rivers...

  • Rohilkhand
    Rohilkhand
    Rohilkhand is a region of northwestern Uttar Pradesh state of India.Rohilkhand lies on the upper Ganges alluvial plain and has an area of about 25,000 km²/10,000 square miles...

  • Awadh
    Awadh
    Awadh , also known in various British historical texts as Oudh or Oude derived from Ayodhya, is a region in the centre of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which was before independence known as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh...

  • Purvanchal
    Purvanchal
    Purvanchal is a geographic region of north-central India, which comprises the eastern end of Uttar Pradesh state...

  • Bundelkhand
    Bundelkhand
    Bundelkhand anciently known as Chedi Kingdom is a geographic region of central India...

  • Baghelkhand
    Bagelkhand
    Bagelkhand or Baghelkhand, is a region in central India, in northeastern Madhya Pradesh state. It includes the Madhya Pradesh districts of Anuppur, Rewa, Satna, Shadol, Sidhi, and Umaria....



External links

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