Gerardo Machado
Overview
 
Gerardo Machado y Morales (September 28, 1871, Camajuaní
Camajuaní
-History:In 1819 was decided the construction of a new port in near Caibarién to replace an old one located in Tesisco. From that moment, settlers established in the surroundings creating a new village. In 1832 blueprints for the new town of Caibarien were presented, and finally in 1841 this city...

 – March 29, 1939, Miami Beach, Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

) was President of Cuba
President of Cuba
--209.174.31.28 18:43, 22 November 2011 The President of Cuba is the Head of state of Cuba. According to the Cuban Constitution of 1976, the President is the chief executive of the Council of State of Cuba...

 (1925–1933) and a general of the Cuban War of Independence
Cuban War of Independence
Cuban War of Independence was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Ten Years' War and the Little War...

. He was born in the central Province of Las Villas (now Villa Clara
Villa Clara
Villa Clara may refer to:*Villa Clara Province, Cuba*Villa Clara, Entre Ríos, Argentina...

) and was from a poor background.
He married his cousin, Elvira Machado Nodal (28 October 1868 in Villa Clara – 1968) and they had three daughters; Laudelina (Nena), Ángela Elvira and Berta.
Discussions
Encyclopedia
Gerardo Machado y Morales (September 28, 1871, Camajuaní
Camajuaní
-History:In 1819 was decided the construction of a new port in near Caibarién to replace an old one located in Tesisco. From that moment, settlers established in the surroundings creating a new village. In 1832 blueprints for the new town of Caibarien were presented, and finally in 1841 this city...

 – March 29, 1939, Miami Beach, Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

) was President of Cuba
President of Cuba
--209.174.31.28 18:43, 22 November 2011 The President of Cuba is the Head of state of Cuba. According to the Cuban Constitution of 1976, the President is the chief executive of the Council of State of Cuba...

 (1925–1933) and a general of the Cuban War of Independence
Cuban War of Independence
Cuban War of Independence was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Ten Years' War and the Little War...

. He was born in the central Province of Las Villas (now Villa Clara
Villa Clara
Villa Clara may refer to:*Villa Clara Province, Cuba*Villa Clara, Entre Ríos, Argentina...

) and was from a poor background.

Family

He married his cousin, Elvira Machado Nodal (28 October 1868 in Villa Clara – 1968) and they had three daughters; Laudelina (Nena), Ángela Elvira and Berta. Machado also had two children out of wedlock, Leonor and Heriberto Machado.

War experience

He rustled cattle from the Spanish Imperial Army for distribution to the starving Cuban People, whom were denied such food for their children. General Machado was the oldest brother of Colonel Lorenzo Machado-Morales of the Cuban Mambi army of Las Villas Province under General Calixto Garcia.
General Machado was one of the youngest Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

n general
General
A general officer is an officer of high military rank, usually in the army, and in some nations, the air force. The term is widely used by many nations of the world, and when a country uses a different term, there is an equivalent title given....

s of the 1895 to 1898 Cuban War of Independence
Cuban War of Independence
Cuban War of Independence was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Ten Years' War and the Little War...

. Only two other War of Independence generals were younger: Calixto Enamorado (1874–1951) and Enrique Loynaz del Castillo (1871–1963),. Gerardo Machado fought in the middle provinces along with José Miguel Gómez
José Miguel Gómez
José Miguel Gómez y Gómez was a Cuban General in the Cuban War of Independence who went on to become President of Cuba.-Early career:...

 (1858–1921) who also was president on the Liberal Party ticket and José de Jesús Monteagudo who would later defeat the disorganized black separatist forces of Evaristo Estenoz and Pedro Ivonet win the 1912 Race War
Negro Rebellion
The Negro Rebellion, also known as the Little Race War, the War of 1912, or The Twelve, was an armed conflict in Cuba, taking place mainly in the eastern region of the island in 1912. The conflict involved the widespread massacre of Afro-Cubans, by the Cuban Army, and an intervention by the United...

 and cruelly crush this rebellion.

Machado, said to the party's War leader in Las Villas province, fought on the defeated Liberal side in the 1917 "Little War of February 1917” La Chambelona (Chambelona War), with José Miguel Gómez
José Miguel Gómez
José Miguel Gómez y Gómez was a Cuban General in the Cuban War of Independence who went on to become President of Cuba.-Early career:...

, Alfredo Zayas and with Enrique Loynaz del Castillo. Calixto Enamorado fought on the Conservative side. After the initial victories of the Liberals, things turned worse. Yet Machado continued to fight even after the Liberals lost to the machine guns of Colonel Rosendo Collazo at Caicaje once the hacienda of Santiago Saura Orraque and Juan Manuel Perez de la Cruz on 8 March until his cause was unsustainable and surrendered.

President Mario García Menocal
Mario García Menocal
Aurelio Mario García Menocal y Deop was President of Cuba, from 1913 to 1921...

 had clearly won. Technically there was no US intervention in this war and Cuban Army Offices notably Julio Sanguilí, in Santiago, regained control. Since in this war the Liberals were said to be pro-German, US President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was the 28th President of the United States, from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement, he served as President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910, and then as the Governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913...

, worried about Mexico and Pancho Villa
Pancho Villa
José Doroteo Arango Arámbula – better known by his pseudonym Francisco Villa or its hypocorism Pancho Villa – was one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals....

, and the loss of able general, Menocal's friend and Cuba hand Frederick Funston
Frederick Funston
Frederick N. Funston also known as Fred Funston, was a General in the United States Army, best known for his role in the Spanish-American War and the Philippine-American War...

 had one less distraction on his hands. Menocal declared war on Germany April 7 of that same year. John J. Pershing
John J. Pershing
John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing, GCB , was a general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I...

, less tactful than Funston, in the Cuban circumstance, would be sent first to Mexico and then Europe.

Political life

A political figure, he served in the Liberal Party Administration of José Miguel Gómez
José Miguel Gómez
José Miguel Gómez y Gómez was a Cuban General in the Cuban War of Independence who went on to become President of Cuba.-Early career:...

. Allied with his predecessor outgoing president Alfredo Zayas and running as a Liberal Party candidate, he defeated Mario García Menocal
Mario García Menocal
Aurelio Mario García Menocal y Deop was President of Cuba, from 1913 to 1921...

 of the Conservative Party by an overwhelming majority to become Cuba's 5th president. He took office as President of Cuba
President of Cuba
--209.174.31.28 18:43, 22 November 2011 The President of Cuba is the Head of state of Cuba. According to the Cuban Constitution of 1976, the President is the chief executive of the Council of State of Cuba...

 on May 20, 1925 and left office on August 12, 1933. Elected at the time of a fall in world sugar prices, he was a Cuban industrialist and member of the political elite of the Liberal Party.

Machado believed in the infant industry argument
Infant industry argument
The Infant industry argument is an economic rationale for trade protectionism. The core of the argument is that nascent industries often do not have the economies of scale that their older competitors from other countries may have, and thus need to be protected until they can attain similar...

 for protectionism. This led him to support the Vejeda Act of 1926, which attempted to raise sugar prices by cutting production, and the Customs-Tariff Law of 1927.Machado supported construction of the Central Highway.

Politically he was less adroit, he determined to make Cuba the "Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

 of the Americas." His detractors claimed that he became despotic and forced his way into a second term. According to his critics, Machado abused and censored the press,. The struggles against Machado have influenced both film and literature. It was in these turbulent times, when Machado ruled, that Cuban links to the Stalinist Communist International were made for the first time by Fabio Grobart
Fabio Grobart
Fabio Grobart was born in Bialystok, Poland August 30, 1905; his birth name was Abraham Grobart aka Abraham Simjovitch. Apparently following orders of the Comintern, during the early 1920s he became a founding member of the Cuban Communist Party...

.
Turbulent times erupted in Cuba when the newly formed Communist Party began to destabilize the nation by allegedly committing terrorist acts of placing and exploding bombs in hotels and movie theatres in Havana, killing innocent men, women and children. President Machado threw Cuba into Martial Law as a result, while a partisan leftist media criticized the action taken by the 5th Cuban President.
Although Machado is said to have ordered the murder of defecting communist Julio Antonio Mella
Julio Antonio Mella
Julio Antonio Mella was a founder of the "internationalized" Cuban Communist Party.Mella studied law in the University of Havana until he was expelled in 1925 and is considered a hero by the present Cuban government. Some Cubans view him as a victim of the Stalin-Trotsky struggle...

 in Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 this murder is generally conceded to have been carried out by the Stalinist faction of the Communist International who were in a death struggle with the followers of Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky , born Lev Davidovich Bronshtein, was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army....

. The actual assassination was probably done by an action group
Action group
In sociology and anthropology, an action group or task group is a group of people joined temporarily to accomplish some task or take part in some organized collective action....

 that included notorious communist assassin
Assassination
To carry out an assassination is "to murder by a sudden and/or secret attack, often for political reasons." Alternatively, assassination may be defined as "the act of deliberately killing someone, especially a public figure, usually for hire or for political reasons."An assassination may be...

 Vittorio Vidali
Vittorio Vidali
Vittorio Vidali , also known as Vittorio Vidale, Enea Sormenti, Jacobo Hurwitz Zender, Carlos Contreras, "Comandante Carlos") was an Italian-born Stalinist.- Early life :...

. Trotsky was eventually also murdered in that country by communist assassin Ramón Mercader
Ramón Mercader
Jaime Ramón Mercader del Río Hernández was a Spanish communist who became famous as the murderer of Russian Communist ideologist Leon Trotsky in 1940, in Mexico...

.

Machado loses power

In Cuba, Machado engaged in a long struggle with diverse insurgent groups which varied from the green shirts of the ABC to Blas Hernández
Blas Hernández
Colonel Juan Blas Hernández was a prominent figure in the 1933 revolt against Gerardo Machado. He led various successful campaigns against Machado’s troops en route to Havana....

, to the conservative veterans of the Cuban War of Independence to the radical Antonio Guiteras
Antonio Guiteras
Antonio Guiteras y Holmes was a leading politician in Cuba during the 1930s....

 group, and clung on for several years. He was finally toppled in the 1933 by US influence, Sumner Welles
Sumner Welles
Benjamin Sumner Welles was an American government official and diplomat in the Foreign Service. He was a major foreign policy adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and served as Under Secretary of State from 1937 to 1943, during FDR's presidency.-Early life:Benjamin Sumner Welles was born in...

, Cuban War of Independence veterans, Army officers and civic leaders in a general strike (Alba, 1968). His government's collapse was followed by a revolution led by dissident students, labor activists, and non-commissioned military officers, that left the power in the hands of Fulgencio Batista
Fulgencio Batista
Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar was the United States-aligned Cuban President, dictator and military leader who served as the leader of Cuba from 1933 to 1944 and from 1952 to 1959, before being overthrown as a result of the Cuban Revolution....

.

He died in Miami Beach and is entombed in Miami at Woodlawn Park Cemetery and Mausoleum (now Caballero Rivero Woodlawn North Park Cemetery and Mausoleum). He has a few descendants in Germany, Florida, and Panama; their last names are Jones, Reyez, and some still have Machado.

Memoirs and papers

Machado y Morales, Gerardo (written in 1936 published in 1957 and later) Ocho años de lucha – memorias. Ediciones Universales, http://www.ediciones.com/HSP-Cuba-Jueces.php and Ediciones Historicas Cubanas. Miami ISBN 0-89729-328-2 ISBN 0-89729-328-2

The papers of Gerardo Machado y Morales are available for research at the Cuban Heritage Collection at the University of Miami. Selected materials from these papers have been digitized and are available online at http://merrick.library.miami.edu/cubanHeritage/chc0336/.

General references

  • Alba, Víctor 1968 Politics and the labor movement in Latin America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California . ASIN B0006BNYGK
  • Duarte Oropesa, José (1989) Historiología Cubana. Ediciones Universal Miami ISBN 84-399-2580-8
  • Carrillo, Justo 1985 Cuba 1933: Estudiantes, Yanquis y Soldados. University of Miami Iberian Studies Institute ISBN 0-935501-00-2 Transaction Publishers (January 1994) ISBN 1-56000-690-0
  • Masó, Calixto (1998) Historia de Cuba 3rd edition. Ediciones Universal, Miami. ISBN 0-89729-875-6
  • Perez, Louis A. Jr. "Cuba: Between Reform and Revolution." Third Edition. New York/Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2006
  • Perez-Stable, Marifeli (1999); The Cuban Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Riera Hernández, Mario. 1953. Cincuenta y dos años de política: Oriente, 1900-1952. La Habana.
  • Riera, Mario. 1955. Cuba política, 1899-1955. La Habana: Impresora Modelo, S.A.
  • Riera Hernández, Mario. 1968. Cuba libre: 1895-1958. Miami: Colonial Press of Miami, Inc.
  • Riera Hernández, Mario. 1974. Cuba repúblicana: 1899-1958. Miami: Editorial AIP.
  • Thomas, Hugh (1998) Cuba or the Pursuit of Freedom. Da Capo Press; Updated edition (April, 1998) ISBN 0-306-80827-7
  • Perez-Stable, Marifeli (1999); The Cuban Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Spanish)

Chambelona

  • Cano Vázquez, F. 1953: La Revolución de la Chambelona. Revista Bohemia. La Habana, May 1, 1953. 45 (19) 82-86, 184, 188.
  • González, Reynaldo 1978 Nosotros los liberales nos comimos la lechona. Editorial de Ciencias Sociales. Havana
  • Waldemar, León Caicaje: Batalla Final de una Revuelta. Bohemia pp. 100–103, 113
  • Montaner, Carlos Alberto 1982 Cuba: claves para una conciencia en crisis. http://google.com/search?q=cache:iX8RGiuUyTEJ:www.firmaspress.com/Cuba_claves_para_una_conciencia_en_crisis.pdf+Portell+Vila,+Herminio++La+Chambelona+&hl=en
  • Montaner, Carlos Alberto 1999 Viaje al Corazón de Cuba. Planes and Janés http://www.firmaspress.com/viaje-al-corazon-de-cuba.pdf
  • Morales y Morales, Vidal 1959 (printed 1962) Sobre la guerra civil de 1917. Documentos del Siglo XX, Boletín del Archivo Nacional. Volume 58 pp. 178–256.
  • Parker, William Belmont 1919 Cubans of Today Putnam's Sons, New York,
  • Portell Vila, Herminio La Chambelona en Oriente. Bohemia pp. 12–13, 112-125.
  • Primelles, L- 1955 Crónica cubana, 1915-1918: La reelección de Menocal y la Revolución de 1917. La danza de los millones - Editorial Lex, Havana.
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