Frederick II, Duke of Anhalt
Frederick II (19 August 1856 - 22 April 1918) was the Duke of Anhalt from 1904 until 1918.

Early life

He was born in Dessau
Dessau is a town in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt. Since 1 July 2007, it is part of the merged town Dessau-Roßlau. Population of Dessau proper: 77,973 .-Geography:...

 in 1856 as the second son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Anhalt-Dessau
Frederick I, Duke of Anhalt
Frederick I was a German prince of the house of Ascania who ruled the Duchy of Anhalt from 1871 to 1904.-Early life:...

 and his wife Princess Antoinette of Saxe-Altenburg.
In 1863 his grandfather Leopold IV
Leopold IV, Duke of Anhalt
Leopold IV Frederick, Duke of Anhalt was a German prince of the House of Ascania.From 1817 until 1853 he was ruler of the duchy of Anhalt-Dessau and from 1847 until 1853 also ruler of the duchy of Anhalt-Köthen...

 became Duke of the united Duchy of Anhalt following the death of the last Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg
Anhalt-Bernburg was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire and a duchy of the German Confederation ruled by the House of Ascania with its residence at Bernburg in present-day Saxony-Anhalt...

His father succeeded as Duke of Anhalt on 22 May 1871.

Frederick became heir apparent
Heir apparent
An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person who is first in line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting, except by a change in the rules of succession....

 and Hereditary Prince following the death of his elder brother Leopold
Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Anhalt
Leopold of Anhalt , was a German prince of the House of Ascania. From 1871 until his death he was heir to the duchy of Anhalt.-Early life:...

 on 2 February 1886.


Frederick was married on 2 July 1889 at Karlsruhe
The City of Karlsruhe is a city in the southwest of Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border.Karlsruhe was founded in 1715 as Karlsruhe Palace, when Germany was a series of principalities and city states...

 to Princess Marie of Baden. She was a daughter of Prince Wilhelm of Baden and his wife Princess Maria of Leuchtenberg
Princess Maria Maximilianovna of Leuchtenberg
Princess Maria Maximilianovna of Leuchtenberg, also known as Princess Maria Romanovskya, Maria, Princess Romanovskaja, or Marie Maximiliane was the eldest daughter of Maximilian de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg and his wife Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia.-Family and early...

, as well as an elder sister of Prince Maximilian of Baden
Prince Maximilian of Baden
Maximilian of Baden was a German prince and politician...

, 8th Chancellor of Germany.


On 24 January 1904 he succeeded his father as Duke of Anhalt.

During his reign he was known for his love of music and maintained a Court Theatre which became celebrated throughout Europe.

In 1914, during World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, he instituted the Frederickscross
The Frederickcross , was instituted in 1914 by the ruling Duke of Anhalt Frederick II of Anhalt as a decoration not unlike the Iron Cross for merit in time of war.There are three versions of the Frederickcross...

 as a decoration for merit in time of war.

He died at Ballenstedt
Ballenstedt is a town in the Harz district, in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. It is situated at the northern rim of the Harz mountain range, about 10 km southeast of Quedlinburg. The municipality includes the villages of Badeborn and Oppenrode...

 Castle on 22 April 1918. As his marriage to Marie of Baden was without issue, he was succeeded as Duke by his younger brother Eduard
Eduard, Duke of Anhalt
Eduard Georg Wilhelm, Duke of Anhalt was a German prince of the House of Ascania and the penultimate ruler of the Duchy of Anhalt from April to September 1918.-Early life:...



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