The GP-30 Obuvka GP-25 Kostyor ('Bonfire') and BG-15 Mukha ('Fly') are Russian under barrel grenade launcher
Grenade launcher
A grenade launcher or grenade discharger is a weapon that launches a grenade with more accuracy, higher velocity, and to greater distances than a soldier could throw it by hand....

s for the AK-series
The AK-47 is a selective-fire, gas-operated 7.62×39mm assault rifle, first developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is officially known as Avtomat Kalashnikova . It is also known as a Kalashnikov, an "AK", or in Russian slang, Kalash.Design work on the AK-47 began in the last year...

 of assault rifle
Assault rifle
An assault rifle is a selective fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine. Assault rifles are the standard infantry weapons in most modern armies...

. They were first seen by the west in 1984 during the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan. The initial version was designated BG-15, and was fitted under the barrel of AK-74
The AK-74 is an assault rifle developed in the early 1970s in the Soviet Union as the replacement for the earlier AKM...

 assault rifles. The main production version, the GP-25 has a different sighting system. The latest version, the GP-30, is an evolved version of the GP-25, being lighter, easier to make, and easier to use.


Development of the weapon began in 1966 at the Sporting and Hunting Arms Central Design and Research Bureau. Development continued into the 1970s, and in 1978 it was accepted into service. The GP-30 first entered service in 1989, and is intended for use with the AK-100
The AK-101 is an assault rifle of the Kalashnikov series. The AK-101 is designed for the world export market, using 5.56×45mm NATO cartridges, which is the standard of all NATO armies. The AK-101 is marketed at those looking for a weapon that combines the logistical compatibility and familiarity of...

 series of assault rifles.


The grenade
A grenade is a small explosive device that is projected a safe distance away by its user. Soldiers called grenadiers specialize in the use of grenades. The term hand grenade refers any grenade designed to be hand thrown. Grenade Launchers are firearms designed to fire explosive projectile grenades...

 launchers are similar in appearance and fire the same 40 mm diameter ammunition and use the same High-Low System
High-Low System
The High-Low system also referred to as the "High-Low Pressure system", the "High-Low Propulsion System", and the "High-Low projection system", is a design of cannon and antitank launcher using a smaller high-pressure chamber for storing the propellant...

 developed by Germany in late World War II to keep recoil forces low without a rocket
A rocket is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle which obtains thrust from a rocket engine. In all rockets, the exhaust is formed entirely from propellants carried within the rocket before use. Rocket engines work by action and reaction...

 or other type of recoilless weapon back blast.

The GP-30 is a stripped-down model grenade launcher, consisting of a very short, 40 mm rifled barrel
Gun barrel
A gun barrel is the tube, usually metal, through which a controlled explosion or rapid expansion of gases are released in order to propel a projectile out of the end at a high velocity....

 in front of a basic trigger mechanism with minimal hand grip. On top of the barrel is mounting gear to attach the weapon under the barrel of an AK-series assault rifle, where it is designed to be fired from.

A grenade is first muzzle loaded into the barrel, the weapon is aimed, then the self cocking trigger is pulled to fire the weapon. This fires the percussion cap
Percussion cap
The percussion cap, introduced around 1830, was the crucial invention that enabled muzzleloading firearms to fire reliably in any weather.Before this development, firearms used flintlock ignition systems which produced flint-on-steel sparks to ignite a pan of priming powder and thereby fire the...

 at the base of the grenade which triggers the nitrocellulose
Nitrocellulose is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. When used as a propellant or low-order explosive, it is also known as guncotton...

A propellant is a material that produces pressurized gas that:* can be directed through a nozzle, thereby producing thrust ;...

 inside the body of the grenade. The hot expanding gas from the propellant is forced through vents in the base of the grenade that move the grenade along the barrel, and at the same time force the driving band to engage with the twelve rifling grooves. The rifling imparts stabilizing spin to the projectile.

The barrel has a life of about 400 rounds.


The grenade launchers fire a series of special 40 mm grenades. Originally the main grenade was the VOG-15 (7P17) fragmentation grenade
Fragmentation grenade
A fragmentation grenade is an anti-personnel weapon that is designed to disperse shrapnel upon exploding. The body is made of hard plastic or steel. Flechettes, notched wire, ball bearings or the case itself provide the fragments...

. This was superseded by the steel cased VOG-25 fragmentation grenade. The VOG-25 has a 6 meter lethality radius.

A bouncing grenade, the VOG-25P, is also available. On impact a small charge in the nose of the grenade is detonated which raises the grenade 0.5 to 1.5 m in the air, before an impact delay fuse detonates it. The VOG-25P also has a 6 meter lethality radius.

Smoke grenades are also available - initially a grenade called GRD-40. This has been replaced by a series of smoke grenades designed for use at different ranges called GRD-50, GRD-100 and GRD-200 for use at 50, 100 and 200 meters respectively. They are capable of producing a 20 square meter cloud of smoke that lasts for one minute in winds up to five meters per second.

A CS gas
CS gas
2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile is the defining component of a "tear gas" commonly referred to as CS gas, which is used as a riot control agent...

grenade called the Gvozd and a baton grenade are also available.


  • Fuse arming range: 10-40 m (33-130 ft)
  • Fuse self-destruction time: 14-19 s
  • VOG-25 specifications:
    • Weight: 250 g (0.55 lb)
    • Warhead: 48 g of A-IX-1 explosive.
  • VOG-25P specifications:
    • Weight: 278 g (0.61 lb)
    • Warhead: 37 g of TNT.
  • GRD-50/100/200 specifications
    • Weight: 265 g
    • Warhead: 90 g

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