French National Police
Overview
 
The National Police formerly the Sûreté Nationale
Sûreté
Sûreté is a term used in French speaking countries or regions in the organizational title of a civil police force, especially the detective branch thereof.-France:...

, is one of two national police
Police
The police is a personification of the state designated to put in practice the enforced law, protect property and reduce civil disorder in civilian matters. Their powers include the legitimized use of force...

 forces and the main civil law enforcement agency of France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, with primary jurisdiction in cities and large towns. The other main agency is the military Gendarmerie, with primary jurisdiction in smaller towns and rural and border areas. The National Police comes under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior
Minister of the Interior (France)
The Minister of the Interior in France is one of the most important governmental cabinet positions, responsible for the following:* The general interior security of the country, with respect to criminal acts or natural catastrophes...

 and has about 145,699 employees (in April 2008).

The National Police operate mostly in large cities and towns.
Encyclopedia
The National Police formerly the Sûreté Nationale
Sûreté
Sûreté is a term used in French speaking countries or regions in the organizational title of a civil police force, especially the detective branch thereof.-France:...

, is one of two national police
Police
The police is a personification of the state designated to put in practice the enforced law, protect property and reduce civil disorder in civilian matters. Their powers include the legitimized use of force...

 forces and the main civil law enforcement agency of France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, with primary jurisdiction in cities and large towns. The other main agency is the military Gendarmerie, with primary jurisdiction in smaller towns and rural and border areas. The National Police comes under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior
Minister of the Interior (France)
The Minister of the Interior in France is one of the most important governmental cabinet positions, responsible for the following:* The general interior security of the country, with respect to criminal acts or natural catastrophes...

 and has about 145,699 employees (in April 2008).

The National Police operate mostly in large cities and towns. In that context:
  • it conducts security operations (patrol
    Patrol
    A patrol is commonly a group of personnel, such as police officers or soldiers, that are assigned to monitor a specific geographic area.- Military :...

    s, traffic control, identity checks...)
  • under the orders and supervision of the Investigating magistrates of the judiciary, it conducts criminal enquiries, serves search warrants, etc.; it maintains specific services ("judicial police") for criminal enquiries.

Organization

The police is commanded by the director-general (directeur général de la police nationale) who is currently Frédéric Pechenard. The director-general is directly in charge of the DGPN (Direction Générale de la Police nationale, in English "General Directorate of the National Police") http://www.interieur.gouv.fr/rubriques/c/c3_police_nationale/c33_organisation:

The police is then sub-divided into directorates:
  • Direction de l'administration de la police nationale (Directorate of Administration of the National Police; DAPN)
  • Direction de la formation de police nationale (Directorate of Training of the National Police; DFPN)
  • Direction centrale de la police judiciaire (Central Directorate of Judicial Police; DCPJ) – major criminal investigations (known as "36 Quai des Orfèvres" in Paris
    Paris
    Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

    ) (It is actually located at 11 rue des Saussaies.)
  • Direction centrale de la sécurité publique (Central Directorate of Public Security; DCSP) - uniformed patrol and response
    • Groupes d'Intervention de la Police Nationale (Intervention Groups of the National Police; GIPN) - 9 regional SWAT teams
    • Sous-Directorate Anti-Terroriste (Anti-Terrorism Sub-Directorate; SDAT) - elite counter-terrorist brigade
  • Direction centrale de la police aux frontières (Central Directorate of Border Police; DCPAF)
  • Inspection générale de la police nationale (Inspectorate General of the National Police; IPGN) - headed by the Inspector General
    Inspector General
    An Inspector General is an investigative official in a civil or military organization. The plural of the term is Inspectors General.-Bangladesh:...

     and responsible for internal affairs
    Internal affairs (law enforcement)
    The internal affairs division of a law enforcement agency investigates incidents and plausible suspicions of lawbreaking and professional misconduct attributed to officers on the force...

  • Direction centrale des compagnies républicaines de sécurité
    Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité
    The Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité are the riot control forces and general reserve of the French National Police. The CRS were created on 8 December 1944 and the first units were organised by 31 January 1945. The CRS were reorganized in 1948...

    (Central Directorate of the Republican Security Companies; DCCRS) - riot police commonly referred to as the CRS
  • Service de coopération technique internationale de police (Technical International Police Co-operation Service; SCTIP)
  • Service de protection des hautes personnalités
    Service de Protection des Hautes Personnalités
    The Service de Protection des Hautes Personnalités or in English, VIP Protection Service, is a unit within the French National Police which is responsible for the protection of French and Foreign dignitaries and the provision of technical security support...

    (Important Persons Protection Service; SPHP) - VIP protection such as foreign diplomats and also responsible for the protection of the President of the French Republic
    President of the French Republic
    The President of the French Republic colloquially referred to in English as the President of France, is France's elected Head of State....

     through the 'Groupe de Sécurité de la Présidence de la République
    Groupe de Sécurité de la Présidence de la République
    The Security Group for the Presidency of the Republic is the security unit in charge of the safety of President of France.In the past, the group was composed of 30 gendarmes and 30 policemen and a Lieutenant-Colonel of Gendarmerie or a Commissaire divisionnaire de Police was alternately in...

    '.
  • The Préfecture de Police de Paris provides police and security services in the Paris
    Paris
    Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

     area
  • Recherche Assistance Intervention Dissuasion
    Recherche Assistance Intervention Dissuasion
    Recherche Assistance Intervention Dissuasion or RAID is, like the GIPN, a Special Operations tactical unit of the National Police with more manpower and equipment...

     (Research, Assistance, Intervention, Deterrence; RAID) - counter-terrorist unit

Former directorates

As of 1 July 2008, the following two National Police directorates:
  • Direction de la surveillance du territoire
    Direction de la surveillance du territoire
    The Direction de la Surveillance du Territoire was a directorate of the French National Police operating as a domestic intelligence agency. It was responsible for counterespionage, counterterrorism and more generally the security of France against foreign threats and interference...

    (Directorate of Territorial Surveillance; DST) - counter-intelligence
    Counter-intelligence
    Counterintelligence or counter-intelligence refers to efforts made by intelligence organizations to prevent hostile or enemy intelligence organizations from successfully gathering and collecting intelligence against them. National intelligence programs, and, by extension, the overall defenses of...

    , counterespionage, counterterrorism
  • Direction centrale des renseignements généraux (Central Directorate of General Information; DCRG or RG) - records, research, analysis, and policing gambling
    Gambling
    Gambling is the wagering of money or something of material value on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning additional money and/or material goods...

     and horse racing
    Horse racing
    Horse racing is an equestrian sport that has a long history. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in ancient Babylon, Syria, and Egypt. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC...


were merged into one single domestic intelligence agency
Intelligence agency
An intelligence agency is a governmental agency that is devoted to information gathering for purposes of national security and defence. Means of information gathering may include espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public...

 titled the Direction centrale du renseignement intérieur
Direction centrale du renseignement intérieur
The Direction Centrale du Renseignement Intérieur is a French intelligence agency which reports directly to the Ministry of the Interior...

(DCRI). The DCRI was placed directly under the Ministry of the Interior
Minister of the Interior (France)
The Minister of the Interior in France is one of the most important governmental cabinet positions, responsible for the following:* The general interior security of the country, with respect to criminal acts or natural catastrophes...

. The current director is Bernard Squarcini
Bernard Squarcini
Bernard Squarcini, born on 12 December 1955 in Rabat, Morocco, is the current head of the Direction centrale du renseignement intérieur , France's counter-espionage and counter-terrorism Intelligence agency....

, then the director of the DST, who had also formerly served as second-in-command of the RG.

Ranks

The National Police is divided into three corps, in the terminology of the French Civil Service
French Civil Service
The French Civil Service is the set of civil servants working for the French government.Not all employees of the state and public institutions or corporations are civil servants; however, the media often incorrectly equate "government employee" or "employee of a public corporation" with...

, in ascending order of seniority:
  • The Corps de maîtrise et d'application (Authority and Enforcement Corps) corresponds approximately to the enlisted and non-commissioned
    Non-commissioned officer
    A non-commissioned officer , called a sub-officer in some countries, is a military officer who has not been given a commission...

     ranks in a military force, or to constable
    Constable
    A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in law enforcement. The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdictions.-Etymology:...

    s and sergeant
    Sergeant
    Sergeant is a rank used in some form by most militaries, police forces, and other uniformed organizations around the world. Its origins are the Latin serviens, "one who serves", through the French term Sergent....

    s in a British-style civil police force.


  • The Corps de commandement et d'encadrement (Command and Management Corps) corresponds approximately to the lower commissioned ranks of a military force, or to grades of inspector
    Inspector
    Inspector is both a police rank and an administrative position, both used in a number of contexts. However, it is not an equivalent rank in each police force.- Australia :...

     in a British-style civil police force. These ranks were previously known as inspecteurs if detectives or officiers de la paix if uniformed, although CRS
    Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité
    The Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité are the riot control forces and general reserve of the French National Police. The CRS were created on 8 December 1944 and the first units were organised by 31 January 1945. The CRS were reorganized in 1948...

     officers always used the current ranks.


  • The Corps de conception et de direction (Conception and Direction Corps) corresponds approximately to the higher commissioned ranks of a military force, or to grades of superintendent
    Superintendent (police)
    Superintendent , often shortened to "super", is a rank in British police services and in most English-speaking Commonwealth nations. In many Commonwealth countries the full version is superintendent of police...

     and chief officers in a British-style civil police force.

All the ranks insignia may be worn either on the shoulders or on the chest. In the latter they are square-shaped.

Prior to 1995 two civilian corps ("Inspecteurs" and "Enquêteurs") existed in which plain-clothes officers were given the training and authority to conduct investigations. The closest Anglo-American equivalent is the detective
Detective
A detective is an investigator, either a member of a police agency or a private person. The latter may be known as private investigators or "private eyes"...

.

The powers of making a full arrest, hearing suspects, overseeing searches ordered by the judiciary, etc., are restricted to members of the police or the gendarmerie with the qualification of "officer of judiciary police" (officier de police judiciaire or OPJ). Other officers are only "agents of judiciary police" (agents de police judiciaire or APJ) and have only limited authority, restricted to assisting the officers. See Law enforcement in France
Law enforcement in France
Law enforcement in France is conducted at the national and municipal level, and is the responsibility of a variety of law enforcement agencies. Three agencies operate at the national level, and at the local level each commune is able to maintain their own municipal police...

.

Weapons

In 1935, the French police used a variety of side arms, both revolvers and semi-automatic pistols, notably comprising the MAS 1873
MAS 1873 revolver
The service revolver model 1873 Chamelot-Delvigne was the first double action revolver used by the French army. It was produced by Manufacture d'armes de Saint-Étienne from 1873 to 1887 in about 337,000 copies. Although soon replaced by the Modele 1892 revolver, it was nevertheless widely used...

, the MAS 1892
Modele 1892 revolver
The Model 1892 Revolver was a French service revolver produced by Manufacture d'armes de Saint-Étienne as a replacement for the MAS 1873 revolver...

, the FN M1900
FN M1900
The FN Browning M1900 is a single action, semi-automatic pistol designed ca. 1896 by John Browning for Fabrique Nationale de Herstal and produced in Belgium at the turn of the century...

, Ruby pistol
Ruby pistol
The self-loading Ruby pistol is best known as a French World War I sidearm, the Pistolet Automatique de 7 millim.65 genre "Ruby". A very international piece of weaponry, it was closely modeled after the American John Browning's M1903 made by the Belgian Fabrique Nationale de Herstal, and was...

s, and a variety of privately purchased weapons.

Immediately after the Second World War, a variety of military side arms was used, often captured weapons provided by the Army or French-produced German-designed weapons, such as the Mauser HSc
Mauser HSC
The Mauser HSc is a 7.65mm pistol made in Nazi Germany during World War II and post-war. The designation HSc stood for Hahn Selbstspanner Pistole, third and final design "C". Production was continued in 1945–46 during the French occupation and, later, from 1968 to 1977 by Mauser...

 or the Walther P38 for sidearms, and the Karabiner 98k
Karabiner 98k
The Karabiner 98 Kurz was a bolt action rifle chambered for the 8x57mm IS/7.92×57mm IS cartridge that was adopted as the standard service rifle in 1935 by the German Wehrmacht. It was one of the final developments in the long line of Mauser military rifles...

 rifle.

In 1951, a standardisation was performed on the RR 51 in 7.65 mm, and on the MAS-38
MAS-38
The MAS-38 was a French submachine gun designed prior to the Second World War and used by French and German forces.It derived from a small arms development program that took place between 1918 and 1922 under the control of the Service Technique de l'Armement. A submachine gun, a light machine gun...

 and MAT-49
MAT-49
The MAT-49 was a submachine gun developed by French arms factory Manufacture Nationale d'Armes de Tulle for use by the French Army.-Development:...

 for submachine guns. From 1953, in the context of heightening violence of the Algeria War, CRS units were upgraded to the 9mm MAC Mle 1950
MAC mle 1950
The MAC-50 is a standard semi-automatic pistol of the French army and adopted in 1950. It replaced the previous series of French pistols, the Modèle 1935A & Modèle 1935S, and was produced between 1950 and 1970....



From the early 1960, large-caliber revolvers were introduced, culminating with the introduction of the Manurhin MR 73
Manurhin MR 73
The Manurhin MR73 is a French-manufactured, double-action revolver chambered in .38 Special/.357 Magnum. The revolver can be converted to 9mm Parabellum with a supplied replacement cylinder...

 and the Ruger SP-101
Ruger SP-101
The Ruger SP-101 is a series of double action revolvers produced by the American company Sturm, Ruger. The SP101 is a small frame and all-steel construction carry revolver, with a 5-shot , 6-shot , or 8-shot cylinder.-History:The Ruger SP-101 was introduced in 1989 as the smaller frame...

. In the 80s, a process to standardise on revolvers was initiated. The 1970s also saw the introduction of assault rifles (SIG SG 543) to fend off heavily armed organised crime and terrorism.

In the 2000s, the police started switching to semi-automatic pistols and to the 9mm Parabellum cartridge. For some years, the standard sidearm in the French Police National and the Gendarmerie Nationale
Gendarmerie Nationale
Gendarmerie Nationale may refer to:*Gendarmerie Nationale *Gendarmerie Nationale - Merged with Belgian police in 2001.and also:*Gendarmerie Nationale *Gendarmerie Nationale *Gendarmerie Nationale...

 was the Beretta 92FS
Beretta 92
The Beretta 92 is a series of semi-automatic pistols designed and manufactured by Beretta of Italy. The model 92 was designed in 1972 and production of many variants in different calibers continues today...

. In 2003 both agencies made the biggest small arms contract since the Second World War  for about 250,000 SIG SP 2022
SIG Pro
The SIG Pro is a series of semi-automatic pistols developed and manufactured jointly by Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft and J. P. Sauer & Sohn...

, a custom-tailored variant of the Sig Pro. The weapons are planned to stay in service until the year 2022.

Cars

While the vast majority of vehicles are screenprinted French brand (mainly Renault, Citroen and Peugeot), some service vehicles are provided by Ford and Opel. Plain clothes officers or specialised branches use vehicles from a variety of builders.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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