Fukuia integra
Fukuia integra, also known as Blanfordia integra, is a species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 of land snail
Land snail
A land snail is any of the many species of snail that live on land, as opposed to those that live in salt water and fresh water. Land snails are terrestrial gastropod mollusks that have shells, It is not always an easy matter to say which species are terrestrial, because some are more or less...

 which has an operculum
Operculum (gastropod)
The operculum, meaning little lid, is a corneous or calcareous anatomical structure which exists in many groups of sea snails and freshwater snails, and also in a few groups of land snails...

, a terrestrial gastropod mollusk in the family
Family (biology)
In biological classification, family is* a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species, with family fitting between order and genus. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the...

Pomatiopsidae is a family of small mainly freshwater snails with gills and an operculum, aquatic gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Rissooidea ....



Henry Augustus Pilsbry
Henry Augustus Pilsbry
Henry Augustus Pilsbry was an American biologist, malacologist and carcinologist, among other areas of study. He was a dominant presence in many fields of invertebrate taxonomy for the better part of a century...

 described this species under name Blanfordia integra in 1924.

Davis (1979) noted that genital structures of Blanfordia integra are similar to those of Fukuia
Fukuia is a genus of amphibious freshwater snails and land snails with an operculum, gastropod mollusks in the family Pomatiopsidae.-Distribution :...

. Although he doubted if Fukuia and Blanfordia are morphologically distinct based on such evidence, it is an apparent confusion resulting from the inadequate generic assignment of Blanfordia integra.

According to the molecular analyses of 18S ribosomal RNA
18S ribosomal RNA
18S ribosomal RNA is a part of the ribosomal RNA. The S in 18S represents Svedberg units. 18S rRNA is a component of the small eukaryotic ribosomal subunit...

, 28S ribosomal RNA
28S ribosomal RNA
28S ribosomal RNA is the eukaryotic nuclear homologue of the prokaryotic 23S ribosomal RNA; this is the structural RNA for the large component of eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomes, and thus one of the basic components of all eukaryotic cells....

, 16S ribosomal RNA
16S ribosomal RNA
16S ribosomal RNA is a component of the 30S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes. It is approximately 1.5kb in length...

, and cytochrome-c oxidase I
Main subunit of cytochrome c oxidase
Cytochrome C and Quinol oxidase polypeptide I is main subunit of cytochrome c oxidase complex.Cytochrome c oxidase is a key enzyme in aerobic metabolism. Proton pumping heme-copper oxidases represent the terminal, energy-transfer enzymes of respiratory chains in prokaryotes and eukaryotes...

 (COI) genes by Kameda & Kato (2011) noted that Blanfordia integra is undoubtedly a member of the genus Fukuia.


This species is endemic to Japan. It is a Vulnerable species
Vulnerable species
On 30 January 2010, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species identified 9694 Vulnerable species, subspecies and varieties, stocks and sub-populations.-References:...


The type locality is Makuragisan, Izumo
Izumo Province
was an old province of Japan which today consists of the eastern part of Shimane Prefecture. It was sometimes called . The province is in the Chūgoku Region.- History :It was one of the regions of ancient Japan where major political powers arose...

, Honshu.


The shape of the shell
Gastropod shell
The gastropod shell is a shell which is part of the body of a gastropod or snail, one kind of mollusc. The gastropod shell is an external skeleton or exoskeleton, which serves not only for muscle attachment, but also for protection from predators and from mechanical damage...

 is broadly ovate. The shell has 4.5-5.3 whorls
Whorl (mollusc)
A whorl is a single, complete 360° revolution or turn in the spiral growth of a mollusc shell. A spiral configuration of the shell is found in of numerous gastropods, but it is also found in shelled cephalopods including Nautilus, Spirula and the large extinct subclass of cephalopods known as the...

. There is a strong axial sculpture
Sculpture (mollusc)
The sculpture of a mollusc shell is the three-dimensional ornamentation on the outer surface, as distinct from the basic shape of the shell itself or colouration. Sculpture may be concave as well as convex. Sometimes it has microscopic detail. Sculpture refers to the calcareous outer layer, not the...

 on the shell.

The width of the shell is 2.4-3.2 mm. The height of the shell is 3.6-5.2 mm.


This species lives as a terrestrial snail in inland forest
A forest, also referred to as a wood or the woods, is an area with a high density of trees. As with cities, depending where you are in the world, what is considered a forest may vary significantly in size and have various classification according to how and what of the forest is composed...

s. It is often arboreal.

Further reading

  • Minato H. (1980). "Blanfordia integra Pilsbry, 1924 (Pomatiopsidae); its morphology, ecology, and distribution". Nanki Seibutu 22: 77-79.
  • Minato H. (2005). "Blanfordia integra". In Threatened Wildlife of Japan: Red Data Book 2nd ed., Land and Freshwater Mollusks. Volume 6. Edited by Ministry of the Environment. Tokyo, Ministry of the Environment
    Ministry of the Environment (Japan)
    The ' of Japan was formed in 2001 from the sub-cabinet level Environmental Agency established in 1971. The minister is a member of the Cabinet and is chosen by the Prime Minister, usually from the Diet., the current is Goshi Hosono...

    . 172.
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