Gospel of Mark
Overview
The Gospel According to Mark , commonly shortened to the Gospel of Mark or simply Mark, is the second book of the New Testament
New Testament
The New Testament is the second major division of the Christian biblical canon, the first such division being the much longer Old Testament....

. This canonical
Canonical
Canonical is an adjective derived from canon. Canon comes from the greek word κανών kanon, "rule" or "measuring stick" , and is used in various meanings....

 account of the life of Jesus of Nazareth is one of the three synoptic gospels
Synoptic Gospels
The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are known as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in the same sequence, and sometimes exactly the same wording. This degree of parallelism in content, narrative arrangement, language, and sentence structures can only be...

. It was thought to be an epitome
Epitome
An epitome is a summary or miniature form; an instance that represents a larger reality, also used as a synonym for embodiment....

, which accounts for its place as the second gospel in the Bible
Bible
The Bible refers to any one of the collections of the primary religious texts of Judaism and Christianity. There is no common version of the Bible, as the individual books , their contents and their order vary among denominations...

. However, most contemporary scholars now regard it as the earliest of the canonical gospels (c 70), a position known as Markan priority
Markan priority
Markan priority is the hypothesis that the Gospel of Mark was the first written of the three Synoptic Gospels, and that the two other synoptic evangelists, Matthew and Luke, used Mark's Gospel as one of their sources. The theory of Markan priority is today accepted by the majority of New Testament...

.

The Gospel of Mark narrates the Ministry of Jesus
Ministry of Jesus
In the Christian gospels, the Ministry of Jesus begins with his Baptism in the countryside of Judea, near the River Jordan and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples. The Gospel of Luke states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his ministry...

 from John the Baptist
John the Baptist
John the Baptist was an itinerant preacher and a major religious figure mentioned in the Canonical gospels. He is described in the Gospel of Luke as a relative of Jesus, who led a movement of baptism at the Jordan River...

's baptism of Jesus
Baptism of Jesus
The baptism of Jesus marks the beginning of Jesus Christ's public ministry. This event is recorded in the Canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. In John 1:29-33 rather than a direct narrative, the Baptist bears witness to the episode...

 to the Ascension of Jesus, and it concentrates particularly on the last week of his life (chapters 11–16, the trip to Jerusalem).
Discussions
Encyclopedia
The Gospel According to Mark , commonly shortened to the Gospel of Mark or simply Mark, is the second book of the New Testament
New Testament
The New Testament is the second major division of the Christian biblical canon, the first such division being the much longer Old Testament....

. This canonical
Canonical
Canonical is an adjective derived from canon. Canon comes from the greek word κανών kanon, "rule" or "measuring stick" , and is used in various meanings....

 account of the life of Jesus of Nazareth is one of the three synoptic gospels
Synoptic Gospels
The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are known as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in the same sequence, and sometimes exactly the same wording. This degree of parallelism in content, narrative arrangement, language, and sentence structures can only be...

. It was thought to be an epitome
Epitome
An epitome is a summary or miniature form; an instance that represents a larger reality, also used as a synonym for embodiment....

, which accounts for its place as the second gospel in the Bible
Bible
The Bible refers to any one of the collections of the primary religious texts of Judaism and Christianity. There is no common version of the Bible, as the individual books , their contents and their order vary among denominations...

. However, most contemporary scholars now regard it as the earliest of the canonical gospels (c 70), a position known as Markan priority
Markan priority
Markan priority is the hypothesis that the Gospel of Mark was the first written of the three Synoptic Gospels, and that the two other synoptic evangelists, Matthew and Luke, used Mark's Gospel as one of their sources. The theory of Markan priority is today accepted by the majority of New Testament...

.

The Gospel of Mark narrates the Ministry of Jesus
Ministry of Jesus
In the Christian gospels, the Ministry of Jesus begins with his Baptism in the countryside of Judea, near the River Jordan and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples. The Gospel of Luke states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his ministry...

 from John the Baptist
John the Baptist
John the Baptist was an itinerant preacher and a major religious figure mentioned in the Canonical gospels. He is described in the Gospel of Luke as a relative of Jesus, who led a movement of baptism at the Jordan River...

's baptism of Jesus
Baptism of Jesus
The baptism of Jesus marks the beginning of Jesus Christ's public ministry. This event is recorded in the Canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. In John 1:29-33 rather than a direct narrative, the Baptist bears witness to the episode...

 to the Ascension of Jesus, and it concentrates particularly on the last week of his life (chapters 11–16, the trip to Jerusalem). Its swift narrative portrays Jesus as a heroic man of action, an exorcist
Exorcism
Exorcism is the religious practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person or place which they are believed to have possessed...

, a healer and miracle worker.

An important theme of Mark is the Messianic Secret
Messianic Secret
In Biblical criticism, the Messianic Secret refers to a proposed motif primarily in the Gospel of Mark in which Jesus is portrayed as commanding his followers to silence about his Messianic mission...

. Jesus silences the demoniacs he heals, keeps his messianic identity secret, and conceals his message with parables. The disciples
Disciple (Christianity)
In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. While Jesus attracted a large following, the term disciple is commonly used to refer specifically to "the Twelve", an inner circle of men whose number perhaps represented the twelve tribes of Israel...

 also fail to understand the implication of the miracles of Jesus
Miracles of Jesus
The miracles of Jesus are the supernatural deeds of Jesus, as recorded in Gospels, in the course of his ministry. According to the Gospel of John, only some of these were recorded. states that "Jesus did many other things as well...

.

All four canonical gospels are anonymous, but Early Christian tradition identifies this gospel's author as Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist is the traditional author of the Gospel of Mark. He is one of the Seventy Disciples of Christ, and the founder of the Church of Alexandria, one of the original four main sees of Christianity....

, who is said to have based the work on the testimony of Saint Peter
Saint Peter
Saint Peter or Simon Peter was an early Christian leader, who is featured prominently in the New Testament Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles. The son of John or of Jonah and from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee, his brother Andrew was also an apostle...

. Some modern scholars consider the traditional authorship account to be essentially credible, while others doubt it. Even scholars who doubt Mark's authorship acknowledge that much of the material in Mark goes back a long way and represents important information about Jesus. The Gospel of Mark is often considered to be the primary source
Primary source
Primary source is a term used in a number of disciplines to describe source material that is closest to the person, information, period, or idea being studied....

 of information about the ministry of Jesus
Ministry of Jesus
In the Christian gospels, the Ministry of Jesus begins with his Baptism in the countryside of Judea, near the River Jordan and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples. The Gospel of Luke states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his ministry...

.

Composition and setting

The Gospel of Mark does not name its author. A 2nd century tradition ascribes it to Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist is the traditional author of the Gospel of Mark. He is one of the Seventy Disciples of Christ, and the founder of the Church of Alexandria, one of the original four main sees of Christianity....

 (also known as John Mark
John Mark
John Mark is a character in the New Testament. According to William Lane, an "unbroken tradition" identifies him with Mark the Evangelist. John Mark is mentioned several times in the Acts of the Apostles...

), a companion of Peter, on whose memories it is supposedly based. The gospel was written in Greek shortly after the destruction of the Second Temple
Second Temple
The Jewish Second Temple was an important shrine which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem between 516 BCE and 70 CE. It replaced the First Temple which was destroyed in 586 BCE, when the Jewish nation was exiled to Babylon...

 in AD 70, possibly in Syria. The author's use of varied sources tells against the traditional account of authorship, and according to the majority view the author is probably unknown.

Authorship and sources

According to Irenaeus
Irenaeus
Saint Irenaeus , was Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, then a part of the Roman Empire . He was an early church father and apologist, and his writings were formative in the early development of Christian theology...

, Papias of Hierapolis, writing in the early 2nd century, reported that this gospel was by John Mark
John Mark
John Mark is a character in the New Testament. According to William Lane, an "unbroken tradition" identifies him with Mark the Evangelist. John Mark is mentioned several times in the Acts of the Apostles...

, the companion of Saint Peter
Saint Peter
Saint Peter or Simon Peter was an early Christian leader, who is featured prominently in the New Testament Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles. The son of John or of Jonah and from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee, his brother Andrew was also an apostle...

 in Rome, who "had one purpose only – to leave out nothing that he had heard, and to make no misstatement about it." A number of modern scholars believe that the gospel was written in Syria by an unknown Christian around AD 70, using various sources including a passion narrative (probably written), collections of miracles stories (oral or written), apocalyptic traditions (probably written), and disputations and didactic sayings (some possibly written). Some of the material in Mark, however, goes back a very long way, representing an important source for historical information about Jesus.

Mark wrote primarily for an audience of gentile Greek-speaking residents of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

: Jewish traditions are explained, clearly for the benefit of non-Jews (e.g., ; ; ), and Aramaic words and phrases are expanded upon by the author, e.g., ταλιθα κουμ (talitha koum); κορβαν (Corban); αββα (abba). When Mark makes use of the Old Testament he does so in the form in which it had been translated into Greek, the Septuagint, for instance ; ; ; ; also compare with Daniel
Book of Daniel
The Book of Daniel is a book in the Hebrew Bible. The book tells of how Daniel, and his Judean companions, were inducted into Babylon during Jewish exile, and how their positions elevated in the court of Nebuchadnezzar. The court tales span events that occur during the reigns of Nebuchadnezzar,...

 .

Source for Matthew and Luke

Most scholars believe that the Gospel of Mark was the first of the canonical gospels, and was available when the gospels of Matthew and Luke were written. The reason that such great importance is attached to this Gospel has been the widespread belief in the academic community that the Gospel of Mark and probably Q were the basis of the Synoptic Gospels, as held in the two-source hypothesis
Two-source hypothesis
The Two-Source Hypothesis is an explanation for the synoptic problem, the pattern of similarities and differences between the three Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. It posits that the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke were based on the Gospel of Mark and a lost, hypothetical sayings...

. Mark's gospel is a short, Koine Greek
Koine Greek
Koine Greek is the universal dialect of the Greek language spoken throughout post-Classical antiquity , developing from the Attic dialect, with admixture of elements especially from Ionic....

 basis for the Synoptic Gospels. It provides the general chronology, from Jesus' baptism to the empty tomb.

Differing versions

Mark is the shortest of the canonical gospels. Manuscripts, both scrolls and codices, tend to lose text at the beginning and the end, not unlike a coverless paperback in a backpack. These losses are characteristically unconnected with excisions. For instance, has been found in two different forms. Most manuscripts of Mark, including the 4th-century Codex Vaticanus, have the text "son of God", but three important manuscripts do not. Those three are: Codex Sinaiticus
Codex Sinaiticus
Codex Sinaiticus is one of the four great uncial codices, an ancient, handwritten copy of the Greek Bible. It is an Alexandrian text-type manuscript written in the 4th century in uncial letters on parchment. Current scholarship considers the Codex Sinaiticus to be one of the best Greek texts of...

 (01, א; dated 4th century), Codex Koridethi
Codex Koridethi
The Codex Koridethi, also named Codex Coridethianus, designated by Θ, 038, or Theta , ε 050 , is a 9th century manuscript of the four Gospels. It is written in Greek with uncial script in two columns per page, in 25 lines per page...

 (038, Θ; 9th century), and the text called Minuscule 28 (11th century). Textual support for the term "Son of God" is strong, but the phrase may not have been original.

Interpolations may not be editorial, either. It is a common experience that gloss
Gloss
A gloss is a brief notation of the meaning of a word or wording in a text. It may be in the language of the text, or in the reader's language if that is different....

es written in the margins of manuscripts get incorporated into the text as copies are made. Any particular example is open to dispute, of course, but one may take note of , "Let anyone with ears to hear, listen," which is not found in early manuscripts.

Revision and editorial error may also contribute. Most differences are trivial but , where the leper approached Jesus begging to be healed, is significant. Early (Western
Western text-type
The Western text-type is one of several text-types used in textual criticism to describe and group the textual character of Greek New Testament manuscripts...

) manuscripts say that Jesus became angry with the leper while later (Byzantine
Byzantine text-type
The Byzantine text-type is one of several text-types used in textual criticism to describe the textual character of Greek New Testament manuscripts. It is the form found in the largest number of surviving manuscripts, though not in the oldest...

) versions indicate that Jesus showed compassion. This is possibly a confusion between the Aramaic words ethraham (he had pity) and ethra'em (he was enraged). Since it is easier to understand why a scribe would change "rage" to "pity" than "pity" to "rage," the earlier version is probably original.

Ending

Starting in the 19th century, textual critics have commonly asserted that , describing some disciples' encounters with the resurrected Jesus, was a later addition to the gospel. Mark 16:8 stops at a description of the empty tomb
Empty tomb
Empty tomb most often refers to the tomb of Jesus which was found to be empty by the women who were present at Jesus’ crucifixion. They had come to his tomb to anoint his body with spices...

, which is immediately preceded by a statement by a "young man dressed in a white robe" that Jesus is "risen" and is "going ahead of you into Galilee." The last twelve verses are missing from the oldest manuscripts of Mark's Gospel. The style of these verses differs from the rest of Mark, suggesting they were a later addition. In a handful of manuscripts, a "short ending" is included after 16:8, but before the "long ending", and exists by itself in one of the earliest Old Latin
Old Latin
Old Latin refers to the Latin language in the period before the age of Classical Latin; that is, all Latin before 75 BC...

 codices, Codex Bobiensis
Codex Bobiensis
Codex Bobiensis is a fragmentary Latin manuscript of the bible. Specifically, it is an example of a Vetus Latina bible, which were used from the 2nd century until Jerome's Latin translation, the Vulgate, was written in the 5th century. The text contains parts of the Gospel of Mark and Gospel of...

. By the 5th century, at least four different endings have been attested. (See Mark 16
Mark 16
Mark 16 is the final chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It begins with the discovery of the empty tomb by Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome — there they encounter a man dressed in white who announces the Resurrection of Jesus.Verse 8 ends...

 for a more comprehensive treatment of this topic.) Possibly, the Long Ending (16:9-20) started as a summary of evidence for Jesus' resurrection and the apostles' divine mission, based on other gospels. It was likely composed early in the 2nd century and incorporated into the gospel around the middle of the 2nd century.

Therefore, the Gospel of Mark may have originally ended abruptly at Mark 16:8. This has become problematic for scholars, as it is unlikely that a Christian author would have intentionally ended his gospel in such a fashion. The most common explanation is that the ending was lost. This is not uncommon with ancient scrolls due to their wearing patterns. The gospel may have been unfinished, due to death or some form of persecution. Finally Mark could have been a two volume work in the tradition of Luke-Acts
Luke-Acts
Luke-Acts is the name usually given by Biblical scholars to the hypothetical composite work of the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament. Together they describe the Ministry of Jesus and the subsequent lives of the Apostles and the Apostolic Age.Both the books of Luke and...

, the second volume being lost or unfinished.
Irenaeus
Irenaeus
Saint Irenaeus , was Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, then a part of the Roman Empire . He was an early church father and apologist, and his writings were formative in the early development of Christian theology...

, c. 180, quoted from the long ending, specifically as part of Mark's gospel. The 3rd-century theologian Origen of Alexandria quoted the resurrection stories in Matthew, Luke, and John but failed to quote anything after , suggesting that his copy of Mark stopped there. Eusebius and Jerome
Jerome
Saint Jerome was a Roman Christian priest, confessor, theologian and historian, and who became a Doctor of the Church. He was the son of Eusebius, of the city of Stridon, which was on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia...

 both mention the majority of texts available to them omitted the longer ending. Critics are divided over whether the original ending at 16:8 was intentional, whether it resulted from accidental loss, or even the author's death. Those who believe that 16:8 was not the intended ending argue that it would be very unusual syntax for the text to end with the conjunction gar , as does Mark 16:8, and that thematically it would be strange for a book of good news to end with a note of fear . If the 16:8 ending was intentional, it could indicate a connection to the theme of the "Messianic Secret
Messianic Secret
In Biblical criticism, the Messianic Secret refers to a proposed motif primarily in the Gospel of Mark in which Jesus is portrayed as commanding his followers to silence about his Messianic mission...

". This abrupt ending is also used to support the identification of this book as an example of closet drama
Closet drama
A closet drama is a play that is not intended to be performed onstage, but read by a solitary reader or, sometimes, out loud in a small group. A related form, the "closet screenplay," developed during the 20th century.-Form:...

, which characteristically ended without resolution and often with a tragic or shocking event that prevents closure.

Characteristics

The Gospel of Mark differs from the other gospels in language, detail and content. Its theology is unique. The gospel's vocabulary embraces 1330 distinct words, of which 60 are proper names. Eighty words, (exclusive of proper names), are not found elsewhere in the New Testament. About one-fourth of these are non-classical. In addition Mark makes use of the "historic present" as well as the "Messianic secret" to make known his Gospel message.

Theology

Christians consider the Gospel of Mark to be divinely inspired and will see the gospel's theology as consistent with that of the rest of the Bible. Each sees Mark as contributing a valuable voice to a wider Christian theology, though Christians sometimes disagree about the nature of this theology. However, Mark's contribution to a New Testament theology can be identified as unique in and of itself.

Mark is seen as a historian/theologian and declares that his account is "The Gospel of Jesus Christ". The "Suffering Messiah" is central to Mark's portrayal of Jesus, his theology and the structure of the gospel. This knowledge is hidden and only those with spiritual insight may see. The concept of hidden knowledge may have become the basis of the Gnostic Gospels
Gnostic Gospels
The Gnostic Gospels are a collection of about fifty-two texts supposedly based upon the ancient wisdom teachings of several prophets and spiritual leaders including Jesus, written from the 2nd to the 4th century AD. These gospels are not part of the standard Biblical canon of any major Christian...

. John Killinger, arguing that, in Mark, the resurrection account is hidden throughout the gospel rather than at the end, speculates that the Markan author might himself have been a Gnostic
Gnosticism
Gnosticism is a scholarly term for a set of religious beliefs and spiritual practices common to early Christianity, Hellenistic Judaism, Greco-Roman mystery religions, Zoroastrianism , and Neoplatonism.A common characteristic of some of these groups was the teaching that the realisation of Gnosis...

 Christian.

Messianic secret

In Mark, more than in the other synoptics, Jesus hides his messianic identity. When he exorcises demons, they recognize him, but he commands them to be silent. When he heals people, he tells them not to reveal how they were healed. When he preaches, he uses parables to conceal his true message. The disciples are obtuse, understanding the true significance of Jesus only after his death. This "Messianic secret" is a central issue in Bible scholarship.

In 1901, William Wrede challenged the current critical view that Mark comprised a straightforward historical account and gave the name "Messianic secret" to this gospel theme. He argued that the Messianic secret was a literary device that Mark used to resolve the tension between early Christians, who hailed Jesus as the Messiah, and the historical Jesus who, he argued, never made any such claim for himself. The Messianic secret remains a topic of debate.

Adoptionism

Christians believe that Jesus was the Son of God
Son of God
"Son of God" is a phrase which according to most Christian denominations, Trinitarian in belief, refers to the relationship between Jesus and God, specifically as "God the Son"...

. The majority Christian view is that He was conceived by the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit is a term introduced in English translations of the Hebrew Bible, but understood differently in the main Abrahamic religions.While the general concept of a "Spirit" that permeates the cosmos has been used in various religions Holy Spirit is a term introduced in English translations of...

 and was born of the Virgin Mary.

However, there is a minority Christian belief called Adoptionism
Adoptionism
Adoptionism, sometimes called dynamic monarchianism, is a minority Christian belief that Jesus was adopted as God's son at his baptism...

. Adoptionists believe that Jesus was fully human, born of a sexual union between Joseph and Mary. Jesus only became divine
Divinity
Divinity and divine are broadly applied but loosely defined terms, used variously within different faiths and belief systems — and even by different individuals within a given faith — to refer to some transcendent or transcendental power or deity, or its attributes or manifestations in...

, i.e. (adopted as God's son), later at his baptism
Baptism of Jesus
The baptism of Jesus marks the beginning of Jesus Christ's public ministry. This event is recorded in the Canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. In John 1:29-33 rather than a direct narrative, the Baptist bears witness to the episode...

. He was chosen as the firstborn of all creation because of his sinless devotion to the will of God.

Adoptionism probably arose among early Jewish Christians
Jewish Christians
Jewish Christians is a term which appears in historical texts contrasting Christians of Jewish origin with Gentile Christians, both in discussion of the New Testament church and the second and following centuries....

 seeking to reconcile the claims that Jesus was the Son of God with the strict monotheism
Monotheism
Monotheism is the belief in the existence of one and only one god. Monotheism is characteristic of the Baha'i Faith, Christianity, Druzism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Samaritanism, Sikhism and Zoroastrianism.While they profess the existence of only one deity, monotheistic religions may still...

 of Judaism, in which the concept of a trinity of divine persons in one Godhead was unacceptable. Scholar Bart D. Ehrman
Bart D. Ehrman
Bart D. Ehrman is an American New Testament scholar, currently the James A. Gray Distinguished Professor of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill....

 argues that adoptionist theology may date back almost to the time of Jesus
Jesus
Jesus of Nazareth , commonly referred to as Jesus Christ or simply as Jesus or Christ, is the central figure of Christianity...

. The early Jewish-Christian Gospels
Jewish-Christian Gospels
Jewish-Christian Gospels are non-canonical Gospels used by various Jewish Christian groups that were declared heretical by other members of the Early Church. They are mentioned by Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Eusebius, Epiphanius and Jerome...

 make no mention of a supernatural birth. Rather, they state that Jesus was begotten at his baptism
Baptism
In Christianity, baptism is for the majority the rite of admission , almost invariably with the use of water, into the Christian Church generally and also membership of a particular church tradition...

.

The theology of Adoptionism fell into disfavor as Christianity left its Jewish roots and Gentile Christianity became dominant. Adoptionism was declared heresy at the end of the 2nd century, and was rejected by the First Council of Nicaea, which proclaimed the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity and identifies Jesus as eternally begotten
Begotten
Begotten is a 1991 experimental/horror film, directed and written by E. Elias Merhige.The film deals with the story of Genesis. But as Merhige revealed during Q&A sessions, its primary inspiration was a near death experience he had when he was 19, after a car crash. The film features no dialogue,...

 of God. The Creed of Nicaea now holds Jesus was born of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary. (See Virgin Birth
Virgin Birth
The virgin birth of Jesus is a tenet of Christianity and Islam which holds that Mary miraculously conceived Jesus while remaining a virgin. The term "virgin birth" is commonly used, rather than "virgin conception", due to the tradition that Joseph "knew her not till she brought forth her firstborn...

).

Adoptionism may go back as far as Matthew and the Apostles. According to the Church Fathers, the first gospel was written by the Apostle Matthew, and his account was called the Gospel of the Hebrews
Gospel of the Hebrews
The Gospel of the Hebrews , commonly shortened from the Gospel according to the Hebrews or simply called the Hebrew Gospel, is a hypothesised lost gospel preserved in fragments within the writings of the Church Fathers....

 or the Gospel of the Apostles.
This, the first written account of the life of Jesus was adoptionist in nature. The Gospel of the Hebrews has no mention of the Virgin Birth
Virgin Birth
The virgin birth of Jesus is a tenet of Christianity and Islam which holds that Mary miraculously conceived Jesus while remaining a virgin. The term "virgin birth" is commonly used, rather than "virgin conception", due to the tradition that Joseph "knew her not till she brought forth her firstborn...

 and when Jesus is baptized it states, "Jesus came up from the water, Heaven was opened, and He saw the Holy Spirit descend in the form of a dove and enter into Him. And a voice from Heaven said, ‘You are my beloved Son; with You I am well pleased.’ And again, ‘Today I have begotten You.’ Immediately a great light shone around the place".

Scholars also see Adoptionist theology in the Gospel of Mark. Mark has Jesus as the Son of God, occurring at the strategic points of 1:1 ("The beginning of the gospel about Jesus Christ, the Son of God") and 15:39 ("Surely this man was the Son of God!"), but the Virgin Birth of Jesus has not been developed.The phrase "Son of God" is not present in some early manuscripts at 1:1. Bart D. Ehrman
Bart D. Ehrman
Bart D. Ehrman is an American New Testament scholar, currently the James A. Gray Distinguished Professor of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill....

 uses this omission to support the notion that the title "Son of God" is not used of Jesus until his baptism, and that Mark reflects an adoptionist view. However, the authenticity of the omission of "Son of God" and its theological significance has been rejected by Bruce Metzger
Bruce Metzger
Bruce Manning Metzger was a professor at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who served on the board of the American Bible Society. He was a scholar of Greek, New Testament and Old Testament, and wrote prolifically on these subjects.- Biography :Metzger was born in Middletown,...

 and Ben Witherington III
Ben Witherington III
Ben Witherington III is an American evangelical Biblical scholar, and professor of New Testament Studies.Witherington is Professor of New Testament Interpretation at Asbury Theological Seminary in Wilmore, Kentucky.-Education:...

.

By the time the Gospels of Luke
Gospel of Luke
The Gospel According to Luke , commonly shortened to the Gospel of Luke or simply Luke, is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels. This synoptic gospel is an account of the life and ministry of Jesus of Nazareth. It details his story from the events of his birth to his Ascension.The...

 and Matthew
Gospel of Matthew
The Gospel According to Matthew is one of the four canonical gospels, one of the three synoptic gospels, and the first book of the New Testament. It tells of the life, ministry, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth...

 were written, Jesus is portrayed as being the Son of God from the time of birth, and finally the Gospel of John
Gospel of John
The Gospel According to John , commonly referred to as the Gospel of John or simply John, and often referred to in New Testament scholarship as the Fourth Gospel, is an account of the public ministry of Jesus...

 portrays the Son as existing "in the beginning".

Meaning of Jesus' death

Mark portrays Jesus' death as an atoning sacrifice for sin. The Temple curtain, which served as a barrier between the holy presence of God and the profane world, rips at the moment of Jesus' death, symbolizing an end to the division between humans and God.

The only explicit mention of the meaning of Jesus' death in Mark occurs in where Jesus says that the "Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom (lutron) for many (anti pollōn)." According to Barnabas Lindars, this refers to Isaiah's
Book of Isaiah
The Book of Isaiah is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, preceding the books of Ezekiel, Jeremiah and the Book of the Twelve...

 fourth servant song, with lutron referring to the "offering for sin" (Isaiah 53:10) and anti pollōn to the Servant "bearing the sin of many" in Isaiah 52:12. The Greek word anti means "in the place of", which indicates a substitutionary death.

The author of this gospel also speaks of Jesus' death through the metaphors of the departing bridegroom in , and of the rejected heir in . He views it as fulfilling Old Testament prophecy .

Many scholars believe that Mark structured his gospel in order to emphasise Jesus' death. For example, Alan Culpepper sees Mark 15:1-39 as developing in three acts, each containing an event and a response. The first event is Jesus' trial, followed by the soldiers' mocking response; the second event is Jesus' crucifixion, followed by the spectators mocking him; the third and final event in this sequence is Jesus' death, followed by the veil being rent and the centurion confessing, "truly this man was the Son of God." In weaving these things into a triadic structure, Mark is thereby emphasising the importance of this confession, which provides a dramatic contrast to the two scenes of mocking which precede it. D. R. Bauer suggests that "by bringing his gospel to a climax with this christological confession at the cross, Mark indicates that Jesus is first and foremost Son of God, and that Jesus is Son of God as one who suffers and dies in obedience to God." Joel Marcus notes that the other Evangelists "attenuate" Mark's emphasis on Jesus' suffering and death, and sees Mark as more strongly influenced than they are by Paul's "theology of the cross".

Characteristics of Mark's content

The narrative can be divided into three sections: the Galilean ministry, including the surrounding regions of Phoenicia, Decapolis, and Cæsarea Philippi (1-9); the Journey to Jerusalem (10); and the Events in Jerusalem (11-16).
  • Unlike both Matthew and Luke, Mark does not offer any information about the life of Jesus before his baptism and ministry, including neither a nativity nor a genealogy. He is simply stated as having come "out of Galilee;" the Gospel of John
    Gospel of John
    The Gospel According to John , commonly referred to as the Gospel of John or simply John, and often referred to in New Testament scholarship as the Fourth Gospel, is an account of the public ministry of Jesus...

     similarly refers to Jesus being of Galilean origin.
  • Jesus' baptism is understated, with John not identifying Jesus as the Son of God, nor initially declining to baptize him
  • Son of Man
    Son of man
    The phrase son of man is a primarily Semitic idiom that originated in Ancient Mesopotamia, used to denote humanity or self. The phrase is also used in Judaism and Christianity. The phrase used in the Greek, translated as Son of man is ὁ υἱὸς τοὺ ἀνθρώπου...

     is the major title used of Jesus in Mark . Many people have seen that this title is a very important one within Mark’s Gospel, and it has important implications for Mark’s Christology. Jesus raises a question that demonstrates the association in Mark between "Son of Man" (cf. Dan 7:13–14) and the suffering servant in —"How then is it written about the Son of Man, that he is to go through many sufferings and be treated with contempt?" (9:12b NRSV). Yet this comparison is not explicit; Mark's Gospel creates this link between Daniel
    Book of Daniel
    The Book of Daniel is a book in the Hebrew Bible. The book tells of how Daniel, and his Judean companions, were inducted into Babylon during Jewish exile, and how their positions elevated in the court of Nebuchadnezzar. The court tales span events that occur during the reigns of Nebuchadnezzar,...

     and Isaiah, and applies it to Christ. It is postulated that this is because of the persecution of Christians; thus, Mark's Gospel encourages believers to stand firm in the face of troubles.
  • Jesus "explained everything in private to his disciples" while only speaking in parables
    Parables of Jesus
    The parables of Jesus can be found in all the Canonical gospels as well as in some of the non-canonical gospels but are located mainly within the three synoptic gospels. They represent a key part of the teachings of Jesus, forming approximately one third of his recorded teachings...

     to the crowds. His use of parables obscures his message and fulfills prophecy .
  • The Messianic Secret
    Messianic Secret
    In Biblical criticism, the Messianic Secret refers to a proposed motif primarily in the Gospel of Mark in which Jesus is portrayed as commanding his followers to silence about his Messianic mission...

    , Jesus' command to unclean spirits and to his disciples that they not reveal his identity, is stronger in Mark than in the other gospels.
  • To the question "Are You the Christ?", Jesus gives the direct answer, "I am": ; cf. , , , , , , , .
  • Mark is the only gospel that has Jesus explicitly admit that he does not know when the end of the world
    Eschatology
    Eschatology is a part of theology, philosophy, and futurology concerned with what are believed to be the final events in history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity, commonly referred to as the end of the world or the World to Come...

     will be . The equivalent verse in the Byzantine
    Byzantine text-type
    The Byzantine text-type is one of several text-types used in textual criticism to describe the textual character of Greek New Testament manuscripts. It is the form found in the largest number of surviving manuscripts, though not in the oldest...

     manuscript
    Manuscript
    A manuscript or handwrite is written information that has been manually created by someone or some people, such as a hand-written letter, as opposed to being printed or reproduced some other way...

    s of Matthew does not contain the words "nor the Son" (but it is present in most Alexandrian
    Alexandrian text-type
    The Alexandrian text-type , associated with Alexandria, is one of several text-types used in New Testament textual criticism to describe and group the textual character of biblical manuscripts...

     and Western text-type
    Western text-type
    The Western text-type is one of several text-types used in textual criticism to describe and group the textual character of Greek New Testament manuscripts...

    ). See also Kenosis
    Kenosis
    In Christian theology, Kenosis In Christian theology, Kenosis In Christian theology, Kenosis (from the Greek word for emptiness (kénōsis) is the 'self-emptying' of one's own will and becoming entirely receptive to God's divine will....

    .
  • "No sign will be given to this generation" ; Matthew and Luke include "except for the sign of Jonah" , . See also Typology (theology)
    Typology (theology)
    Typology in Christian theology and Biblical exegesis is a doctrine or theory concerning the relationship between the Old and New Testaments...

    . In John, Jesus provides six signs specifically to demonstrate his divine role.

Characteristics of Mark's language

The phrase "and immediately" occurs forty-two times in Mark; while in Luke, which is much longer, it is used only seven times, and in John only four times. The word from , which roughly translates as law, (http://www.blueletterbible.org/cgi-bin/strongs.pl?strongs=3551) is never used, while it appears 8 times in Matthew, 9 times in Luke, 15 times in John, 19 times in Acts, many times in Romans.

Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 loanwords are often used: speculator, sextarius,
centurion, legion, quadrans, praetorium,
caesar, census, flagello, modius, denarius. Mark has over a dozen direct Old Testament quotations: , , , , ,, , , , , , , , . Mark makes frequent use of the narrative present; Luke changes about 150 of these verbs to past tense. Mark frequently links sentences with (and); Matthew and Luke replace most of these with subordinate clauses.

Other characteristics unique to Mark

  • The Sabbath
    Biblical Sabbath
    Sabbath in the Bible is usually a weekly day of rest and time of worship. The Sabbath is first mentioned in the Genesis creation narrative. The seventh day is there set aside as a day of rest—the Sabbath. It is observed differently in Judaism and Christianity and informs a similar occasion in...

     was made for man, not man for the Sabbath . Not present in either or . This is also a so-called "Western non-interpolation". The passage is not found in the Western text of Mark.
  • People were saying, "[Jesus] has gone out of his mind", see also Rejection of Jesus
    Rejection of Jesus
    The Canonical Gospels of the New Testament include some accounts of the rejection of Jesus in the course of his ministry. Judaism's view of Jesus, Jesus in Islam, and the view of the Historical Jesus all differ from Christian views of Jesus.-Hometown rejection:...

     .
  • Mark is the only gospel with the combination , the other gospels split them up: Mark 4:24 being found in and ; Mark 4:25 being found in and , and .
  • Parable of the Growing Seed
    Parable of the Growing Seed
    The Parable of the Growing Seed is a parable of Jesus which appears in only one of the Canonical gospels of the New Testament. According to Mark it is a parable about growth in the Kingdom of God...

     .
  • Only Mark counts the possessed swine
    Legion (demon)
    Legion is a group of demons referred to in the Christian Bible. The New Testament outlines an encounter where Jesus healed a man from Gadarenes possessed by demons while traveling, known as Exorcising the Gerasenes demonic.- In the Bible :...

    ; there are about two thousand .
  • Two consecutive healing stories of women; both make use of the number twelve ( and ).
  • Only Mark gives healing commands of Jesus in the (presumably original) Aramaic: Talitha koum , Ephphatha . See Aramaic of Jesus
    Aramaic of Jesus
    It is generally agreed that the historical Jesus primarily spoke Aramaic, perhaps along with some Hebrew and Greek . The towns of Nazareth and Capernaum, where Jesus lived, were primarily Aramaic-speaking communities, although Greek was widely spoken in the major cities of the Eastern Mediterranean...

    .
  • Only place in the New Testament Jesus is addressed as "the son of Mary" .
  • Mark is the only gospel where Jesus himself is called a carpenter . In Matthew he is called a carpenter's son .
  • Only place that both names his brothers and mentions his sisters .
  • The taking of a staff and sandals is permitted in but prohibited in and .
  • The longest version of the story of Herodias
    Herodias
    Herodias was a Jewish princess of the Herodian Dynasty. Asteroid 546 Herodias is named after her.-Family relationships:*Daughter of Aristobulus IV...

    ' daughter's dance and the beheading of John the Baptist
    John the Baptist
    John the Baptist was an itinerant preacher and a major religious figure mentioned in the Canonical gospels. He is described in the Gospel of Luke as a relative of Jesus, who led a movement of baptism at the Jordan River...

     .
  • Mark's literary cycles: - Feeding of the five thousand; - Crossing of the lake; - Dispute with the Pharisees; - Discourse on Defilement
    Discourse on Defilement
    The Discourse on Defilement is an episode in the life of Jesus in the New Testament. It appears in the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Mark ....

Then: - Feeding of the four thousand; - Crossing of the lake; - Dispute with the Pharisees; - Incident of no bread and discourse about the leaven of the Pharisees.
  • Customs that at that time were unique to Jews are explained (hand, produce, and utensil washing): .
  • "Thus he declared all foods clean." NRSV, not found in the Matthean parallel .
  • Jesus heals using his fingers and spit at the same time: ; cf. , , , ; see also Exorcism.
  • Jesus lays his hands on a blind man twice in curing him: ; cf. , , , , , laying on of hands
    Laying on of hands
    The laying on of hands is a religious ritual that accompanies certain religious practices, which are found throughout the world in varying forms....

    .
  • Jesus cites the Shema Yisrael
    Shema Yisrael
    Shema Yisrael are the first two words of a section of the Torah that is a centerpiece of the morning and evening Jewish prayer services...

    : "Hear O Israel ..." ; in the parallels of and the first part of the Shema is absent.
  • Mark points out that the Mount of Olives
    Mount of Olives
    The Mount of Olives is a mountain ridge in East Jerusalem with three peaks running from north to south. The highest, at-Tur, rises to 818 meters . It is named for the olive groves that once covered its slopes...

     is across from the temple
    Temple Mount
    The Temple Mount, known in Hebrew as , and in Arabic as the Haram Ash-Sharif , is one of the most important religious sites in the Old City of Jerusalem. It has been used as a religious site for thousands of years...

     .
  • When Jesus is arrested
    Arrest of Jesus
    The arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the Canonical gospels. The event ultimately leads, in the Gospel accounts, to Jesus' crucifixion...

    , a young naked man flees: . A young man in a robe also appears in , see also Secret Gospel of Mark.
  • Mark doesn't name the High Priest, cf. , , , .
  • Witness testimony against Jesus does not agree .
  • The cock crows "twice" as predicted . See also Fayyum Fragment
    Fayyum Fragment
    The Fayyum Fragment is a papyrus fragment containing text that could be from part of the New Testament, and consists of only about 100 Greek letters...

    . The other Gospels simply record, "the cock crew". Early codices 01, W, and most Western texts have the simpler version.
  • Pilate's position (Governor) isn't specified, , cf. , , .
  • Simon of Cyrene
    Simon of Cyrene
    Simon of Cyrene was the man compelled by the Romans to carry the cross of Jesus as Jesus was taken to his crucifixion, according to all three Synoptic Gospels...

    's sons are named .
  • A summoned centurion is questioned .
  • The women ask each other who will roll away the stone , cf. .
  • A young man sits on the "right side" , cf. , .
  • Afraid, the women flee from the empty tomb
    Empty tomb
    Empty tomb most often refers to the tomb of Jesus which was found to be empty by the women who were present at Jesus’ crucifixion. They had come to his tomb to anoint his body with spices...

    . They "tell no one" what they have seen , compare with , , , .
  • Mark is the only canonical gospel with significant various alternative endings (see Mark 16, Possible Scenarios); however, most of the contents of the traditional "Longer Ending" are found in other New Testament texts and are not unique to Mark, see Mark 16#The Longer Ending. The one significant exception is 16:18b "and if they drink any deadly thing", it will not harm those who believe, which is unique to Mark.

Secret Gospel of Mark

The Secret Gospel of Mark refers to a version of the Gospel of Mark being circulated in 2nd century Alexandria, which was kept from the Christian community at large. This non-canonical
New Testament apocrypha
The New Testament apocrypha are a number of writings by early Christians that claim to be accounts of Jesus and his teachings, the nature of God, or the teachings of his apostles and of their lives. These writings often have links with books regarded as "canonical"...

 gospel
Gospel
A gospel is an account, often written, that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth. In a more general sense the term "gospel" may refer to the good news message of the New Testament. It is primarily used in reference to the four canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John...

 fragment was discovered in 1958, by biblical researcher Morton Smith
Morton Smith
Morton Smith was an American professor of ancient history at Columbia University. He is best known for his controversial discovery of the Mar Saba letter, a letter attributed to Clement of Alexandria containing excerpts from a Secret Gospel of Mark, during a visit to the monastery at Mar Saba in...

 at the Mar Saba
Mar Saba
The Great Lavra of St. Sabbas the Sanctified, known in Arabic as Mar Saba , is a Greek Orthodox monastery overlooking the Kidron Valley in the West Bank east of Bethlehem. The traditional date for the founding of the monastery by Saint Sabas of Cappadocia is the year 483 and today houses around 20...

 monastery.

In this fragment, Clement of Alexandria explains that Mark, during Peter's stay in Rome wrote an account of the life of Jesus. Mark selected those events that would be the most helpful to the Church. When Peter died a martyr, Mark left Rome and went to Alexandria. He brought both his own writings and those of Peter. It was here that Mark composed a second more spiritual Gospel and when he died, he left his composition to the Church. The Carpocrates got a copy of this Gospel and they misinterpreted it, which caused problems for the early Church.

Some modern scholars maintain the Secret Gospel is a clumsy forgery, while others accept this text as being authentic.
The nature of the Secret Gospel of Mark as well as Morton Smith's role in its discovery are still being debated.

Canonical Status

A related issue is the adoption of the Gospel of Mark as a Canonical Gospel, given that, like the hypothetical Q, it is largely reproduced in Matthew and Luke, but, unlike Q, it did not become "lost". Traditionally Mark's authority and survival has derived from its Petrine origins (see above "Authorship"). A recent suggestion is that Mark gained widespread popularity in oral performance, apart from readings from manuscript copies. Its widespread oral popularity ensured it a place in the written canon.

Content


Galilean ministry
  • John the Baptist
    John the Baptist
    John the Baptist was an itinerant preacher and a major religious figure mentioned in the Canonical gospels. He is described in the Gospel of Luke as a relative of Jesus, who led a movement of baptism at the Jordan River...

     (1:1–8,6:14–29)
  • Baptism of Jesus
    Baptism of Jesus
    The baptism of Jesus marks the beginning of Jesus Christ's public ministry. This event is recorded in the Canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. In John 1:29-33 rather than a direct narrative, the Baptist bears witness to the episode...

     (1:9–11)
  • Temptation of Jesus (1:12–13)
  • Return to Galilee
    Return of Jesus to Galilee
    The Return of Jesus to Galilee is an episode in the life of Jesus that appears in three of the Canonical Gospels: , and . It relates the return of Jesus to Galillee upon the imprisonment of John the Baptist.According to the Gospel of John:...

     (1:14)
  • Good News (1:15)
  • Calling Simon, Andrew, James, John (1:16–20)
  • Capernaum (1:21–39)
  • Leper
    Jesus cleansing a leper
    Jesus cleansing a leper is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels, namely in Matthew 8:1-4, Mark 1:40-45 and Luke 5:12-16.According to the Gospels, when Jesus came down from the mountainside, large crowds followed him. A man with leprosy came and knelt before him and said, "Lord, if you are...

     and Paralytic
    Healing the paralytic at Capernaum
    Healing the paralytic at Capernaum is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels in Matthew , Mark and Luke .According to the Gospels, when Jesus entered Capernaum, the people heard that he had come home. They gathered in such large numbers that there was no room left, not even outside the door,...

     (1:40–2:12)
  • Calling of Matthew
    Calling of Matthew
    The Calling of Matthew is an episode in the life of Jesus that appears in all three Synoptic Gospels, , and and relates the initial encounter between Jesus and St. Matthew.According to the Gospel of Matthew:...

     (2:13–17)
  • On fasting and wineskins (2:18–22)
  • Sabbath observance (2:23–3:6)
  • Multitude at the Sea of Galilee (3:7–12)
  • Commission of the Twelve (3:13–19,6:7-13)
  • Blind mute
    Exorcising the blind and mute man
    Exorcising the blind and mute man is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels, i.e. Matthew 12:22-32, Luke 11:14-23 and Mark 3:20-30.According to the Gospels, Jesus healed a demon-possessed man who was blind and mute, so that he could both talk and see...

     (3:20-26)
  • Strong man
    Parable of the strong man
    The Parable of the strong man is a parable told by Jesus in the New Testament, found in Matthew , Mark , and Luke...

     (3:27)
  • Eternal sin
    Eternal sin
    Eternal sins or unforgivable sins or unpardonable sins, are a concept in Christian theology of sins which cannot or will not be forgiven, whereby salvation becomes impossible...

     (3:28-30)
  • Jesus' true relatives
    Jesus' True Relatives
    The saying of Jesus concerning his true relatives is found in the Canonical gospels of Mark and Matthew.-In the Bible:From : There came then his brethren and his mother, and, standing without, sent unto him, calling him....

     (3:31-35)
  • Parable of the Sower
    Parable of the Sower
    The Parable of the Sower is one of the parables of Jesus found in three out of the four Canonical gospels and in the non-canonical Gospel of Thomas In this story, a sower dropped seed on the path, on rocky ground, and among thorns, and the seed was lost; but when seed fell on good earth, it...

     (4:1–9,13-20)
  • Purpose of parables (4:10-12,33-34)
  • Lamp under a bushel
    Lamp under a bushel
    The Parable of the lamp under a bushel, , is one of the parables of Jesus. It appears in three of the Canonical gospels of the New Testament. The differences found in Matthew 5:14-15, Mark 4:21-25 and Luke 8:16-18, are minor. An abbreviated version of the parable also appears in the non-canonical...

     (4:21–23)
  • Mote and Beam
    The Mote and the Beam
    The Mote and the Beam is a New Testament saying in Matthew 7:1-5 as part of the Sermon on the Mount. The discourse is fairly brief, and begins by condemning those who would judge others, arguing that they too would be judged...

     (4:24-25)
  • Growing seed
    Parable of the Growing Seed
    The Parable of the Growing Seed is a parable of Jesus which appears in only one of the Canonical gospels of the New Testament. According to Mark it is a parable about growth in the Kingdom of God...

     and Mustard seed
    Parable of the Mustard Seed
    The Parable of the Mustard Seed is one of the shorter parables of Jesus. It appears in three of the Canonical gospels of the New Testament. The differences between Gospels of Matthew , Mark , and Luke , are minor...

     (4:26–32)
  • Calming the storm
    Calming the storm
    thumb|240px|[[The Storm on the Sea of Galilee]] by [[Rembrandt]], 1632.Calming the storm is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels, namely in Mark 4:35-41, Luke 8:22-25 and Matthew 8:23-27....

     (4:35–41)
  • Demon named Legion
    Legion (demon)
    Legion is a group of demons referred to in the Christian Bible. The New Testament outlines an encounter where Jesus healed a man from Gadarenes possessed by demons while traveling, known as Exorcising the Gerasenes demonic.- In the Bible :...

     (5:1–20)
  • Daughter of Jairus
    Daughter of Jairus
    The record of the daughter of Jairus is a combination of miracles of Jesus in the Gospels .The story immediately follows the exorcism at Gerasa. Jairus, a patron of the synagogue, asks Jesus to heal his dying daughter. However, according to Matthew, his daughter is already dead, not dying...

     (5:21–43)
  • Hometown rejection (6:1–6)
  • Feeding the 5000
    Feeding the multitude
    Feeding the multitude is the combined term used to refer to two separate miracles of Jesus in the Gospels.The First Miracle, "The Feeding of the 5,000" is the only miracle which is present in all four canonical Gospels...

     (6:30–44)
  • Walking on water
    Walking on water
    Jesus' walks on water, or Jesus walking on water, is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels. Accounts of the miracle appear in three Gospels: Matthew 14:22-33, Mark 6:45-52 and...

     (6:45–52)
  • Fringe of his cloak heals
    Jesus healing in the land of Gennesaret
    Jesus healing in the land of Gennesaret is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels, i.e. Matthew 14:34-36 and Mark 6:53-56.According to the Gospel of Mark, as Jesus passes through Gennesaret, just after the miracle of Walking on Water, all those who touch his cloak are healed:...

     (6:53–56)
  • Clean and Unclean (7:1–23)
  • Canaanite woman's daughter
    Exorcising the Canaanite woman's daughter
    Exorcising the Canaanite woman's daughter is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels, i.e. Matthew 15:21-28 and Mark 7:24-30. According to the Gospels, in this miracle Jesus exorcised the daughter of the Canaanite or Phoenician woman in the region of Tyre and Sidon.The Canaanite woman came to...

     (7:24–30)
  • Deaf mute
    Healing the deaf mute of Decapolis
    Healing the deaf mute of Decapolis is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels, namely Mark 7:31-37. Its narration offers many parallels with the healing of the blind man of Bethsaida in Mark 8:22-26....

     (7:31–37)
  • Feeding the 4000
    Feeding the multitude
    Feeding the multitude is the combined term used to refer to two separate miracles of Jesus in the Gospels.The First Miracle, "The Feeding of the 5,000" is the only miracle which is present in all four canonical Gospels...

     (8:1–9)
  • No sign will be given
    Mark 8
    Mark 8 is the eighth chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It contains two miracles of Jesus, Peter's confession that he believes Jesus is the Messiah, and Jesus' first prediction of his own death and resurrection...

     (8:10–12)
  • Beware of yeast
    Mark 8
    Mark 8 is the eighth chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It contains two miracles of Jesus, Peter's confession that he believes Jesus is the Messiah, and Jesus' first prediction of his own death and resurrection...

     (8:13-21)
  • Healing with spit
    The Blind Man of Bethsaida
    The Blind Man of Bethsaida is the subject of one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels. It is found only in Mark 8:22-26.According to the Gospel of Mark, when Jesus came to Bethsaida, a town in Galilee, he was asked to heal a blind man. Jesus took his patient out of town, put some spittle on his...

     (8:22-26)
  • Peter's confession
    Peter's confession
    In Christianity, the Confession of Peter refers to an episode in the New Testament in which Apostle Peter proclaims Jesus to be Christ - the expected Messiah...

     (8:27–30)
  • Son of Man
    Son of man
    The phrase son of man is a primarily Semitic idiom that originated in Ancient Mesopotamia, used to denote humanity or self. The phrase is also used in Judaism and Christianity. The phrase used in the Greek, translated as Son of man is ὁ υἱὸς τοὺ ἀνθρώπου...

     (8:31-33, 9:30-32, 10:33-34)
  • Those who want to follow should pick up a cross (8:34-37)
  • Return of the Son of Man
    Second Coming
    In Christian doctrine, the Second Coming of Christ, the Second Advent, or the Parousia, is the anticipated return of Jesus Christ from Heaven, where he sits at the Right Hand of God, to Earth. This prophecy is found in the canonical gospels and in most Christian and Islamic eschatologies...

     (8:38-9:1,14:62)
  • Transfiguration
    Transfiguration of Jesus
    The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported in the New Testament in which Jesus is transfigured and becomes radiant upon a mountain. The Synoptic Gospels describe it, and 2 Peter 1:16-18 refers to it....

     (9:2–13)
  • Possessed boy
    Exorcising a boy possessed by a demon
    Exorcising a boy possessed by a demon is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels, i.e. Mark 9:14-29, Matthew 17:14-21 and Luke 9:37-49. According to the Gospels, Jesus performed this miracle just as he came down from the mountain after his transfiguration....

     (9:14-29)
  • Teaching in Capernaum (9:33-50)

Journey to Jerusalem
  • Entering Judea
    Iudaea Province
    Judaea or Iudaea are terms used by historians to refer to the Roman province that extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Israel...

     
  • On divorce (10:2–12)
  • The Little Children
    The Little Children
    The Little Children was a saying given by Jesus in the New Testament.From Matthew 18:1-6 Another saying referencing small children can be found in the Gospel of Thomas. The two passages are different in tone. However, both start by comparing those who enter the Kingdom of Heaven to children, and...

     (10:13-16)
  • Evangelical counsels
    Evangelical counsels
    The three evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection in Christianity are chastity, poverty , and obedience . As Jesus of Nazareth stated in the Canonical gospels , they are counsels for those who desire to become "perfect"...

     (10:17–31)
  • On the road to Jerusalem
    Jerusalem in Christianity
    For Christians, Jerusalem's place in the ministry of Jesus and the Apostolic Age gives it great importance, in addition to its place in the Old Testament, the Hebrew Bible.-Jerusalem in the New Testament and early Christianity:...

     
  • Son of man came to serve
    Son of man came to serve
    Son of man came to serve refers to a specific episode in the New Testament.In the Gospel of Matthew , and the Gospel of Mark Jesus explains that he "came as Son of man to give his life as ransom".The ransom paid by the Son of man is an element of a common doctrine of atonement in Christianity.In...

     (10:35–45)
  • Blind Bartimaeus (10:46–52)


Events in Jerusalem
  • Triumphal entry into Jerusalem
    Triumphal entry into Jerusalem
    In the accounts of the four canonical Gospels, Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem takes place in the days before the Last Supper, marking the beginning of his Passion....

     (11:1–11)
  • Cursing the fig tree
    Cursing the fig tree
    Cursing the fig tree is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels. It is included in the gospels of Mark and Matthew, but not in Luke or John...

     (11:12–14,20-24)
  • Temple incident
    Jesus and the Money Changers
    The narrative of Jesus and the money changers, commonly referred to as the cleansing of the Temple, occurs in all four canonical gospels of the New Testament....

     (11:15–19,27-33)
  • Prayer for forgiveness (11:25-26)
  • The Wicked Husbandman (12:1–12)
  • Render unto Caesar...
    Render unto Caesar...
    "Render unto Caesar…" is the beginning of a phrase attributed to Jesus in the synoptic gospels, which reads in full, "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's" ....

     (12:13–17)
  • Resurrection of the Dead
    Resurrection of the dead
    Resurrection of the Dead is a belief found in a number of eschatologies, most commonly in Christian, Islamic, Jewish and Zoroastrian. In general, the phrase refers to a specific event in the future; multiple prophesies in the histories of these religions assert that the dead will be brought back to...

     (12:18-27)
  • Great Commandment
    Great Commandment
    The Great Commandment, or Greatest Commandment, is an appellation applied to either the first, or both, of two commandments which appear in , and...

     (12:28–34)
  • Teaching the crowd (12:35-40)
  • Lesson of the widow's mite
    Lesson of the widow's mite
    For the 2009 movie, see The Widow's Might.The Lesson of the widow's mite is presented in the Synoptic Gospels , in which Jesus is teaching at the Temple in Jerusalem. The Gospel of Mark specifies that two mites are together worth a quadrans, the smallest Roman coin...

     (12:41-44)
  • Olivet discourse
    Olivet discourse
    The Olivet discourse or Olivet prophecy is a biblical passage found in the Synoptic Gospels of Mark 13, Matthew 24, Luke 21. It is known as the "Little Apocalypse" because it includes Jesus' descriptions of the end times, the use of apocalyptic language, and Jesus' warning to his followers that...

     (13)
  • Plot to kill Jesus (14:1-2,10-11)
  • Anointing
    Anointing of Jesus
    The anointing of Jesus is an event reported by each of the Canonical gospels, in which a woman pours the entire contents of an alabastron of very expensive perfume over the head or feet of Jesus....

     (14:3–9)
  • Last Supper
    Last Supper
    The Last Supper is the final meal that, according to Christian belief, Jesus shared with his Twelve Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper provides the scriptural basis for the Eucharist, also known as "communion" or "the Lord's Supper".The First Epistle to the Corinthians is...

     (14:12–26)
  • Peter's denial
    Denial of Peter
    The Denial of Peter refers to three acts of denial of Jesus by the Apostle Peter as described in the three Synoptic Gospels of the New Testament....

     (14:27-31,66-72)
  • Arrest
    Arrest of Jesus
    The arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the Canonical gospels. The event ultimately leads, in the Gospel accounts, to Jesus' crucifixion...

     (14:32–52)
  • Before the High Priest
    Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus
    The Sanhedrin trial of Jesus refers to the Canonical Gospel accounts of the trial of Jesus before the Jewish Council, or Sanhedrin, following his arrest and prior to his trial before Pontius Pilate...

     (14:53–65)
  • Before Pilate (15:1–15)
  • Crucifixion
    Crucifixion of Jesus
    The crucifixion of Jesus and his ensuing death is an event that occurred during the 1st century AD. Jesus, who Christians believe is the Son of God as well as the Messiah, was arrested, tried, and sentenced by Pontius Pilate to be scourged, and finally executed on a cross...

     (15:16–41)
  • Joseph of Arimathea
    Joseph of Arimathea
    Joseph of Arimathea was, according to the Gospels, the man who donated his own prepared tomb for the burial of Jesus after Jesus' Crucifixion. He is mentioned in all four Gospels.-Gospel references:...

     (15:42–47)
  • Empty tomb
    Empty tomb
    Empty tomb most often refers to the tomb of Jesus which was found to be empty by the women who were present at Jesus’ crucifixion. They had come to his tomb to anoint his body with spices...

     (16:1–8)
  • The Longer Ending and Resurrection appearances
    Resurrection appearances of Jesus
    The major Resurrection appearances of Jesus in the Canonical gospels are reported to have occurred after his death, burial and resurrection, but prior to his Ascension. Among these primary sources, most scholars believe First Corinthians was written first, authored by Paul of Tarsus along with...

     (16:9-20)
    • Great Commission
      Great Commission
      The Great Commission, in Christian tradition, is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread his teachings to all the nations of the world. It has become a tenet in Christian theology emphasizing missionary work, evangelism, and baptism...

       (16:14–18)
    • Ascension (16:19)

See also

  • Gospel harmony
    Gospel harmony
    A Gospel harmony is an attempt to merge or harmonize the canonical gospels of the Four Evangelists into a single gospel account, the earliest known example being the Diatesseron by Tatian in the 2nd century. A gospel harmony may also establish a chronology for the events of the life of Jesus...

  • Textual variants in the Gospel of Mark
  • List of Gospels
  • Apocalyptic literature
    Apocalyptic literature
    Apocalyptic literature is a genre of prophetical writing that developed in post-Exilic Jewish culture and was popular among millennialist early Christians....

  • Acts of the Apostles (genre)
    Acts of the Apostles (genre)
    The Acts of the Apostles is a genre of Early Christian literature, recounting the lives and works of the apostles of Jesus. The Acts are important for many reasons, one of them being the concept of apostolic succession...

  • List of omitted Bible verses
  • Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus
    Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus
    The Sanhedrin trial of Jesus refers to the Canonical Gospel accounts of the trial of Jesus before the Jewish Council, or Sanhedrin, following his arrest and prior to his trial before Pontius Pilate...

     (reference to Mark)

General

, in

, in

  • Brown, R.
    Raymond E. Brown
    The Reverend Raymond Edward Brown, S.S. , was an American Roman Catholic priest, a member of the Sulpician Fathers and a major Biblical scholar of his era...

    , et al. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall, 1990.
  • Bultmann, R.
    Rudolf Bultmann
    Rudolf Karl Bultmann was a German theologian of Lutheran background, who was for three decades professor of New Testament studies at the University of Marburg...

    , History of the Synoptic Tradition, Harper & Row, 1963.
  • Dewey, J., The Survival of Mark’s Gospel: A Good Story?, JBL 123.3 (2004) 495-507.
  • Ehrman, Bart D., Misquoting Jesus, Harper Collins, 2005. p. 66-68.
  • Grant, Robert M., A Historical Introduction to the New Testament Harper and Row, 1963: Chapter 8: The Gospel Of Mark
  • Dormeyer, Detlev, Das Markusevangelium, Wiss. Buchgeselschaft Darmstadt 2005, ISBN 978-3-534-15613-9
  • Guy, Harold A, The Origin of the Gospel of Mark, Hodder & Stoughton 1954
  • Holmes, M. W., "To Be Continued... The Many Endings of Mark", Bible Review 17.4 (2001).
  • Ladd, George Eldon. A Theology of the New Testament Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987.
  • R. T. France, The Gospel of Mark: A Commentary on the Greek text, NICNT, Wm. Eerdmans, 2002.
  • Mack, Burton L., 1993. The Lost Gospel: The Book of Q and Christian origins, HarperSanFrancisco.
  • McKnight, E. V., What is Form Criticism?, 1997.
  • Neill, Stephen and Wright, Tom, The Interpretation of The New Testament 1861-1986, Oxford University Press, 1990, 1989, 1964, ISBN 0-19-283057-0
  • Perrin, N., What is Redaction Criticism?
  • Perrin, Norman & Duling, Dennis C., The New Testament: An Introduction, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 1982, 1974
  • Schnelle, Udo, 1998. The History and Theology of the New Testament Writings (M. Eugene Boring translator), Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1998.
  • Telford, W. (ed.), The Interpretation of Mark, Fortress Press, 1985.
  • Tuckett, C. (ed), The Messianic Secret, Fortress Press, 1983

External links

Online translations of the Gospel of Mark:

Related articles:
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