Hamburg class destroyer
The Type 101 Hamburg class was the only class of destroyers built in post-war Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...
. They were specifically designed to operate in the Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea is a brackish mediterranean sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. It is bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Øresund, the Great Belt and...
, where armament and speed are more important than seaworthiness. They were named after the "Bundesländer" (provinces) of West Germany.
The German shipyard Stülcken
was contracted to design and build the ships. Stülcken was rather unexperienced with naval shipbuilding
Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and floating vessels. It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a shipyard. Shipbuilders, also called shipwrights, follow a specialized occupation that traces its roots to before recorded history.Shipbuilding and ship repairs, both...
, but got the order, since the shipyards traditionally building warships for the German navies like Blohm + Voss
Blohm + Voss
Blohm + Voss , is a German shipbuilding and engineering works. It is a subsidiary of ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems; there were plans to sell 80% of Blohm + Voss to Abu Dhabi Mar Group, but talks collapsed in July 2011.-History:It was founded on April 5, 1877, by Hermann Blohm and Ernst Voss as a...
Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft is a German shipbuilding company, headquartered in Kiel. In 2009 it was the largest shipyard in Germany and has more than 2,400 employees. It has been part of ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems owned by ThyssenKrupp, since 2005...
Lürssen is a German shipbuilding company based in Bremen-Vegesack.Lürssen designs and constructs yachts, naval ships and special vessels...
were all occupied constructing commercial vessels (no naval ship had been built in Germany since World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...
Originally they had only barreled weapons, but from 1976 to 1978 they were upgraded with guided missile
Guided Missile is a London based independent record label set up by Paul Kearney in 1994.Guided Missile has always focused on 'the underground', preferring to put out a steady flow of releases and developing the numerous GM events around London and beyond....
s to increase their effectiveness against modern surface warships and were redesignated Type 101A. One 100 mm gun was replaced by two Exocet
The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, helicopters and fixed wing aircraft. Hundreds were fired in combat during the 1980s.-Etymology:...
missile launchers, the Bofors were replaced by Breda 40 mm, and the torpedo tubes were removed. Modifications were also made to the operations center, radar and bridge.
The design of the Hamburg class has been criticized for many of the same failures of the Kriegsmarine
The Kriegsmarine was the name of the German Navy during the Nazi regime . It superseded the Kaiserliche Marine of World War I and the post-war Reichsmarine. The Kriegsmarine was one of three official branches of the Wehrmacht, the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany.The Kriegsmarine grew rapidly...
destroyers: too top-heavy and bad sea-keeping capabilities. This is in part due to the low freeboard on the hull. They were eventually replaced in the 1990s by the Brandenburg class frigate
Brandenburg class frigate
The F123 Brandenburg class is a class of German frigate. They were ordered by the German Navy in June 1989, and then completed and commissioned between 1994 and 1996 to replace the Hamburg class destroyers...
ShipsHamburg (D181): Call-sign: DRAA. Laid down, 29 January 1959. Launched 26 March 1960. Commissioned 23 March 1964. Decommissioned 24 February 1994. Scrapped in Spain.
Schleswig-Holstein (D182): Call-sign: DRAB. Laid down, 20 August 1959. Launched 20 August 1960. Commissioned 12 October 1964. Decommissioned 15 December 1994. Scrapped in Belgium.
Bayern (D183): Call-sign: DRAC. Laid down, 15 February 1961. Launched 14 August 1962. Commissioned 6 July 1965. Decommissioned 16 December 1993. Scrapped in Denmark.
Hessen (D184):Call-sign: DRAD. Laid down, 5 February 1961. Launched 4 May 1963. Commissioned 8 October 1968. Decommissioned 29 March 1990. Scrapped in Portugal.
All ships were built by Stülcken
and were based in Wilhelmshaven
Wilhelmshaven is a coastal town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated on the western side of the Jade Bight, a bay of the North Sea.-History:...
as the 2. Zerstörergeschwader (second destroyer squadron) of the Bundesmarine/Deutsche Marine (German Navy
The German Navy is the navy of Germany and is part of the unified Bundeswehr .The German Navy traces its roots back to the Imperial Fleet of the revolutionary era of 1848 – 52 and more directly to the Prussian Navy, which later evolved into the Northern German Federal Navy...
- They were nicknamed Hochhäuser (tower blocks) in the German NavyGerman NavyThe German Navy is the navy of Germany and is part of the unified Bundeswehr .The German Navy traces its roots back to the Imperial Fleet of the revolutionary era of 1848 – 52 and more directly to the Prussian Navy, which later evolved into the Northern German Federal Navy...
because of their unusually high superstructures.
- Brandenburg class frigateBrandenburg class frigateThe F123 Brandenburg class is a class of German frigate. They were ordered by the German Navy in June 1989, and then completed and commissioned between 1994 and 1996 to replace the Hamburg class destroyers...
- Lütjens class destroyerLütjens class destroyerThe Type 103 Lütjens class was the last class of destroyers in service with the German Navy. They were replaced by the new Sachsen-class frigates, designated frigate even though they are much larger and more capable in all aspects than the Lütjens class destroyers.Basically the ships were Charles F...