Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia
Overview
 
Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia (Павел Александрович) ( 3 October 1860 N.S. – 30 January 1919 N.S.) was the eighth child of Tsar Alexander II of Russia
Alexander II of Russia
Alexander II , also known as Alexander the Liberator was the Emperor of the Russian Empire from 3 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881...

 by his first wife Empress Maria Alexandrovna. His birth was commemorated by the naming of the city of Pavlodar
Pavlodar
Pavlodar is a city in northeastern Kazakhstan and the capital of Pavlodar Province. It is located 350 km northeast of the national capital Astana, and 400 km southeast of the Russian city of Omsk along the Irtysh River. , the city has a population of 331710...

 in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

. He entered the Russian Army and rose to the rank of General, but was known as a gentle person, religious and accessible to people.
On 17 June 1889, in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

, he married Princess Alexandra of Greece, who bore him two children:
  • Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia
    Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia (1890-1958)
    Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia, known as "Maria Pavlovna the Younger" was the daughter of Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich and Alexandra Georgievna of Greece by marriage Princess of Sweden...

     (1890–1958)
  • Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich of Russia (1891–1941)


Alexandra was a greatgranddaughter of Tsar Nicholas I, and therefore Paul Alexandrovich married the daughter of his own cousin.

Alexandra died just hours after Dmitri's birth.
Encyclopedia
Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia (Павел Александрович) ( 3 October 1860 N.S. – 30 January 1919 N.S.) was the eighth child of Tsar Alexander II of Russia
Alexander II of Russia
Alexander II , also known as Alexander the Liberator was the Emperor of the Russian Empire from 3 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881...

 by his first wife Empress Maria Alexandrovna. His birth was commemorated by the naming of the city of Pavlodar
Pavlodar
Pavlodar is a city in northeastern Kazakhstan and the capital of Pavlodar Province. It is located 350 km northeast of the national capital Astana, and 400 km southeast of the Russian city of Omsk along the Irtysh River. , the city has a population of 331710...

 in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan , officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Ranked as the ninth largest country in the world, it is also the world's largest landlocked country; its territory of is greater than Western Europe...

. He entered the Russian Army and rose to the rank of General, but was known as a gentle person, religious and accessible to people.

First marriage

On 17 June 1889, in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

, he married Princess Alexandra of Greece, who bore him two children:
  • Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia
    Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia (1890-1958)
    Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia, known as "Maria Pavlovna the Younger" was the daughter of Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich and Alexandra Georgievna of Greece by marriage Princess of Sweden...

     (1890–1958)
  • Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich of Russia (1891–1941)


Alexandra was a greatgranddaughter of Tsar Nicholas I, and therefore Paul Alexandrovich married the daughter of his own cousin.

Alexandra died just hours after Dmitri's birth. She had carelessly stepped into a waiting boat, causing premature labour; Dimitri was born in the hours following the accident. Alexandra slipped into a coma and never came out.

Second marriage

In 1893, the young widower became close to a commoner, Olga Valerianovna Karnovich
Olga Valerianovna Paley
Princess Olga Valerianovna Paley , was the second wife of Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia. -Early life and first marriage:...

, and years later requested Nicholas II
Nicholas II of Russia
Nicholas II was the last Emperor of Russia, Grand Prince of Finland, and titular King of Poland. His official short title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias and he is known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church.Nicholas II ruled from 1894 until...

's permission to marry her, but it was refused, and the couple settled in Paris. On 10 October 1902 they were married in an Orthodox church in Livorno
Livorno
Livorno , traditionally Leghorn , is a port city on the Tyrrhenian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Livorno, having a population of approximately 160,000 residents in 2009.- History :...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

. The Bavaria
Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

n government granted Olga the title of Countess of Hohenfelsen in 1904, but the marriage caused a scandal in the Russian Court. Paul was dismissed of his military commissions, all his properties were seized, and his brother Grand Duke Sergei
Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia
Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia was a son of Emperor Alexander II of Russia...

 was appointed guardian of Maria and Dmitri.

For many years, he lived in exile in France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 with Olga and the three children they had: Vladimir
Vladimir Pavlovich Paley
HSH Prince Vladimir Pavlovich Paley was a Russian poet.Prince Vladimir was born Vladimir von Pistohlkors in Saint Petersburg, Russia...

, who became a remarkable poet, and two girls, Irina
Irina Pavlovna Paley
Princess Irina Pavlovna Paley, , was the daughter of Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia and his second wife Olga Valerianovna Paley.-Early life:...

 and Natalia
Natalia Pavlovna Paley
Princess Natalia Pavlovna Paley was a member of the Romanov family. A daughter of Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich of Russia, she was a first cousin of the last Russian emperor, Nicholas II. After the Russian revolution she emigrated first to France and later to the United States...

. Eventually he was pardoned and settled with his family in Tsarskoe Selo. In 1915 the Tsar granted Olga and their children the title of Prince and Princesses Paley
Paley
Paley may refer to:* Albert Paley , a modernist American metal sculptor* A. G. V. Paley, British army officer and first Chief of the Defence Staff of Ghana* Edward Paley , Lancaster architect...

 with the style of Serene Highness, and their children also became Prince Vladimir Pavlovich Paley and Princesses Irina Pavlovna and Natalia Pavlovna Paley.

World War I

During World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 he was placed in command of the First Corps of the Imperial Guard and later was moved to a new appointment at the Tsar's headquarters. In 1917 he tried to convince the sovereigns to grant a Constitution, but his efforts failed. However, he was one of the few members of the Imperial Family who remained quite close to Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna
Alexandra Fyodorovna of Hesse
Alix of Hesse and by Rhine later Alexandra Feodorovna Romanova , was Empress consort of Russia as spouse of Nicholas II, the last Emperor of the Russian Empire...

 during the final days of the old régime.

Revolution and death

After the Bolsheviks seized power, he and his family faced a terrible ordeal. Their properties were confiscated, they lived under constant harassment, and in March 1918 his son Vladimir Paley was exiled to the Urals, where he was to be executed on 18 July 1918 in a mineshaft near Alapayevsk.

In August, 1918, he was arrested and taken to prison in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

. His health, already bad, declined sharply, and his wife did all she could to have him released. Her efforts were useless: on 29 January 1919, Paul was moved to St. Peter and St. Paul Fortress, and in the first hours of the following day he was shot there, along with his cousins Grand Dukes Dimitry Konstantinovich, Nikolay Mikhailovich
Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia
Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia , 26 April 1859 – 28 January 1919 was the eldest son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia and a first cousin of Alexander III....

 and Georgy Mikhailovich
Grand Duke George Mikhailovich of Russia (1863-1919)
Grand Duke George Mikhailovich of Russia was a son of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia and a first cousin of Emperor Alexander III. He was a General in the Russian army in World War I...

.

They were buried in a mass grave in the Fortress, the Bolsheviks having refused the distraught Princess Paley the right to bury her husband. His body and those of his 3 cousins have been found in 2011 http://www.tdg.ch/russes-pensent-retrouve-restes-princes-romanov-2011-06-08.

Ancestry

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