Gdynia
Overview
 
Gdynia AUD is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship, or Pomerania Province , is a voivodeship, or province, in north-central Poland. It comprises most of Pomerelia , as well as an area east of the Vistula River...

 of Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 and an important seaport of Gdańsk Bay
Gdansk Bay
Gdańsk Bay or the Bay of Gdańsk or Danzig Bay is a southeastern bay of the Baltic Sea. It is named after the adjacent port city of Gdańsk in Poland and is sometimes referred to as a gulf.-Geography:...

 on the south coast of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea is a brackish mediterranean sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. It is bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Øresund, the Great Belt and...

.

Located in Kashubia
Kashubia
Kashubia or Cassubia - is a language area in the historic Eastern Pomerania region of northwestern Poland. Located west of Gdańsk and the mouth of the Vistula river, it is inhabited by members of the Kashubian ethnic group....

 in Eastern Pomerania
Eastern Pomerania
Eastern Pomerania can refer to distinct parts of Pomerania:*the historical region of Farther Pomerania, which was the eastern part of the Duchy, later Province of Pomerania...

, Gdynia is part of a conurbation
Conurbation
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area...

 with the spa town of Sopot
Sopot
Sopot is a seaside town in Eastern Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Poland, with a population of approximately 40,000....

, the city of Gdańsk
Gdansk
Gdańsk is a Polish city on the Baltic coast, at the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.The city lies on the southern edge of Gdańsk Bay , in a conurbation with the city of Gdynia, spa town of Sopot, and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the...

 and suburb
Suburb
The word suburb mostly refers to a residential area, either existing as part of a city or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city . Some suburbs have a degree of administrative autonomy, and most have lower population density than inner city neighborhoods...

an communities, which together form a metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 called the Tricity (Trójmiasto), with a population of over a million people.
The area of the later city of Gdynia shared its history with Pomerelia
Pomerelia
Pomerelia is a historical region in northern Poland. Pomerelia lay in eastern Pomerania: on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea and west of the Vistula and its delta. The area centered on the city of Gdańsk at the mouth of the Vistula...

 (Eastern Pomerania); in prehistoric times it was the center of Oksywie culture
Oksywie culture
The Oksywie Culture, was an archaeological culture which existed in the area of modern day Eastern Pomerania around the lower Vistula river, from the 2nd century BC to the early 1st century AD....

; it was later populated by Slavs with some Baltic Prussian influences.
  • Late 10th century: Pomerelia was united with Poland.
  • During the reign of Mieszko II Pomerelia seceded from Poland and became independent.
  • 1116/1121: Bolesław III reunited Pomerelia with Poland.
  • 1209: First mention of Oxhöft (now known as Oksywie
    Oksywie
    Oksywie is a neighbourhood of the city of Gdynia, Pomeranian Voivodeship, northern Poland. Formerly a separate settlement, it is actually several centuries older than the city it is a part of currently.-Etymology:...

    , which is now a part of Gdynia).
  • 1227: Pomerelia
    Pomerelia
    Pomerelia is a historical region in northern Poland. Pomerelia lay in eastern Pomerania: on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea and west of the Vistula and its delta. The area centered on the city of Gdańsk at the mouth of the Vistula...

     again became an independent Duchy.
  • 1253: First known mention of the name "Gdynia", as a Pomeranian (Kashubian
    Kashubians
    Kashubians/Kaszubians , also called Kashubs, Kashubes, Kaszubians, Kassubians or Cassubians, are a West Slavic ethnic group in Pomerelia, north-central Poland. Their settlement area is referred to as Kashubia ....

    ) fishing village.
Encyclopedia
Gdynia AUD is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship, or Pomerania Province , is a voivodeship, or province, in north-central Poland. It comprises most of Pomerelia , as well as an area east of the Vistula River...

 of Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 and an important seaport of Gdańsk Bay
Gdansk Bay
Gdańsk Bay or the Bay of Gdańsk or Danzig Bay is a southeastern bay of the Baltic Sea. It is named after the adjacent port city of Gdańsk in Poland and is sometimes referred to as a gulf.-Geography:...

 on the south coast of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea is a brackish mediterranean sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. It is bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Øresund, the Great Belt and...

.

Located in Kashubia
Kashubia
Kashubia or Cassubia - is a language area in the historic Eastern Pomerania region of northwestern Poland. Located west of Gdańsk and the mouth of the Vistula river, it is inhabited by members of the Kashubian ethnic group....

 in Eastern Pomerania
Eastern Pomerania
Eastern Pomerania can refer to distinct parts of Pomerania:*the historical region of Farther Pomerania, which was the eastern part of the Duchy, later Province of Pomerania...

, Gdynia is part of a conurbation
Conurbation
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area...

 with the spa town of Sopot
Sopot
Sopot is a seaside town in Eastern Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Poland, with a population of approximately 40,000....

, the city of Gdańsk
Gdansk
Gdańsk is a Polish city on the Baltic coast, at the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.The city lies on the southern edge of Gdańsk Bay , in a conurbation with the city of Gdynia, spa town of Sopot, and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the...

 and suburb
Suburb
The word suburb mostly refers to a residential area, either existing as part of a city or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city . Some suburbs have a degree of administrative autonomy, and most have lower population density than inner city neighborhoods...

an communities, which together form a metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 called the Tricity (Trójmiasto), with a population of over a million people.

History

The area of the later city of Gdynia shared its history with Pomerelia
Pomerelia
Pomerelia is a historical region in northern Poland. Pomerelia lay in eastern Pomerania: on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea and west of the Vistula and its delta. The area centered on the city of Gdańsk at the mouth of the Vistula...

 (Eastern Pomerania); in prehistoric times it was the center of Oksywie culture
Oksywie culture
The Oksywie Culture, was an archaeological culture which existed in the area of modern day Eastern Pomerania around the lower Vistula river, from the 2nd century BC to the early 1st century AD....

; it was later populated by Slavs with some Baltic Prussian influences.
  • Late 10th century: Pomerelia was united with Poland.
  • During the reign of Mieszko II Pomerelia seceded from Poland and became independent.
  • 1116/1121: Bolesław III reunited Pomerelia with Poland.
  • 1209: First mention of Oxhöft (now known as Oksywie
    Oksywie
    Oksywie is a neighbourhood of the city of Gdynia, Pomeranian Voivodeship, northern Poland. Formerly a separate settlement, it is actually several centuries older than the city it is a part of currently.-Etymology:...

    , which is now a part of Gdynia).
  • 1227: Pomerelia
    Pomerelia
    Pomerelia is a historical region in northern Poland. Pomerelia lay in eastern Pomerania: on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea and west of the Vistula and its delta. The area centered on the city of Gdańsk at the mouth of the Vistula...

     again became an independent Duchy.
  • 1253: First known mention of the name "Gdynia", as a Pomeranian (Kashubian
    Kashubians
    Kashubians/Kaszubians , also called Kashubs, Kashubes, Kaszubians, Kassubians or Cassubians, are a West Slavic ethnic group in Pomerelia, north-central Poland. Their settlement area is referred to as Kashubia ....

    ) fishing village. The first church on this part of the Baltic Sea coast was built there.
  • 1294: Pomerelia was inherited by the future Polish king Przemysł II., and remained as part of Poland until –
  • 1309-1310; The Teutonic Order conquered Pomerelia and added it to Prussia
    Prussia
    Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

    .
  • 1380: The owner of the village which became Gdynia, Peter from Rusocin, gave the village to the Cistercian Order.
  • 1382: Gdynia became property of the Cistercian abbey in Oliva, now Oliwa
    Oliwa
    Oliwa, also Oliva is one of the quarters of Gdańsk. From east it borders Przymorze and Żabianka, from the north Sopot and from the south with the districts of Strzyża, VII Dwór and Brętowo, while from the west with Matarnia and Osowa...

    .
  • 1454; Thirteen Years' War started.
  • 1466: Thirteen Years' War ended. Pomerelia became part of Royal Prussia
    Royal Prussia
    Royal Prussia was a Region of the Kingdom of Poland and of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth . Polish Prussia included Pomerelia, Chełmno Land , Malbork Voivodeship , Gdańsk , Toruń , and Elbląg . It is distinguished from Ducal Prussia...

    , a newly established province of the Kingdom of Poland
    Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569)
    The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state created by the accession of Jogaila , Grand Duke of Lithuania, to the Polish throne in 1386. The Union of Krewo or Krėva Act, united Poland and Lithuania under the rule of a single monarch...

    , and later on of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
    Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
    The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was a dualistic state of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch. It was the largest and one of the most populous countries of 16th- and 17th‑century Europe with some and a multi-ethnic population of 11 million at its peak in the early 17th century...

    .
  • 1772: In the First Partition of Poland
    First Partition of Poland
    The First Partition of Poland or First Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in 1772 as the first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795. Growth in the Russian Empire's power, threatening the Kingdom of Prussia and the...

    , Royal Prussia (including Gdynia) was annexed into the Kingdom of Prussia
    Kingdom of Prussia
    The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918. Until the defeat of Germany in World War I, it comprised almost two-thirds of the area of the German Empire...

    . Gdynia became known in German as Gdingen, and was expropriated from the Cistercian Order.
  • 1789: There were only 21 houses in Gdynia.
  • 1870:
    • The Kingdom of Prussia became part of the German Empire
      German Empire
      The German Empire refers to Germany during the "Second Reich" period from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II.The German...

      .
    • The village of Gdingen had some 1,200 inhabitants, and it was not a poor fishing village as it is sometimes described. It was a popular tourist spot with several guest houses, restaurants, cafes, several brick houses and a small harbour with a pier for small trading ships. The first Kashubian
      Kashubians
      Kashubians/Kaszubians , also called Kashubs, Kashubes, Kaszubians, Kassubians or Cassubians, are a West Slavic ethnic group in Pomerelia, north-central Poland. Their settlement area is referred to as Kashubia ....

       mayor of Gdingen was Jan Radtke.
  • 1919: Treaty of Versailles
    Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of...

     and the start of the dismemberment of eastern Germany.
  • 1920: Gdingen (now named Gdynia), along with other parts of former West Prussia
    West Prussia
    West Prussia was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773–1824 and 1878–1919/20 which was created out of the earlier Polish province of Royal Prussia...

    , became a part of the new Republic of Poland; simultaneously, the city of Danzig and surrounding area was declared a free city
    Free City of Danzig
    The Free City of Danzig was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig and surrounding areas....

     and put under the League of Nations
    League of Nations
    The League of Nations was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first permanent international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace...

    , though Poland was given economic liberties and requisitioned for matters of foreign representation.

Construction of the seaport

The decision to build a major seaport at the Gdynia village was made by the Polish government in the winter of 1920, in the midst of the Polish-Soviet War
Polish-Soviet War
The Polish–Soviet War was an armed conflict between Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine and the Second Polish Republic and the Ukrainian People's Republic—four states in post–World War I Europe...

 (1919–1920). The authorities and seaport workers of the Free City of Danzig
Free City of Danzig
The Free City of Danzig was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig and surrounding areas....

 felt Poland's economic rights in the city were being misappropriated to help fight the war. German dock workers went on strike, refusing to unload shipments of military supplies send from the West to aid the Polish army, and Poland realized the need for a port city it was in complete control of, economically and politically.

Construction of Gdynia seaport was started in 1921, but because of financial difficulties was conducted slowly and with interruptions. It was accelerated after the Sejm
Sejm
The Sejm is the lower house of the Polish parliament. The Sejm is made up of 460 deputies, or Poseł in Polish . It is elected by universal ballot and is presided over by a speaker called the Marshal of the Sejm ....

 (Polish parliament) passed the Gdynia Seaport Construction Act on 23 September 1922. By 1923 a 550-metre pier, 175 metres of a wooden tide breaker, and a small harbour had been constructed. Ceremonial inauguration of Gdynia as a temporary military port and fishers' shelter took place on 23 April 1923, and the first major seagoing ship arrived on 13 August 1923.

To speed up the construction works, the Polish government in November 1924 signed a contract with the French-Polish Consortium for Gdynia Seaport Construction, which by the end of 1925 had built a small seven-metre-deep harbour, the south pier, part of the north pier, a railway, and had also ordered the trans-shipment equipment. The works were going more slowly than expected, however. They accelerated only after May 1926, because of an increase in Polish exports by sea, economic prosperity, the outbreak of the German–Polish trade war which reverted most Polish international trade to sea routes, and also thanks to the personal engagement of Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski
Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski
Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski was a Polish politician and economist, Deputy Prime Minister of Poland, government minister and manager of the Second Polish Republic....

, Polish Minister of Industry and Trade, also responsible for construction of Centralny Okręg Przemysłowy. Till the end of 1930 docks, piers, breakwaters and many auxiliary and industrial installations were constructed (such as depots, trans-shipment equipment, and a rice processing factory) or started (such as a large cold store).

Trans-shipments rose from 10,000 tons (1924) to 2,923,000 tons (1929). At this time Gdynia was the only transit and special seaport designed for coal exports. In the years 1931–1939 the Gdynia harbour was further extended to become a universal seaport. In 1938 Gdynia was the largest and most modern seaport on the Baltic Sea, as well as the tenth biggest in Europe. The trans-shipments rose to 8.7 million tons, which was 46% of Polish foreign trade. In 1938 the Gdynia shipyard started to build its first full-sea ship, the Olza
SS Olza
SS Olza was the first dry cargo freighter built in Poland after the country regained independence - and the only large commercial ship built before World War II. Owned by Żegluga Polska company, she was named after the Olza River flowing through Cieszyn Silesia.In 1918 Poland regained independence...

.

Construction of the city

The city was constructed later than the seaport. In 1925 a special committee was inaugurated to build the city; city expansion plans were designed and city rights were granted in 1926, and tax privileges were granted for investors in 1927. The city started to grow significantly after 1928.

A new railway station and the Post Office were completed. The State railways extended their lines, built bridges and also constructed a group of houses for their employees. Within a few years houses were built along some 10 miles of road leading northward from the Free City of Danzig to Gdynia and beyond. Public institutions and private employers helped their staffs to build houses.

In 1933 a plan of development providing for a population of 250,000 was worked out by a special commission appointed by a government committee, in collaboration with the municipal authorities. By 1939 the population had grown to over 120,000.

During World War II (1939–1945)

The city and seaport were occupied in September 1939
Invasion of Poland (1939)
The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign or 1939 Defensive War in Poland and the Poland Campaign in Germany, was an invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the start of World War II in Europe...

 by German troops and renamed Gotenhafen after the Goths
Goths
The Goths were an East Germanic tribe of Scandinavian origin whose two branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Roman Empire and the emergence of Medieval Europe....

, an ancient Germanic tribe, who had lived in the area. Some 50,000 Polish citizens, who after 1920 had been brought into the area by the Polish government after the decision to enlarge the harbour was made, were expelled into the General Government
General Government
The General Government was an area of Second Republic of Poland under Nazi German rule during World War II; designated as a separate region of the Third Reich between 1939–1945...

. Kashubians who were suspected to support the Polish cause, particularly those with higher education, were arrested and executed, the main place of executions being Piaśnica (Groß Plaßnitz), where about 12,000 were executed. The German gauleiter
Gauleiter
A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau.-Creation and Early Usage:...

, Albert Forster
Albert Forster
Albert Maria Forster was a Nazi German politician. Under his administration as the Gauleiter of Danzig-West Prussia during the Second World War, the local non-German population suffered ethnic cleansing, mass murder, and forceful Germanisation...

 considered Kashubians of "low value" and did not support any attempts to create a Kashubian nationality. Some Kashubians organized anti-Nazi resistance groups, "Gryf Kaszubski" (later "Gryf Pomorski"), and the exiled "Zwiazek Pomorski" in Great Britain.

The harbour was transformed into a German naval base. The shipyard
Shipyard
Shipyards and dockyards are places which repair and build ships. These can be yachts, military vessels, cruise liners or other cargo or passenger ships. Dockyards are sometimes more associated with maintenance and basing activities than shipyards, which are sometimes associated more with initial...

 was expanded in 1940 and became a branch of the Kiel
Kiel
Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 238,049 .Kiel is approximately north of Hamburg. Due to its geographic location in the north of Germany, the southeast of the Jutland peninsula, and the southwestern shore of the...

 shipyard (Deutsche Werke Kiel A.G.). Gotenhafen became an important base, due to its being relatively distant from the war theater, and many German large ships - battleships
Battleship
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of heavy caliber guns. Battleships were larger, better armed and armored than cruisers and destroyers. As the largest armed ships in a fleet, battleships were used to attain command of the sea and represented the apex of a...

 and heavy cruisers
Heavy cruiser
The heavy cruiser was a type of cruiser, a naval warship designed for long range, high speed and an armament of naval guns roughly 203mm calibre . The heavy cruiser can be seen as a lineage of ship design from 1915 until 1945, although the term 'heavy cruiser' only came into formal use in 1930...

 were anchored there. The seaport and the shipyard both witnessed several air raids by the Allies from 1943 onwards, but suffered little damage. The seaport area was largely destroyed by withdrawing German troops and millions of encircled refugees in 1945 being bombarded by Soviet Military (90% of the buildings and equipment were destroyed) and the harbour entrance was blocked by the German battleship
Battleship
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of heavy caliber guns. Battleships were larger, better armed and armored than cruisers and destroyers. As the largest armed ships in a fleet, battleships were used to attain command of the sea and represented the apex of a...

 Gneisenau
German battleship Gneisenau
Gneisenau was a German capital ship, alternatively described as a battleship and battlecruiser, of the German Kriegsmarine. She was the second vessel of her class, which included one other ship, Scharnhorst. The ship was built at the Deutsche Werke dockyard in Kiel; she was laid down on 6 May 1935...

 that had been brought to Gotenhafen for major repairs.

The city was also the location for the Nazi
Nazism
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

 concentration camp Gotenhafen, a subcamp of the Stutthof concentration camp
Stutthof concentration camp
Stutthof was the first Nazi concentration camp built outside of 1937 German borders.Completed on September 2, 1939, it was located in a secluded, wet, and wooded area west of the small town of Sztutowo . The town is located in the former territory of the Free City of Danzig, 34 km east of...

 near Gdańsk (Danzig).

Gotenhafen was also used during winter 1944-45 to evacuate German troop
Troop
A troop is a military unit, originally a small force of cavalry, subordinate to a squadron and headed by the troop leader. In many armies a troop is the equivalent unit to the infantry section or platoon...

s and refugees trapped by the Red Army
Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.The "Red Army" name refers to...

. Some of the ships were hit by torpedoes from Soviet submarine
Submarine
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability...

s in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea is a brackish mediterranean sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. It is bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Øresund, the Great Belt and...

 on the route West. For example, the ship Wilhelm Gustloff
Wilhelm Gustloff (ship)
The MV Wilhelm Gustloff was a German KdF flagship during 1937-1945, constructed by the Blohm & Voss shipyards. It sank after being torpedoed by the Soviet submarine on 30 January 1945....

 sank taking about 9,400 people with her– the worst loss of life in a single sinking in maritime history.

After World War II

On March 28, 1945, Gotenhafen was captured by the Soviets and assigned to Polish Gdańsk Voivodeship
Gdansk Voivodeship
The name Gdańsk Voivodeship has been used twice to designate local governments in Poland.----Gdańsk Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in the years 1975–98, superseded by Pomeranian Voivodeship...

, who again re-named it Gdynia.

In the Polish 1970 protests
Polish 1970 protests
The Polish 1970 protests were protests that occurred in northern Poland in December 1970. The protests were sparked by a sudden increase of prices of food and other everyday items...

, worker demonstrations took place at Gdynia Shipyard. Workers were fired upon by the police. The fallen became symbolized by a fictitious worker Janek Wiśniewski
Janek Wisniewski
Janek Wiśniewski is a fictional name given to a real person in the poem Ballad of Janek Wiśniewski.-The legend and the real person:...

, commemorated in a song by Mieczysław Cholewa, Pieśń o Janku z Gdyni.
One of Gdynia's important streets is named after Janek Wiśniewski
Janek Wisniewski
Janek Wiśniewski is a fictional name given to a real person in the poem Ballad of Janek Wiśniewski.-The legend and the real person:...

. The same person was portrayed by Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda is a Polish film director. Recipient of an honorary Oscar, he is possibly the most prominent member of the unofficial "Polish Film School"...

 in his movie Man of Iron
Man of Iron
Man of Iron is a 1981 film directed by Andrzej Wajda. It depicts the Solidarity labour movement and its first success in persuading the Polish government to recognize the workers' right to an independent union....

as Mateusz Birkut.

On December 4, 1999, a storm destroyed a huge crane in a shipyard, which was able to lift 900 tons.

Economy

Notable companies that have their headquarters in Gdynia:
  • Stocznia Gdynia, the largest Polish shipyard
  • PROKOM SA
    PROKOM SA
    Prokom SA is one of the largest Polish I.T. companies. The company was listed in the index WIG20. It was set up in 1987 at the end of communist rule in Poland by Ryszard Krauze. It has built up its position mainly due to many lucrative state contracts. In 2008 Prokom became a part of the Asseco...

    , the largest Polish I.T. company
  • C. Hartwig Gdynia SA, one of the largest Polish freight forwarders
  • Sony Pictures - finance center

Port of Gdynia

In 2007, 364,202 passengers, 17,025,000 tons of Cargo and containers passed through the port. Regular car ferry service operates between here and Karlskrona, Sweden.

Airport

An airport serving the city (Gdynia-Kosakowo Airport) is situated in the village of Kosakowo
Kosakowo, Pomeranian Voivodeship
Kosakowo is a village in Puck County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Kosakowo. It lies approximately south-east of Puck and north of the regional capital Gdańsk....

, just to the north of the city. The conurbation's main airport, Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport, lays approximately 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south-west of central Gdynia.

Road transport

Trasa Kwiatkowskiego
Trasa Kwiatkowskiego
Trasa im. Eugeniusza Kwiatkowskiego – is a highway in Gdynia named after Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski linking the Port of Gdynia to the Tricity beltway and therefore A1 motorway. It is currently 5.4 km long and was completed after 34 years of construction.- 1st Stage of Construction :Construction...

 links Port of Gdynia
Port of Gdynia
Port of Gdynia – the Polish seaport located on the western coast of Gdańsk Bay Baltic sea in Gdynia. Founded in 1926. In 2008 it was #2 in containers on the Baltic sea.- Trans-shipments :* 1924 - 10,000 tons* 1929 - 2,923,000 tons* 1938 - 8,700,000 tons...

 and the city with Obwodnica Trójmiejska
Obwodnica Trójmiejska
Obwodnica Trójmiejska , – is part of S6 express road that bypasses the cities of Gdynia, Sopot and Gdańsk. The beltway runs north to south from Gdynia to Pruszcz Gdański and is long. Together with the Słupsk bypass, it forms a part of the S6 expressway which will eventually run from Szczecin to...

, and therefore A1 motorway.

Education

There are currently 8 universities
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

 and institutions of higher education based in Gdynia. Many students from Gdynia attend also universities located in the Tricity.
  • State-owned:
    • Gdynia Maritime University
    • Polish Naval Academy
    • University of Gdansk - departments of Biology, Geography and Oceanology

  • Privately owned:
    • Academy of International Economic and Political Relations
    • Kwiatkowski Graduate School of Business Administration
    • Pomeranian Higher School of Humanities
    • Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University - department in Gdynia
    • Higher School of Social Communication

Sports

Sport teams
  • Arka Gdynia
    Arka Gdynia
    Morski Związkowy Klub Sportowy Arka Gdynia is a Polish professional football club, based in Gdynia, Poland, that plays in the Polish 1 Liga. The club was founded as Klub Sportowy Gdynia in 1929. Its activities were interrupted between 1939–1945 due to the German occupation of Poland...

     - men’s football
    Football in Poland
    Football is the most popular sport in Poland. Over 400,000 Poles play football regularly, with millions more playing occasionally. The first professional clubs were founded in the early 1900s, and the Polish national football team played its first international match in 1921.There are hundreds of...

     team (Polish Cup
    Polish Cup
    The Polish Cup in football or officially Remes Puchar Polski, is an elimination tournament for Polish football clubs, held continuously from 1950, and is the second most important national title in Polish football after the Ekstraklasa title...

     winner 1979, currently plays in the top division of Polish football, the Ekstraklasa)
  • Bałtyk Gdynia - men's football
    Football in Poland
    Football is the most popular sport in Poland. Over 400,000 Poles play football regularly, with millions more playing occasionally. The first professional clubs were founded in the early 1900s, and the Polish national football team played its first international match in 1921.There are hundreds of...

     team, playing in the 2nd league in the season 2009/2010;
  • Lotos Gdynia - women’s basketball team (Polish Champion 2004 in Sharp Torell Basket Liga
    PLKK
    PLKK is a Polish female basketball league. The league also uses sponsors' names.- PLKK names in previous seasons :* 2006-still Ford Germaz Ekstraklasa...

    )
  • Asseco Prokom Gdynia - men’s basketball team (Dominet Bank Ekstraliga and Euroleague)
  • RC Arka Gdynia
    RC Arka Gdynia
    Arka Gdynia is a Polish rugby union club based in Gdynia, Poland.-Honours:* Rugby Ekstraliga** Champions: 2004, 2005, 2011** Runners-up: 2000, 2002, 2007, 2009-History:...

     - rugby team (Champions of Poland in seasons 2003/2004 & 2004/2005)
  • Seahawks Gdynia
    Seahawks Gdynia
    The Seahawks Gdynia are an American football team based in Gdynia, Poland. They play in the Polish American Football League.- History :The team was founded in October 2005 as the Pomorze Seahawks...

     - American football team (Polish American Football League
    Polish American Football League
    The Polish American Football League or shortly PLFA is a structured system for the american football competitions in Poland founded in 2006 by Polish federation PZFA. Since 2008 season, PLFA is divided into two leagues between which there is promotion and relegation...

    )
  • Kager Gdynia - men’s basketball team (Dominet Bank Ekstraliga)
  • KS Laczpol Gdynia - women’s handball team (1st league in season 2003/2004)

Sights and tourist attractions

Gdynia is a relatively modern city, but the oldest building in Gdynia is nevertheless the 13th century St. Michael the Archangel's Church in Oksywie
Oksywie
Oksywie is a neighbourhood of the city of Gdynia, Pomeranian Voivodeship, northern Poland. Formerly a separate settlement, it is actually several centuries older than the city it is a part of currently.-Etymology:...

. There is also a 17th century neo-Gothic manor house
Manor house
A manor house is a country house that historically formed the administrative centre of a manor, the lowest unit of territorial organisation in the feudal system in Europe. The term is applied to country houses that belonged to the gentry and other grand stately homes...

 located on Folwarczna Street in Orłowo. However, what attracts most tourists in Gdynia deals with its recent past. In the harbour, there are two anchored museum ship
Museum ship
A museum ship, or sometimes memorial ship, is a ship that has been preserved and converted into a museum open to the public, for educational or memorial purposes...

s, the ORP Blyskawica
ORP Blyskawica
ORP Błyskawica was a Grom-class destroyer serving in the Polish Navy during World War II, currently preserved as a museum ship in Gdynia. It is the only ship of the Polish Navy awarded with the Virtuti Militari medal, as well as the oldest preserved destroyer in the world.She was the latter of two...

destroyer
Destroyer
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller, powerful, short-range attackers. Destroyers, originally called torpedo-boat destroyers in 1892, evolved from...

 and the Dar Pomorza
Dar Pomorza
The Dar Pomorza is a Polish sailing frigate, currently preserved in Gdynia as a museum ship.The ship was built in 1909 by Blohm & Voss and in 1910 dedicated by Deutscher Schulschiff-Verein as the German training ship Prinzess Eitel Friedrich, named for Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Oldenburg, wife...

Tall ship
Tall ship
A tall ship is a large, traditionally-rigged sailing vessel. Popular modern tall ship rigs include topsail schooners, brigantines, brigs and barques. "Tall Ship" can also be defined more specifically by an organization, such as for a race or festival....

 frigate
Frigate
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.In the 17th century, the term was used for any warship built for speed and maneuverability, the description often used being "frigate-built"...

.
Gdynia is famous for its numerous examples of early 20th century architecture, especially monumentalism and early functionalism
Functionalism (architecture)
Functionalism, in architecture, is the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building. This statement is less self-evident than it first appears, and is a matter of confusion and controversy within the profession, particularly in regard to modern...

, and modernism
Modernism
Modernism, in its broadest definition, is modern thought, character, or practice. More specifically, the term describes the modernist movement, its set of cultural tendencies and array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society...

. Great example of modernism
Modernism
Modernism, in its broadest definition, is modern thought, character, or practice. More specifically, the term describes the modernist movement, its set of cultural tendencies and array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society...

 is PLO building situated at 10 lutego street. Recently reconstructed Świętojańska street and Kościuszko square are also worth a mention. The surrounding hills and the coastline attract many nature lovers. A leisure pier
Pier
A pier is a raised structure, including bridge and building supports and walkways, over water, typically supported by widely spread piles or pillars...

 and a cliff-like coastline in Kępa Redłowska
Redlowo
Redłowo is a neighborhood in the Polish city of Gdynia. It is 2.83 km² and houses 8,069 people. There are about 2 851 people/km². Redłowo has been mentioned as far back as the 12th and 13th centuries under the name Radłowo. It was recognized as Redłowo in 1888....

, as well as the surrounding Reservation Park, are also popular locations. A 1.5 kilometre long promenade leads from the marina
Marina
A marina is a dock or basin with moorings and supplies for yachts and small boats.A marina differs from a port in that a marina does not handle large passenger ships or cargo from freighters....

 in the city centre, to the beach in Redłowo
Redlowo
Redłowo is a neighborhood in the Polish city of Gdynia. It is 2.83 km² and houses 8,069 people. There are about 2 851 people/km². Redłowo has been mentioned as far back as the 12th and 13th centuries under the name Radłowo. It was recognized as Redłowo in 1888....

. Most of Gdynia can be seen from Kamienna Góra (54 metres asl
Above mean sea level
The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...

) or a newly built observation point near Chwaszczyno.
You can also take a hydrofoil
Hydrofoil
A hydrofoil is a foil which operates in water. They are similar in appearance and purpose to airfoils.Hydrofoils can be artificial, such as the rudder or keel on a boat, the diving planes on a submarine, a surfboard fin, or occur naturally, as with fish fins, the flippers of aquatic mammals, the...

 or ship trip to Gdańsk Westerplatte
Westerplatte
Westerplatte is a peninsula in Gdańsk, Poland, located on the Baltic Sea coast mouth of the Dead Vistula , in the Gdańsk harbour channel...

, Hel
Hel, Poland
Hel is a town in Puck County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland, located on the tip of the Hel Peninsula, some 33 kilometres from the Polish mainland.-Early developments:...

 or just see the port.

There are also two observation towers, one at Góra Donas
Donas
The Donas hill is in Poland in the Pomerania region, within the borders of the City of Gdynia, in the Dabrowa district. Its height is 205.7 m. In March of 1945, a battle took place between the Red Army and the Germans. On the top, there is a GSM tower erected , with a visitors terrace 232 m above...

, the other at Kolibki. The third one, on the 38th floor of the Sea Towers
Sea Towers
The Sea Towers is a mixed-use skyscraper complex in Gdynia, Poland. Construction commenced on 10 May 2006 and was completed on 28 February 2009. At 143.6 meters, Sea Towers is the tallest building in Poland outside of Warsaw and the tallest residential building in the country. All apartments in the...

 building, will be probably opened to visitors in 2009. Gdynia is remarkable for this construction, since at 141 meters of height, it is the tallest residential building in Poland and the country's tallest skyscraper
Skyscraper
A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building of many stories, often designed for office and commercial use. There is no official definition or height above which a building may be classified as a skyscraper...

 outside of Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

.

Gdynia is also the host of the Heineken Open'er Festival
Open'er Festival
The Heineken Open'er Festival is a music festival which takes place on the North coast of Poland, in Gdynia. The first edition of the festival was organized in Warsaw in 2002 as Open Air Festival. The main organizer of the festival is the concert agency Alter Art, but the performance took its name...

, one of the biggest contemporary music festivals in Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

. The festival welcomes many foreign hip-hop
Hip hop music
Hip hop music, also called hip-hop, rap music or hip-hop music, is a musical genre consisting of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted...

, rock
Rock music
Rock music is a genre of popular music that developed during and after the 1960s, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by rhythm and blues and country music...

 and electronic music
Electronic music
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments and electronic music technology in its production. In general a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means and that produced using electronic technology. Examples of electromechanical sound...

 artists every year. The second most important summer event in Gdynia is Viva Beach Party, which is a large two-day techno
Techno
Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan in the United States during the mid to late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word techno, in reference to a genre of music, was in 1988...

 party made on Gdynia's Public Beach, usually held in August. Gdynia also host some events for the annual Gdańsk Shakespeare Festival
Gdańsk Shakespeare Festival
Gdańsk Shakespeare Festival is an international theatre festival devoted to the idea of the Elizabethan theatre, and especially to the works of William Shakespeare. The event was first organized in 1993, on the initiative of Theatrum Gedanense Foundation, which had been created by prof. Jerzy Limon...

.

Modern division into neighbourhoods

  • Babie Doły
  • Chwarzno Wiczlino
  • Chylonia
  • Cisowa
  • Działki Leśne
  • Dąbrowa
  • Grabówek
  • Kamienna Góra
  • Karwiny
  • Leszczynki
  • Mały Kack
  • Obłuże
  • Oksywie
    Oksywie
    Oksywie is a neighbourhood of the city of Gdynia, Pomeranian Voivodeship, northern Poland. Formerly a separate settlement, it is actually several centuries older than the city it is a part of currently.-Etymology:...

  • Orłowo
  • Pogórze
  • Pustki Cisowskie-Demptowo
  • Redłowo
  • Śródmieście
  • Wielki Kack
  • Witomino Leśniczówka
  • Witomino Radiostacja
  • Wzgórze Św. Maksymiliana

Population and area

Year Inhabitants Area
1870 1200
1920 1300
1926 12,000 6 km²
1939 127,000 66 km²
1945 70,000 66 km²
1960 150,200 73 km²
1970 191,500 75 km²
1975 221,100 134 km²
1980 236,400 134 km²
1990 251,500 136 km²
1994 252,000 136 km²
1995 251,400 136 km²
2000 255,420 135.49 km² (after GUS - Central Statistical Office in Warsaw)
2009 248,889 136,72 km²

Notable people

  • Józef Michał Hubert Unrug (1884–1973), German-born Polish vice admiral who helped create the Polish navy
  • Franciszek Stefan Sokół (1890–1956) Polish author, Commissioner of the government of Gdynia and the city's chief promoter and defender
  • Karol Olgierd Borchardt
    Karol Olgierd Borchardt
    Karol Olgierd Borchardt was a Polish writer and captain of the Polish Merchant Navy.Although he was born in Moscow, he spent the vast majority of his life and died in Gdynia. He raised two generations of Polish officers. While demanding, he was also a warm-hearted and understanding teacher.His...

     (1905–1986), Polish maritime author and educator
  • Kazimierz Ostrowski
    Kazimierz Ostrowski
    Kazimierz Ostrowski was a Polish painter.-Biography:Kazimierz Ostrowski was born on February 14, 1917 in Berlin. In 1920 his family moved to Poznań...

     (1917 Berlin
    Berlin
    Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

     - 1999 Gdynia) Polish painter
  • Zbigniew Szczepanek (b. 1933) Polish author of maritime textbooks, considered one of the best watercolor artists in Europe
  • Jacek Fedorowicz
    Jacek Fedorowicz
    - Early life :Fedorowicz was born in pre-war Gdynia, Poland to a family of Varsovians. His parents worked for the newly developed Polish maritime economy. As a 7-year-old boy he survived the Warsaw Uprising...

     (b. 1937), Polish satirist and actor
  • Gunnar Heinsohn
    Gunnar Heinsohn
    Gunnar Heinsohn is a German sociologist and economist. He was born in Gdynia, Poland, under German occupation used as Kriegsmarine-Arsenal and named Gotenhafen, on November 21, 1943 to Roswitha Heinsohn, née Maurer and the late Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Heinsohn, last serving on U-438...

     (* 1943), German scientist
  • Jörg Berger
    Jörg Berger
    Jörg Berger was a German football manager and player, who last managed Arminia Bielefeld.- Coaching career :...

     (*1944-2010), German soccer player, trainer
  • Klaus Hurrelmann
    Klaus Hurrelmann
    Klaus Hurrelmann is a German social and health scientist. He grew up in Nordenham and has three grown children, two from the first and one from second marriage...

     (* 1944), German scientist
  • Franciszka Cegielska (1946–2000), Polish politician and Solidarity movement activist
  • Marcin Mięciel
    Marcin Mieciel
    Marcin Mięciel is a Polish footballer who plays for Polish club Łódzki KS. His trademark is the bicycle kick.-Poland:...

     (* 1975), soccer player
  • Michael Klim
    Michael Klim
    Michael Klim OAM is a Polish-born Australian swimmer. He was born in Gdynia. He was educated at the University High School, Melbourne and Wesley College, Melbourne where he is currently employed as the College's elite Head Coach of swimming...

     (* 1977), Polish-born Australian swimmer, world champion
  • Adam Darski
    Adam Darski
    Adam Michał Darski also known by his stage name Nergal and previously Holocausto, is a Polish musician and television personality, best known for being the frontman for blackened death metal band Behemoth.- Biography :...

    , Lead Vocals/ Lead Guitar for the Blackened Death Metal band Behemoth
    Behemoth (band)
    Behemoth is a Polish blackened death metal band from Gdańsk, formed in 1991. They are considered to have played an important role in establishing the Polish extreme metal underground, alongside bands such as Vader, Decapitated, Vesania and Hate....

  • Stefan Liv
    Stefan Liv
    Stefan Daniel Patryk Liv was a Polish-born Swedish professional ice hockey player. Liv played professionally in Sweden, North America and Russia. Liv played nine seasons for HV71 in Sweden. He played one season of minor league hockey in North America then returned to Europe...

    , (1980-2011) Swedish ice hockey player
  • Monika Pyrek
    Monika Pyrek
    Monika Pyrek is a Polish pole vaulter.Born in Gdynia, competing at the 2004 Olympics, she placed fourth with 4.55 metres, just behind another Polish pole vaulter born in Gdynia, Anna Rogowska. Monika Pyrek won a silver medal in the 2005 World Championships in Athletics with the result 4.60 m...

     Pole vaulter
  • Anna Rogowska
    Anna Rogowska
    Anna Rogowska is a Polish pole vaulter, current reigning World Champion.-Career:Born in Gdynia, she won the bronze medal at the 2004 Olympics, narrowly beating Monika Pyrek, another Polish pole vaulter born in Gdynia. Early 2005 brought success as she won the silver medal in the European Indoor...

     Pole vaulter
  • Alexandra Nice
    Alexandra Nice
    Alexandra Nice is the stage name of a pornographic actress.-Awards:*2000 AVN Award nominee – Best All-Girl Sex Scene, Video – Slutwoman...

    , born Alexandra Groth (b. 1972) Famous pornographic actress
  • Katya Douglas, British Actress (* 1938)

Twin towns — sister cities

Gdynia is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
Aalborg
Aalborg
-Transport:On the north side of the Limfjord is Nørresundby, which is connected to Aalborg by a road bridge Limfjordsbroen, an iron railway bridge Jernbanebroen over Limfjorden, as well as a motorway tunnel running under the Limfjord Limfjordstunnelen....

 in Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 Plymouth
Plymouth
Plymouth is a city and unitary authority area on the coast of Devon, England, about south-west of London. It is built between the mouths of the rivers Plym to the east and Tamar to the west, where they join Plymouth Sound...

, England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

, UK Seattle, USA Baranovichi
Baranovichi
Baranovichi , is a city in the Brest Province of western Belarus with a population of 173,000. It is a significant railway junction and home to a state university.-Overview:...

, Belarus
Belarus
Belarus , officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered clockwise by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital is Minsk; other major cities include Brest, Grodno , Gomel ,...

 Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Brooklyn is the most populous of New York City's five boroughs, with nearly 2.6 million residents, and the second-largest in area. Since 1896, Brooklyn has had the same boundaries as Kings County, which is now the most populous county in New York State and the second-most densely populated...

, USA Haikou
Haikou
Hǎikǒu , is the capital and most populous city of Hainan Province, in the People's Republic of China. It is situated on the northern coast of Hainan, by the mouth of the Nandu River...

, China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 Karlskrona
Karlskrona
Karlskrona is a locality and the seat of Karlskrona Municipality, Blekinge County, Sweden with 35,212 inhabitants in 2010. It is also the capital of Blekinge County. Karlskrona is known as Sweden's only baroque city and is host to Sweden's only remaining naval base and the headquarters of the...

, Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 Syndicat Mixte de la Côte d'Opale
Côte d'Opale
The French Opal Coast covers the seaside holiday area of the Pas de Calais, from Calais in the north to Berck in the south, but also extends to Le Crotoy...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 Kristiansand
Kristiansand
-History:As indicated by archeological findings in the city, the Kristiansand area has been settled at least since 400 AD. A royal farm is known to have been situated on Oddernes as early as 800, and the first church was built around 1040...

, Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

 Kotka
Kotka
Kotka is a town and municipality of Finland. Its former name is Rochensalm.Kotka is located on the coast of the Gulf of Finland at the mouth of Kymi River and it is part of the Kymenlaakso region in southern Finland. The municipality has a population of and covers an area of of which is water....

, Finland
Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

 Liepāja
Liepaja
Liepāja ; ), is a republican city in western Latvia, located on the Baltic Sea directly at 21°E. It is the largest city in the Kurzeme Region of Latvia, the third largest city in Latvia after Riga and Daugavpils and an important ice-free port...

, Latvia
Latvia
Latvia , officially the Republic of Latvia , is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by Estonia , to the south by Lithuania , to the east by the Russian Federation , to the southeast by Belarus and shares maritime borders to the west with Sweden...

 Klaipėda
Klaipeda
Klaipėda is a city in Lithuania situated at the mouth of the Nemunas River where it flows into the Baltic Sea. It is the third largest city in Lithuania and the capital of Klaipėda County....

, Lithuania
Lithuania
Lithuania , officially the Republic of Lithuania is a country in Northern Europe, the biggest of the three Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, whereby to the west lie Sweden and Denmark...

 Kiel
Kiel
Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 238,049 .Kiel is approximately north of Hamburg. Due to its geographic location in the north of Germany, the southeast of the Jutland peninsula, and the southwestern shore of the...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...


Cultural references

In 2008, Gdynia made it onto the Monopoly
Monopoly (game)
Marvin Gardens, the leading yellow property on the board shown, is actually a misspelling of the original location name, Marven Gardens. The misspelling was said to be introduced by Charles Todd and passed on when his home-made Monopoly board was copied by Charles Darrow and thence to Parker...

 World Edition
board after being voted by fans through the internet. Gdynia occupies the space traditionally held by Mediterranean Avenue, being the lowest voted city to make it onto the Monopoly Here and Now board, but also the smallest city to make it in the game. All of the other cities are large and widely known ones, the second smallest being Riga. The unexpected success of Gdynia can be attributed to a mobilization of the town's population to vote for it on the internet.
An abandoned factory district in Gdynia was the scene for the survival series Man vs Wild, season 6, episode 12. The host, Bear Grylls, manages to escape the district after blowing up a door and crawling through miles of sewer.

Ernst Stavro Blofeld
Ernst Stavro Blofeld
Ernst Stavro Blofeld is a fictional character and a supervillain from the James Bond series of novels and films, who was created by Ian Fleming and Kevin McClory. An evil genius with aspirations of world domination, he is the archenemy of the British Secret Service agent James Bond and is arguably...

, the supervillain in the James Bond novels, was born in Gdynia on May 28, 1908, according to Thunderball.

Further reading

  • (ed.) R. Wapiński, Dzieje Gdyni, Gdańsk 1980
  • (ed.). S. Gierszewski, Gdynia, Gdańsk 1968
  • Gdynia, in: Pomorze Gdańskie, nr 5, Gdańsk 1968
  • J. Borowik, Gdynia, port Rzeczypospolitej, Toruń 1934
  • B. Kasprowicz, Problemy ekonomiczne budowy i eksploatacji portu w Gdyni w latach 1920-1939, Zapiski Historyczne, nr 1-3/1956
  • M. Widernik, Główne problemy gospodarczo-społeczne miasta Gdyni w latach 1926-1939., Gdańsk 1970
  • (ed.) A. Bukowski, Gdynia. Sylwetki ludzi, oświata i nauka, literatura i kultura, Gdańsk 1979
  • Gminy województwa gdańskiego, Gdańsk 1995
  • H. Górnowicz, Z. Brocki, Nazwy miast Pomorza Gdańskiego, Wrocław 1978
  • Gerard Labuda (ed.), Historia Pomorza, vol. I-IV, Poznań 1969-2003
  • (ed.) W. Odyniec, Dzieje Pomorza Nadwiślańskiego od VII wieku do 1945 roku, Gdańsk 1978
  • L. Bądkowski, Pomorska myśl polityczna, Gdańsk 1990
  • L. Bądkowski, W. Samp, Poczet książąt Pomorza Gdańskiego, Gdańsk 1974
  • B. Śliwiński, Poczet książąt gdańskich, Gdańsk 1997
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External links

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