Karlsruhe
Overview
 
The City of Karlsruhe (ˈkaɐ̯lsʁuːə; formerly Carlsruhe) is a city in the southwest of Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, in the state
States of Germany
Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

 (bundesland) of Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, and is the third largest in both area and population of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of and 10.7 million inhabitants...

, located near the French
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

-German border.

Karlsruhe was founded in 1715 as Karlsruhe Palace
Karlsruhe Palace
Karlsruhe Palace was erected in 1715 by Margrave Charles III William of Baden-Durlach, after a dispute with the citizens of his previous capital, Durlach...

, when Germany was a series of principalities and city states. The town surrounding the Palace became the seat of two of the highest courts in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany
Federal Constitutional Court of Germany
The Federal Constitutional Court is a special court established by the Grundgesetz, the German basic law...

 (Bundesverfassungsgericht) whose decisions have the force of a law in many cases, and the Federal Court of Justice of Germany
Federal Court of Justice of Germany
The Federal Court of Justice of Germany in Karlsruhe is the highest court in the system of ordinary jurisdiction in Germany. It is the supreme court in all matters of criminal and private law...

 (Bundesgerichtshof), the highest court of appeal
Appeal
An appeal is a petition for review of a case that has been decided by a court of law. The petition is made to a higher court for the purpose of overturning the lower court's decision....

s in matters of civil law
Civil law (common law)
Civil law, as opposed to criminal law, is the branch of law dealing with disputes between individuals or organizations, in which compensation may be awarded to the victim...

 and criminal law
Criminal law
Criminal law, is the body of law that relates to crime. It might be defined as the body of rules that defines conduct that is not allowed because it is held to threaten, harm or endanger the safety and welfare of people, and that sets out the punishment to be imposed on people who do not obey...

.
Encyclopedia
The City of Karlsruhe (ˈkaɐ̯lsʁuːə; formerly Carlsruhe) is a city in the southwest of Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, in the state
States of Germany
Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

 (bundesland) of Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, and is the third largest in both area and population of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of and 10.7 million inhabitants...

, located near the French
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

-German border.

Karlsruhe was founded in 1715 as Karlsruhe Palace
Karlsruhe Palace
Karlsruhe Palace was erected in 1715 by Margrave Charles III William of Baden-Durlach, after a dispute with the citizens of his previous capital, Durlach...

, when Germany was a series of principalities and city states. The town surrounding the Palace became the seat of two of the highest courts in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany
Federal Constitutional Court of Germany
The Federal Constitutional Court is a special court established by the Grundgesetz, the German basic law...

 (Bundesverfassungsgericht) whose decisions have the force of a law in many cases, and the Federal Court of Justice of Germany
Federal Court of Justice of Germany
The Federal Court of Justice of Germany in Karlsruhe is the highest court in the system of ordinary jurisdiction in Germany. It is the supreme court in all matters of criminal and private law...

 (Bundesgerichtshof), the highest court of appeal
Appeal
An appeal is a petition for review of a case that has been decided by a court of law. The petition is made to a higher court for the purpose of overturning the lower court's decision....

s in matters of civil law
Civil law (common law)
Civil law, as opposed to criminal law, is the branch of law dealing with disputes between individuals or organizations, in which compensation may be awarded to the victim...

 and criminal law
Criminal law
Criminal law, is the body of law that relates to crime. It might be defined as the body of rules that defines conduct that is not allowed because it is held to threaten, harm or endanger the safety and welfare of people, and that sets out the punishment to be imposed on people who do not obey...

. It therefore considers itself the home of justice in Germany, a role taken over from Leipzig
Leipzig
Leipzig Leipzig has always been a trade city, situated during the time of the Holy Roman Empire at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, two important trade routes. At one time, Leipzig was one of the major European centres of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing...

 after 1945.

Due to similarities to the United States capital city
Capital City
Capital City was a television show produced by Euston Films which focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman....

, it has been speculated that Karlsruhe was a model city for the cityscape of Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

 Both cities have a center — in Karlsruhe the palace and in D.C. the Capitol Building
United States Capitol
The United States Capitol is the meeting place of the United States Congress, the legislature of the federal government of the United States. Located in Washington, D.C., it sits atop Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall...

 — from which the streets radiate outward. L'Enfant
Pierre Charles L'Enfant
Pierre Charles L'Enfant was a French-born American architect and civil engineer best known for designing the layout of the streets of Washington, D.C..-Early life:...

, Washington's city planner, had been given the plans of Karlsruhe (among numerous other European cities) as an inspiration.

Geography

The city lies at an altitude between 100 m (on the eastern shore of the river Rhine) and 322 m (near the TV Tower). Its geographical coordinates are 49°00′N 8°24′E; the 49th parallel
Circle of latitude
A circle of latitude, on the Earth, is an imaginary east-west circle connecting all locations that share a given latitude...

 runs through the city centre. Its course is marked by a stone and painted line in the Stadtgarten (city park).

The city was planned with the palace tower (Schloss) at the center and 32 streets radiating out from it like the spokes of a wheel
Wheel
A wheel is a device that allows heavy objects to be moved easily through rotating on an axle through its center, facilitating movement or transportation while supporting a load, or performing labor in machines. Common examples found in transport applications. A wheel, together with an axle,...

, or the ribs of a folding fan
Fan (implement)
A hand-held fan is an implement used to induce an airflow for the purpose of cooling or refreshing oneself. Any broad, flat surface waved back-and-forth will create a small airflow and therefore can be considered a rudimentary fan...

, so that one nickname
Nickname
A nickname is "a usually familiar or humorous but sometimes pointed or cruel name given to a person or place, as a supposedly appropriate replacement for or addition to the proper name.", or a name similar in origin and pronunciation from the original name....

 for Karlsruhe in German is the "fan city" (Fächerstadt). Almost all of these streets survive today. Because of this city layout, in metric geometry, Karlsruhe metric
Karlsruhe metric
In metric geometry, the Karlsruhe metric is a measure of distance that assumes travel is only possible along radial streets and along circular avenues around the center.-External links:...

 refers to a measure of distance that assumes travel is only possible along radial streets and along circular avenues around the center.

The city centre is the oldest part of town and lies south of the palace in the quadrant defined by nine of the radial streets. The central part of the palace runs east-west, with two wings, each at a 45° angle, directed southeast and southwest respectively (i.e. parallel with the streets marking the boundaries of the quadrant defining the city center).

The market square
Market square
The market square is a feature of many European and colonial towns. It is an open area where market stalls are traditionally set out for trading, commonly on one particular day of the week known as market day....

 lies on the street running south from the palace to Ettlingen
Ettlingen
Ettlingen is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, about south of the city of Karlsruhe. Ettlingen is the second largest town in the district of Karlsruhe, after Bruchsal.-Geography:...

. The market square has the town hall (Rathaus) to the west, the main Lutheran church (Evangelische Stadtkirche) to the east, and the tomb
Tomb
A tomb is a repository for the remains of the dead. It is generally any structurally enclosed interment space or burial chamber, of varying sizes...

 of Margrave Karl Wilhelm in a pyramid
Karlsruhe Pyramid
The Karlsruhe Pyramid is a pyramid made of red sandstone, located in the centre of the market square of Karlsruhe, Germany. It was erected in the years 1823–1825 over the vault of the city's founder, Margrave Charles III William...

 in the buildings, resulting in Karlsruhe being one of only three large cities in Germany where buildings are laid out in the Neoclassical
Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome...

 style.

The area north of the palace is a park
Park
A park is a protected area, in its natural or semi-natural state, or planted, and set aside for human recreation and enjoyment, or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. It may consist of rocks, soil, water, flora and fauna and grass areas. Many parks are legally protected by...

 and forest
Forest
A forest, also referred to as a wood or the woods, is an area with a high density of trees. As with cities, depending where you are in the world, what is considered a forest may vary significantly in size and have various classification according to how and what of the forest is composed...

. Originally the area to the east of the palace consisted of gardens and forests, some of which entre. The architect Friedrich Weinbrenner
Friedrich Weinbrenner
Friedrich Weinbrenner was a German architect and city planner admired for his mastery of classical style.- Birth and education :...

 designed many of the city's most important remain, but the Institute of Technology
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology is a German academic research and education institution with university status resulting from a merger of the university and the research center of the city of Karlsruhe. The university, also known as Fridericiana, was founded in 1825...

 (founded in 1825), Wildparkstadion
Wildparkstadion
The Wildparkstadion is a football stadium located in Karlsruhe, Germany. It is the home of the football club Karlsruher SC.It is located northeast of the Karlsruhe castle and is located in part of the former deer park of the Grand Dukes of Baden in the Hardtwald, hence the name...

, and residential areas have been built there. The area west of the palace is now mostly residential.

Climate

Karlsruhe experiences an oceanic climate
Oceanic climate
An oceanic climate, also called marine west coast climate, maritime climate, Cascadian climate and British climate for Köppen climate classification Cfb and subtropical highland for Köppen Cfb or Cwb, is a type of climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of some of the...

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cfb) similar to much of Germany.

History

According to legend, the name Karlsruhe, which translates as Charles’ repose, was given to the new city after a hunting trip when Margrave Charles III William, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, woke from a dream in which he dreamt of founding his new city.

Charles William founded the city on June 17, 1715 after a dispute with the citizens of his previous capital, Durlach
Durlach
Durlach is a borough of the German city of Karlsruhe with a population of roughly 30,000.-History:Durlach was bestowed by emperor Frederick II on the margrave Hermann V of Zähringen as an allodial possession, but afterwards came into the hands of Rudolph of Habsburg.It was chosen by the margrave...

. The founding of the city is closely linked to the construction of the palace
Karlsruhe Palace
Karlsruhe Palace was erected in 1715 by Margrave Charles III William of Baden-Durlach, after a dispute with the citizens of his previous capital, Durlach...

. Karlsruhe became the capital of Baden-Durlach and in 1771 of the united Baden
Baden
Baden is a historical state on the east bank of the Rhine in the southwest of Germany, now the western part of the Baden-Württemberg of Germany....

 until 1945. Built in 1822, the "Ständehaus" was the first parliament building in a German State. In the aftermath of the democratic revolution of 1848, a republican government was elected here.

In 1860 the first ever international professional convention, the Karlsruhe Congress
Karlsruhe Congress
The Karlsruhe Congress was an international meeting of chemists held in Karlsruhe, Germany from 3 to 5 September, 1860. It was the first international conference of chemistry worldwide.- The meeting :...

, was held in the city.

Much of the central area, including the palace, was reduced to rubble by Allied bombing during World War II but was rebuilt after the war.

Main sights

The Durlach
Durlach
Durlach is a borough of the German city of Karlsruhe with a population of roughly 30,000.-History:Durlach was bestowed by emperor Frederick II on the margrave Hermann V of Zähringen as an allodial possession, but afterwards came into the hands of Rudolph of Habsburg.It was chosen by the margrave...

er Turmberg
Turmberg
The Turmberg is a hill located in Durlach, a suburb of Karlsruhe in Germany. It is home to a castle ruin....

has a look-out tower (hence its name). It is a former keep
Keep
A keep is a type of fortified tower built within castles during the Middle Ages by European nobility. Scholars have debated the scope of the word keep, but usually consider it to refer to large towers in castles that were fortified residences, used as a refuge of last resort should the rest of the...

 dating back to the 13th century.

The Stadtgarten is a recreational area near the main railway station (Hauptbahnhof) and was rebuilt in 1967 during the 'Federal Garden Show' (Bundesgartenschau). It is also the site of the Karlsruhe Zoo
Karlsruhe Zoo
Karlsruhe Zoo is located north of Karlsruhe Central Station in the city of Karlsruhe, Germany. It was opened in 1865 and is one of the oldest zoos in Germany. It has about 800 animals and 150 species.-Fire:...

.

The city has two botanical gardens: the municipal Botanischer Garten Karlsruhe
Botanischer Garten Karlsruhe
The Botanischer Garten Karlsruhe is a municipal botanical garden located in Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is open daily except Monday; an admission fee is charged...

which forms part of the Palace complex, and the Botanischer Garten der Universität Karlsruhe
Botanischer Garten der Universität Karlsruhe
The Botanischer Garten der Universität Karlsruhe is a botanical garden maintained by the University of Karlsruhe. It is located at Am Fasanengarten 2, Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, and is open weekdays and Sundays; admission is free....

which is maintained by the university.

The Marktplatz has a the stone pyramid
Karlsruhe Pyramid
The Karlsruhe Pyramid is a pyramid made of red sandstone, located in the centre of the market square of Karlsruhe, Germany. It was erected in the years 1823–1825 over the vault of the city's founder, Margrave Charles III William...

 marking the grave of the city's founder. Built in 1825, it is the emblem of Karlsruhe.
The city is nicknamed the fan city (Die Fächerstadt) because of its design layout, with straight streets radiating fan-like from the Palace.

The Karlsruhe Palace (Schloss) is an interesting piece of architecture; the adjacent Schlossgarten includes the Botanical Garden with a palm, cactus and orchid house, and walking paths through the woods to the north.

The so-called Kleine Kirche (Little Church), built between 1773 and 1776, is the oldest church of Karlsruhe's city centre.

Another sight is the Rondellplatz with its 'Constitution Building Columns' (1826). It is dedicated to Baden's first constitution in 1818, which was one of the most liberal of its time. The Münze (mint), erected in 1826/27, was also built by Weinbrenner.

The St. Stephan parish church is one of the masterpieces of neoclassical church architecture in Southern Germany. Weinbrenner, who built this church between 1808 and 1814, orientated it to the Pantheon, Rome
Pantheon, Rome
The Pantheon ,Rarely Pantheum. This appears in Pliny's Natural History in describing this edifice: Agrippae Pantheum decoravit Diogenes Atheniensis; in columnis templi eius Caryatides probantur inter pauca operum, sicut in fastigio posita signa, sed propter altitudinem loci minus celebrata.from ,...

.
The neo-gothic Grand Ducal burial chapel, built between 1889 and 1896, is a mausoleum
Mausoleum
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or persons. A monument without the interment is a cenotaph. A mausoleum may be considered a type of tomb or the tomb may be considered to be within the...

 rather than a church, and is located in the middle of the forest.

The main cemetery of Karlsruhe is the oldest park-like cemetery in Germany. The crematorium
Cremation
Cremation is the process of reducing bodies to basic chemical compounds such as gasses and bone fragments. This is accomplished through high-temperature burning, vaporization and oxidation....

 was the first to be built in the style of a church.

Karlsruhe is also home to a Museum of Natural History, an opera house (the 'Baden State Theatre
Badisches Staatstheater Karlsruhe
The Badisches Staatstheater Karlsruhe is a theatre and opera house in Karlsruhe, Germany. It has existed in its present form and place at Ettlinger Tor since 1975...

'), as well as a number of independent theatres and art galleries. The State Art Gallery
Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe
The Staatliche Kunsthalle is an art museum in Karlsruhe, Germany.The museum, created by architect Heinrich Hübsch, opened in 1846 after nine years of work in a neoclassical building next to the Karlsruhe Castle and the Karlsruhe Botanical Garden...

, built in 1846 by Heinrich Hübsch
Heinrich Hübsch
Heinrich Hübsch was a German architect. After studies in Heidelberg and at Friedrich Weinbrenner's school of architecture in Karlsruhe he traveled extensively in Greece and Italy . In 1831 he was appointed Oberbaurat at Karlsruhe...

, displays paintings and sculptures from six centuries, particularly from France, Germany and Holland. Karlsruhe's newly renovated art museum is one of the most important art museums in Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, and is the third largest in both area and population of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of and 10.7 million inhabitants...

. Further cultural attractions are scattered throughout Karlsruhe's various incorporated suburbs. The Scheffel Association or literary society (established in 1924), is the largest literary organisation in Germany. Today the Prinz-Max-Palais, built between 1881 and 1884 in neoclassical style, houses the organisation and includes its museum.
Due to population growth in the later 19th Century, Karlsruhe developed several suburban areas (Vorstadt
Vorstadt
Vorstadt is a German term that describes an area of a city, outside the Altstadt or the city centre, but tightly connected to it and densely populated, thus distinguished from Vororte....

) in the Gründerzeit
Gründerzeit
' refers to the economic phase in 19th century Germany and Austria before the great stock market crash of 1873. At this time in Central Europe the age of industrialisation was taking place, whose beginnings were found in the 1840s...

and especially Art nouveau
Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau is an international philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that were most popular during 1890–1910. The name "Art Nouveau" is French for "new art"...

 styles of architecture, with many preserved examples.

Karlsruhe is also home to the Majolika-Manufaktur, the only art-ceramics pottery studio in Germany. Founded in 1901, it is located in the Schlossgarten. A 'blue streak' (Blauer Strahl) consisting of 1645 ceramic tiles, connects the studio with the Palace. It is the world's largest ceramic artwork.

Another tourist attraction is the Centre for Art and Media
Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe
The Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe in Karlsruhe, Germany is an interdisciplinary art museum and research institution focusing on new media....

 (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie, or ZKM), which is located in a converted ammunition factory.

Justice

Karlsruhe is the seat of the German Federal Constitutional Court
Federal Constitutional Court of Germany
The Federal Constitutional Court is a special court established by the Grundgesetz, the German basic law...

 (Bundesverfassungsgericht) and the highest Court of Appeals
Court of Appeals
A court of appeals is an appellate court generally.Court of Appeals may refer to:*Military Court of Appeals *Corte d'Assise d'Appello *Philippine Court of Appeals*High Court of Appeals of Turkey*United States courts of appeals...

 in civil and criminal cases, the Bundesgerichtshof. The court came to Karlsruhe when the provinces of Baden and Württemberg
Württemberg
Württemberg , formerly known as Wirtemberg or Wurtemberg, is an area and a former state in southwestern Germany, including parts of the regions Swabia and Franconia....

 were merged. Stuttgart
Stuttgart
Stuttgart is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 600,038 while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million ....

, capital of Württemberg, became the capital of the new province, and Karlsruhe was given the high court in a compromise.

Public health

There are four hospitals: The municipal Klinikum Karlsruhe provides the maximum level of medical services, the St. Vincentius-Kliniken and the Diakonissen
Deaconess
Deaconess is a non-clerical order in some Christian denominations which sees to the care of women in the community. That word comes from a Greek word diakonos as well as deacon, which means a servant or helper and occurs frequently in the Christian New Testament of the Bible. Deaconesses trace...

krankenhaus
, connected to the Catholic and Protestant churches, respectively, offer central services, and the private Paracelsus-Klinik basic medical care, according to state hospital demand planning.

Economy

Germany's largest oil refinery
Oil refinery
An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas...

 is located in Karlsruhe, at the western edge of the city, directly on the river Rhine.

The Technologieregion Karlsruhe is a loose confederation of the region's cities in order to promote high tech industries; today, about 20% of the region's jobs are in Research and Development which gives a good basis for high tech.

Internet activities

Due to the University of Karlsruhe providing services until the late 1990, Karlsruhe became known as the internet capital of Germany. The DENIC
DENIC
DENIC Verwaltungs- und Betriebsgesellschaft eG is the manager of the .de domain, the country-code top-level domain for Germany.In 2005, it was one of five bidders seeking to win contract to operate the .net contract offered by ICANN.- Etymology :...

, Germany's Network Information Centre, has since moved to Frankfurt, though, where DE-CIX
DE-CIX
Deutscher Commercial Internet Exchange is an Internet Exchange Point situated in Frankfurt ....

 is located.

Two major internet service provider
Internet service provider
An Internet service provider is a company that provides access to the Internet. Access ISPs directly connect customers to the Internet using copper wires, wireless or fiber-optic connections. Hosting ISPs lease server space for smaller businesses and host other people servers...

s, WEB.DE and schlund+partner/1&1, now both owned by United Internet
United Internet
United Internet AG is a German Internet services company. With 2.91 million DSL customer contracts, it is a leading ISP in Germany. It is headquartered in Montabaur, Rhineland-Palatinate...

 AG, are located at Karlsruhe.

The is the biggest city wiki
City wiki
A city wiki is a wiki used as a knowledge base and social network for a specific geographical locale. The term 'city wiki' or its foreign language equivalent is sometimes also used for wikis that cover not just a city, but a small town or an entire region. A city wiki contains information about...

 in the world.

The library of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology is a German academic research and education institution with university status resulting from a merger of the university and the research center of the city of Karlsruhe. The university, also known as Fridericiana, was founded in 1825...

 developed the Karlsruher Virtueller Katalog
Karlsruher Virtueller Katalog
Karlsruher Virtueller Katalog is a book search engine administered by the library of the University of Karlsruhe. It searches a large number of catalogs of research libraries in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, as well as several important national libraries in other countries, and some large...

, the first internet site that allowed researchers worldwide (for free) to search multiple library catalogues worldwide.

In the year 2000 the regional online "newspaper" ka-news.de was created. As a daily news paper it's not only providing news, but informs also about upcoming and current events in Karlsruhe and the surrounding area.

Transport

The Verkehrsbetriebe Karlsruhe
Verkehrsbetriebe Karlsruhe
The Verkehrsbetriebe Karlsruhe , is the municipal transport company of the city of Karlsruhe in Germany. It runs the tram and bus network within the city, as well as the Turmbergbahn funicular railway....

 (VBK) operates the city's urban public transport network, comprising seven tram
Tram
A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

 routes and a network of bus routes. This network is well developed and all city areas can be reached 24/7 by tram and a night bus system. The Turmbergbahn
Turmbergbahn
The Turmbergbahn is a funicular railway in Karlsruhe in Germany. From Karlsruhe's former center Durlach, the line climbs the Turmberg, which on a clear day provides a lookout point with views of the River Rhine valley, the Palatinate forest and the adjacent parts of Alsace.The line first opened in...

 funicular railway
Funicular
A funicular, also known as an inclined plane or cliff railway, is a cable railway in which a cable attached to a pair of tram-like vehicles on rails moves them up and down a steep slope; the ascending and descending vehicles counterbalance each other.-Operation:The basic principle of funicular...

, to the east of the city centre, is operated by the VBK.

The VBK is also a partner, with the Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft
Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft
The Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft is a company, which is owned 100% by the city of Karlsruhe and operates rail and bus services in the Karlsruhe area....

 and Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn AG is the German national railway company, a private joint stock company . Headquartered in Berlin, it came into existence in 1994 as the successor to the former state railways of Germany, the Deutsche Bundesbahn of West Germany and the Deutsche Reichsbahn of East Germany...

, in the operation of the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn, the rail system that serves a larger area around the city. This system makes it possible to reach other towns in the region, like Ettlingen
Ettlingen
Ettlingen is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, about south of the city of Karlsruhe. Ettlingen is the second largest town in the district of Karlsruhe, after Bruchsal.-Geography:...

, Wörth am Rhein
Wörth am Rhein
Wörth am Rhein is a municipality in the southernmost part of the district of Germersheim, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is situated on the left bank of the Rhine, approx. 10 km west of the city center of Karlsruhe and just north of the German-French border....

, Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Pforzheim is a town of nearly 119,000 inhabitants in the state of Baden-Württemberg, southwest Germany at the gate to the Black Forest. It is world-famous for its jewelry and watch-making industry. Until 1565 it was the home to the Margraves of Baden. Because of that it gained the nickname...

, Bad Wildbad
Bad Wildbad
Bad Wildbad is a town in Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg. It is located in the government district of Karlsruhe and in the district of Calw. Its coordinates are 48° 45' N, 8° 33' E. About 11,250 people live there...

, Bretten
Bretten
Bretten is a town in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located on Bertha Benz Memorial Route.-Geography:Bretten lies in the centre of a rectangle that is formed by Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Heilbronn and Stuttgart as corners. It has a population of approximately 28,000. The centre of...

, Bruchsal
Bruchsal
Bruchsal is a city at the western edge of the Kraichgau, approximately 20 km northeast of Karlsruhe in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany...

, Heilbronn
Heilbronn
Heilbronn is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is completely surrounded by Heilbronn County and with approximately 123.000 residents, it is the sixth-largest city in the state....

, Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden is a spa town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located on the western foothills of the Black Forest, on the banks of the Oos River, in the region of Karlsruhe...

 and even Freudenstadt
Freudenstadt
Freudenstadt is a town in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. It is capital of the district Freudenstadt. The closest population centres are Offenburg to the west and Tübingen to the east ....

 in the Black Forest
Black Forest
The Black Forest is a wooded mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany. It is bordered by the Rhine valley to the west and south. The highest peak is the Feldberg with an elevation of 1,493 metres ....

 right from the city centre. The Stadtbahn is well known in transport circles around the world for pioneering the concept of operating trams on train tracks, to achieve a more effective and attractive public transport
Public transport
Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

 system, to the extent that this is often known as the Karlsruhe model
Karlsruhe model
The Karlsruhe model reflects urban and heavy rail trains running on the same tracks. It was initially developed and implemented in the city of Karlsruhe, Germany by the local transit authority, Karlsruher Verkehrsverbund. It provides a connection between the regular railway network and the city's...

 tram-train
Tram-train
A tram-train is a light-rail public transport system where trams run both on an urban tramway network and on main-line railways to combine the tram's flexibility and availability and the train's greater speed...

 system.

Karlsruhe is well-connected via road and rail, with Autobahn and InterCityExpress
InterCityExpress
The Intercity-Express or ICE is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and neighbouring countries. It is the highest service category offered by DB Fernverkehr and is the flagship of Deutsche Bahn...

 connections going to Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Frankfurt am Main , commonly known simply as Frankfurt, is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a 2010 population of 688,249. The urban area had an estimated population of 2,300,000 in 2010...

, Stuttgart
Stuttgart
Stuttgart is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 600,038 while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million ....

/Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

 and Freiburg
Freiburg
Freiburg im Breisgau is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. In the extreme south-west of the country, it straddles the Dreisam river, at the foot of the Schlossberg. Historically, the city has acted as the hub of the Breisgau region on the western edge of the Black Forest in the Upper Rhine Plain...

/Basel
Basel
Basel or Basle In the national languages of Switzerland the city is also known as Bâle , Basilea and Basilea is Switzerland's third most populous city with about 166,000 inhabitants. Located where the Swiss, French and German borders meet, Basel also has suburbs in France and Germany...

. Since June 2007 it has been connected to the TGV
TGV
The TGV is France's high-speed rail service, currently operated by SNCF Voyages, the long-distance rail branch of SNCF, the French national rail operator....

 network, reducing travel time to Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

 to only three hours (compared to 5 hours previously).

Two port
Port
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land....

s on the Rhine provide transport capacity on cargo ship
Cargo ship
A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's seas and oceans each year; they handle the bulk of international trade...

s, especially for petroleum products.

The nearest airport is part of the Baden Airpark
Baden Airpark
Baden Airpark , or officially Flughafen Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden, is an international airport located in Rheinmünster in the state of Baden-Württemberg in Germany, south of Karlsruhe, west of Baden-Baden and north of Strasbourg, France....

 (officially Flughafen Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden is a spa town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located on the western foothills of the Black Forest, on the banks of the Oos River, in the region of Karlsruhe...

) about 45 km (28 mi) southwest of Karlsruhe, with regular connections to airports in Germany and Europe in general. Frankfurt International Airport
Frankfurt International Airport
Frankfurt am Main Airport , or simply Frankfurt Airport, known in German as Flughafen Frankfurt am Main or Rhein-Main-Flughafen, is a major international airport located in Frankfurt, Germany, southwest of the city centre....

 can be reached in about an hour and a half by car (one hour by InterCityExpress
InterCityExpress
The Intercity-Express or ICE is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and neighbouring countries. It is the highest service category offered by DB Fernverkehr and is the flagship of Deutsche Bahn...

); Stuttgart Airport
Stuttgart Airport
Stuttgart Airport is an international airport located approximately south of Stuttgart, Germany....

 can be reached in about one hour (about an hour and a half by train and S-Bahn
S-Bahn
S-Bahn refers to an often combined city center and suburban railway system metro in Austria, Germany, Switzerland and Denmark...

).

Two interesting facts in transportation history are that both Karl Drais
Karl Drais
Karl Drais was a German inventor and invented the Laufmaschine , also later called the velocipede, draisine or "draisienne" , also nicknamed the dandy horse. This incorporated the two-wheeler principle that is basic to the bicycle and motorcycle and was the beginning of mechanized personal...

, the inventor of the bicycle
Bicycle
A bicycle, also known as a bike, pushbike or cycle, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A person who rides a bicycle is called a cyclist, or bicyclist....

, as well as Carl Benz, the inventor of the car
Čar
Čar is a village in the municipality of Bujanovac, Serbia. According to the 2002 census, the town has a population of 296 people.-References:...

 were born in Karlsruhe and that Benz also studied at the city’s university; and that Benz’s wife Bertha
Bertha Benz
Bertha Benz was born on 3 May 1849 in Pforzheim, Germany. She married inventor Karl Benz on 20 July 1872, and died 5 May 1944 in Ladenburg...

 took the world's first long distance-drive with a car from Mannheim
Mannheim
Mannheim is a city in southwestern Germany. With about 315,000 inhabitants, Mannheim is the second-largest city in the Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, following the capital city of Stuttgart....

 to Karlsruhe-Grötzingen and Pforzheim
Pforzheim
Pforzheim is a town of nearly 119,000 inhabitants in the state of Baden-Württemberg, southwest Germany at the gate to the Black Forest. It is world-famous for its jewelry and watch-making industry. Until 1565 it was the home to the Margraves of Baden. Because of that it gained the nickname...

 (see Bertha Benz Memorial Route
Bertha Benz Memorial Route
The Bertha Benz Memorial Route is a German tourist and theme route in Baden-Württemberg and member of the European Route of Industrial Heritage...

). Their professional lives led both men to the neighboring city of Mannheim, where they first applied their most famous inventions.

Historical population

Year Inhabitants
1719 2,000
1750 2,500
1815 >15,000
1901 100,000
1933 155,000
1973 264,249
2003 282,595
2007 288,917

Famous people

  • Dennis Aogo
    Dennis Aogo
    Dennis Aogo is a German footballer of Nigerian and German descent who plays as a defender or defensive midfielder for Hamburger SV and the German national team.-Early life:...

    , German football defender currently plays for Hamburger SV
    Hamburger SV
    Hamburger Sport-Verein, usually referred to as HSV in Germany and Hamburg in international parlance, is a German multi-sport club based in Hamburg, its largest branch being its football department...

  • Victoria of Baden
    Victoria of Baden
    Victoria of Baden was a Queen consort of Sweden by her marriage to King Gustaf V of Sweden. She was politically active in a conservative fashion during the development of democracy and known as a pro-German during the First World War.-Birth:Princess Viktoria was born on 7 August 1862 at the castle...

     (1862–1930), born in Karlsruhe, Queen consort of Sweden by her marriage to King Gustaf V of Sweden
    Gustaf V of Sweden
    Gustaf V was King of Sweden from 1907. He was the eldest son of King Oscar II of Sweden and Sophia of Nassau, a half-sister of Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg...

    .
  • Female Bodybuilding
    Female bodybuilding
    Female bodybuilding is the female component of competitive bodybuilding. It began in the late 1970s when women began to take part in bodybuilding competitions.-Beginnings:...

     legend Christa Bauch
    Christa Bauch
    Christa Bauch is a professional female bodybuilder from Germany.-Background:Born in Bad Schandau, East Germany, Bauch enjoyed music, riding and sprinting at school, before training as a masseuse and swimming pool medic...

     hails from Karlsruhe.
  • Hermann Billing
    Hermann Billing
    Hermann Billing was a German Art Nouveau architect and designer.He attended high school, Kunstgewerbeschule an architectural college, but completed none of them....

    , Art Nouveau architect, was born and lived in Karlsruhe and built his first famous works here.
  • Karoline von Günderrode
    Karoline von Günderrode
    Karoline Friederike Louise Maximiliane von Günderrode was a German poet, born in Karlsruhe. Her poems are commonly related to Romanticism....

    , a German poet, was born in Karlsruhe (1780–1806).
  • Karl Drais
    Karl Drais
    Karl Drais was a German inventor and invented the Laufmaschine , also later called the velocipede, draisine or "draisienne" , also nicknamed the dandy horse. This incorporated the two-wheeler principle that is basic to the bicycle and motorcycle and was the beginning of mechanized personal...

    , inventor of the two-wheeler principle basic to bicycle
    Bicycle
    A bicycle, also known as a bike, pushbike or cycle, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A person who rides a bicycle is called a cyclist, or bicyclist....

     and motorcycle
    Motorcycle
    A motorcycle is a single-track, two-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycles vary considerably depending on the task for which they are designed, such as long distance travel, navigating congested urban traffic, cruising, sport and racing, or off-road conditions.Motorcycles are one of the most...

    , key typewriter and earliest stenograph, was born and died in Karlsruhe (1785–1851)
  • Mühlburg
    Mühlburg
    Mühlburg, formerly a town on its own right, is a borough located in the West of Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.The name Mühlburg could be translated as Mill-castle and refers to a water mill and a water castle located at the site where a Roman road once crossed the small river...

    , since 1886 a borough of Karlsruhe, is the birthplace of Karl Benz
    Karl Benz
    Karl Friedrich Benz, was a German engine designer and car engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the gasoline-powered car, and together with Bertha Benz pioneering founder of the automobile manufacturer Mercedes-Benz...

     (1844–1929), inventor of the automobile
    Automobile
    An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

     and founder of Benz & Co., now part of Daimler AG (formerly Daimler-Benz
    Daimler-Benz
    Daimler-Benz AG was a German manufacturer of automobiles, motor vehicles, and internal combustion engines; founded in 1926. An Agreement of Mutual Interest - which was valid until year 2000 - was signed on 1 May 1924 between Karl Benz's Benz & Cie., and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft, which had...

    )
  • Walther Bensemann
    Walther Bensemann
    Walther Bensemann was a German pioneer of football and founder of the country's major sports publication, Kicker....

     is one of the founders of the first southern German soccer club Karlsruher FV
    Karlsruher FV
    Karlsruher FV is a German association football club that plays in Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg. Established on 17 November 1891, KFV was a founding member of the German Football Association in 1900. The team went on to capture the national championship in 1910 with a 1–0 victory over Holstein Kiel...

     and later he became one of the founders of DFB
    German Football Association
    The German Football Association is the governing body of football in Germany. A founding member of both FIFA and UEFA, the DFB organises the German football leagues, including the national league, the Bundesliga, and the men's and women's national teams. The DFB is based in Frankfurt and is...

     and the founder of Kicker
    Kicker (sports magazine)
    kicker Sportmagazin is Germany's leading sports magazine and is focused primarily on football. The magazine was founded in 1920 by German football pioneer Walther Bensemann and is published twice a week, usually Monday and Thursday, in Nuremberg...

    , which still is Germanys leading soccer magazine.
  • Oliver Bierhoff
    Oliver Bierhoff
    Oliver Bierhoff is a retired German former football striker, who scored the first golden goal in the history of major international football, for Germany in the Euro 96 final...

    , retired German football striker and former national team captain for the Germany
    Germany national football team
    The Germany national football team is the football team that has represented Germany in international competition since 1908. It is governed by the German Football Association , which was founded in 1900....

     and Italian Serie A clubs Udinese
    Udinese Calcio
    Udinese Calcio is an Italian football club based in Udine, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, and currently plays in the Serie A. Founded in 1896, Udinese is the second oldest club in the Serie A, after Genoa....

    , A.C. Milan
    A.C. Milan
    Associazione Calcio Milan, commonly referred to as A.C. Milan or simply Milan , is a professional Italian football club based in Milan, Lombardy, that plays in the Serie A. Milan was founded in 1899 by English lace-maker Herbert Kilpin and businessman Alfred Edwards among others...

     and Chievo; currently working as the German national team manager
  • Siegfried Buback
    Siegfried Buback
    Siegfried Buback was the Attorney General of Germany from 1974-1977.Buback studied at the University of Leipzig. From 1940 to 1945 he was a member of the Nazi Party. From 1945 to 1947 he was a POW...

     then Attorney General of Germany
    Attorney General of Germany
    The Attorney General of Germany is the federal prosecutor of Germany, representing the federal government at the Bundesgerichtshof, the federal court of justice. The office of the Attorney General is located in Karlsruhe. Besides its role in appellate cases, the Attorney General has primary...

     fell victim to terrorists of the Rote Armee Fraktion in April 1977.
  • Andi Deris
    Andi Deris
    Andreas "Andi" Deris is the vocalist and the main songwriter for power metal band Helloween, and co-founder and former lead singer of German melodic metal band Pink Cream 69...

    , lead singer of the power metal
    Power metal
    Power metal is a style of heavy metal combining characteristics of traditional metal with speed metal, often within symphonic context. The term refers to two different but related styles: the first pioneered and largely practiced in North America with a harder sound similar to speed metal, and a...

     band Helloween
    Helloween
    Helloween is a German power metal band founded in the mid 1980s by members of Iron Fist and Powerfool. The band was a pioneering force in the European Power Metal movement and their second and third studio albums, Keeper of the Seven Keys, Pt...

    , was born in Karlsruhe.
  • Theodor von Dusch
    Theodor von Dusch
    Theodor von Dusch was a German physician who was the native of Karlsruhe. He was the son of Baden statesman Alexander von Dusch ....

     (1824–1890), physician remembered for experiments involving cotton-wool filters for bacteria.
  • Obergruppenführer SS Hans Frank
    Hans Frank
    Hans Michael Frank was a German lawyer who worked for the Nazi party during the 1920s and 1930s and later became a high-ranking official in Nazi Germany...

     (1900–1946), Gauleiter
    Gauleiter
    A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau.-Creation and Early Usage:...

     and governor general of Nazi occupied Poland
  • Reinhold Frank
    Reinhold Frank
    Reinhold Frank was a German lawyer. He did work for the resistance to Hitler's rule in Nazi Germany. He was sentenced to death in connection with the failed July 20 Plot.-Life:...

    , a German lawyer who worked for the resistance
    German Resistance
    The German resistance was the opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to Adolf Hitler or the National Socialist regime between 1933 and 1945. Some of these engaged in active plans to remove Adolf Hitler from power and overthrow his regime...

     in Nazi Germany, ran a law practice in Karlsruhe. In his honour the street in Karlsruhe where the lawyers´chambers was founded bears his name.
  • Gottfried Fuchs
    Gottfried Fuchs
    Gottfried Fuchs was a German footballer. A German Jew, he fled Germany because of The Holocaust and emigrated to Canada...

     was born in Karlsruhe and holds the record of 10 goals in one single international soccer match for the German national team.
  • Regina Halmich
    Regina Halmich
    Regina Halmich is a popular female boxer from Germany. Halmich is among the most successful female boxers of all time, and helped popularize female boxing in Europe.-Amateur career:...

    , the current female boxing flyweight world champion, is a native of Karlsruhe, too.
  • Johann Peter Hebel
    Johann Peter Hebel
    Johann Peter Hebel was a German short story writer and dialectal poet, most famous for his collection of alemannic tales Schatzkästlein des rheinischen Hausfreundes .-Life:...

    , writer and poet, lived in Karlsruhe for most of his life.
  • In the late 1880s, professor Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
    Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
    Heinrich Rudolf Hertz was a German physicist who clarified and expanded the electromagnetic theory of light that had been put forth by Maxwell...

     discovered electromagnetic waves at the University of Karlsruhe; today, a lecture room named after Hertz lies close by the very spot where the discovery was made.
  • Friedrich Hund
    Friedrich Hund
    Friedrich Hermann Hund was a German physicist from Karlsruhe known for his work on atoms and molecules.Hund worked at the Universities of Rostock, Leipzig, Jena, Frankfurt am Main, and Göttingen....

     a physicist of the pioneering generation of quantum mechanics
    Quantum mechanics
    Quantum mechanics, also known as quantum physics or quantum theory, is a branch of physics providing a mathematical description of much of the dual particle-like and wave-like behavior and interactions of energy and matter. It departs from classical mechanics primarily at the atomic and subatomic...

     (see Hund's rules) was born here.
  • Oliver Kahn
    Oliver Kahn
    Oliver Rolf Kahn is a former German football goalkeeper. He started his career in the Karlsruher SC Junior team. He had his debut game in the professional squad in 1987...

    , retired goalkeeper of Bayern Munich and Germany
    Germany national football team
    The Germany national football team is the football team that has represented Germany in international competition since 1908. It is governed by the German Football Association , which was founded in 1900....

     was also born in this city, in 1969.
  • Sebastian Koch
    Sebastian Koch
    -Life and career:Koch was born in Karlsruhe and grew up in Stuttgart. His mother raised him alone, and he spent some time in the children's home where she worked...

     was born May 31, 1962 in Karlsruhe. He is a German actor.
  • Gustav Landauer
    Gustav Landauer
    Gustav Landauer was one of the leading theorists on anarchism in Germany in the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. He was an advocate of communist anarchism and an avowed pacifist. Landauer is also known for his study and translations of William Shakespeare's works into German...

    , one of the leading theorists of anarchism
    Anarchism
    Anarchism is generally defined as the political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful, or alternatively as opposing authority in the conduct of human relations...

     in Germany, was born in Karlsruhe.
  • Renate Lingor
    Renate Lingor
    Renate Lingor is a retired female German international football player.-Club career:Lingor began her career in 1981 with SV Blankenloch at the age of six, in 1983 she joined the youth team of Karlsruher SC. Aged 14 she signed with SC Klinge Seckach where she started her professional career in...

    , Former German National Football player.
  • Vincenzo Italiano
    Vincenzo Italiano
    Vincenzo Italiano is an Italian football player who is currently a midfielder for Padova of Serie B...

    , Italian footballer currently plays for Calcio Padova
    Calcio Padova
    Calcio Padova is an Italian football club, based in Padua, Veneto. The club was founded in 1910. Padova is playing in Serie B, having last been in Serie A in 1996...

  • Markus Lüpertz
    Markus Lüpertz
    Markus Lüpertz is a contemporary German painter and sculptor.In the 1960s, Lüpertz worked primarily in Berlin, moving on to take a professorship at Karlsruhe at the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe in the 1970s, then to Düsseldorf where he was for over twenty years director of the Kunstakademie...

     worked and lives in Karlsruhe. He has created the “Narrenbrunnen” (Fool's Fountain) in the city center.
  • Composer Wolfgang Rihm
    Wolfgang Rihm
    Wolfgang Rihm is a German composer.Rihm is Head of the Institute of Modern Music at the Karlsruhe Conservatory of Music and has been composer in residence at the Lucerne Festival and the Salzburg Festival...

     is a resident of Karlsruhe
  • In 1886, Joseph Viktor von Scheffel
    Joseph Viktor von Scheffel
    Joseph Victor von Scheffel was a German poet and novelist.-Biography:He was born at Karlsruhe. His father, a retired major in the Baden army, was a civil engineer and member of the commission for regulating the course of the Rhine; his mother, née Josephine Krederer, the daughter of a prosperous...

    , a German poet and novelist, was born in Karlsruhe.
  • Peter Sloterdijk
    Peter Sloterdijk
    Peter Sloterdijk is a German philosopher, television host, cultural scientist and essayist. He is a professor of philosophy and media theory at the University of Art and Design Karlsruhe. He currently co-hosts the German show Im Glashaus: Das Philosophische Quartett.-Biography:Sloterdijk's father...

    , philosopher and current president of the State Academy of Design
  • Mehmet Scholl
    Mehmet Scholl
    Mehmet Scholl is a former German football player with Turkish-German ancestry. He played most of his career as an attacking midfielder for Bayern Munich...

    , retired footballer for Bayern and the German national team
  • Muhammed Suiçmez
    Muhammed Suiçmez
    Muhammed Suiçmez is a German-Turkish guitarist and the frontman of the technical death metal band Necrophagist.-Biography:Muhammed Suiçmez was born in Karlsruhe to Turkish Muslim immigrants. Around the age of 10 he began listening to death metal, and took up an interest in music.At the age of 14,...

    , guitarist and composer for German
    Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

     technical death metal
    Technical death metal
    Technical death metal is a musical subgenre of death metal that focuses on complex rhythms, riffs and song structures. Technical experimentation in death metal began in the late '80s and early '90s by bands such as Death, Atheist and Cynic...

     band Necrophagist
    Necrophagist
    Necrophagist is a German death metal band, founded and fronted by Muhammed Suiçmez; a German-born, Turkish guitarist and vocalist. The band is known for its rapid and technical compositions....

     was born in Karlsruhe on November 23, 1975.
  • Johann Gottfried Tulla
    Johann Gottfried Tulla
    Johann Gottfried Tulla was a German engineer, who in the nineteenth century accomplished the straightening of the Rhine, improving navigation and alleviating the effects of flooding. His measures gave the upper Rhine a completely new appearance...

    , born on March 20, 1770 in Karlsruhe and died on March 27, 1828 in Paris. Tulla studied engineering at the Mining Academy in Freiberg
    Freiberg, Saxony
    Freiberg is a city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, administrative center of the Mittelsachsen district.-History:The city was founded in 1186, and has been a center of the mining industry in the Ore Mountains for centuries...

     (Saxony) during the 1790s. From 1817 on, Tulla was instrumental in stabilizing and straightening the course of the southern Rhine River, a project that continued until 1879. Tulla was also a co-founder of the Technical University in Karlsruhe (1825).
  • Friedrich Weinbrenner
    Friedrich Weinbrenner
    Friedrich Weinbrenner was a German architect and city planner admired for his mastery of classical style.- Birth and education :...

    , (1766-1826) a German architect of Neoclassicism. His tomb is situated in the main Protestant church in Karlsruhe.
  • Eugene Weingand (1934-1986), actor and TV host, who claimed to be Peter Lorre
    Peter Lorre
    Peter Lorre was an Austrian-American actor frequently typecast as a sinister foreigner.He caused an international sensation in 1931 with his portrayal of a serial killer who preys on little girls in the German film M...

     Jr.
  • Herbert Wetterauer
    Herbert Wetterauer
    Herbert Wetterauer is a German painter, sculptor and author. He is known for his drawings with paintbrushes and life-sized figures made of paperboard, for which he developed his own technique....

    , an author and artist, was born in Karlsruhe in 1957.

Education

Karlsruhe is a renowned research and study centre, with one of Germany's finest institutions of higher education, namely, the Karlsruhe University (Universität Karlsruhe-TH) — the oldest technical university in Germany.

Karlsruhe is also the home of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Research Center Karlsruhe), at which engineering and scientific research is performed in the areas of health, earth and environmental sciences, and Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences
Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences
The Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences is an University of Applied Sciences in Karlsruhe. It is the largest university of applied sciences in the State of Baden-Württemberg offering both academic and professional higher education study programmes in engineering sciences, natural sciences,...

 (Hochschule Karlsruhe-HS), the largest university of technology in the State of Baden-Württemberg, offering both professional and academic education in engineering sciences and business.

On 1 October 2009 the University of Karlsruhe was joined with the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe to form a new institution, the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology is a German academic research and education institution with university status resulting from a merger of the university and the research center of the city of Karlsruhe. The university, also known as Fridericiana, was founded in 1825...

.

The State Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe is one of the smallest Universities in Germany with average 300 students, but it is known as one of the most significant Academies of Fine Arts, maybe as one of the most excellent too, because of always having professors with international reputation.

The Karlsruhe University of Arts and Design
Karlsruhe University of Arts and Design
The Staatliche Hochschule für Gestaltung Karlsruhe is a Germany university founded in 1992 by Professor Heinrich Klotz, who also founded its sister institution, the Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe...

 (HfG) was founded to the same time as its sister institution, the Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie). The HfG teaching and research focuses on new media
New media
New media is a broad term in media studies that emerged in the latter part of the 20th century. For example, new media holds out a possibility of on-demand access to content any time, anywhere, on any digital device, as well as interactive user feedback, creative participation and community...

 and media art.

The Hochschule für Musik Karlsruhe
Hochschule für Musik Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe's University of Music is a college of music in Karlsruhe, Germany.-Studies:The Hochschule für Musik Karlsruhe offers tuition in voice, orchestral instruments, piano, composition and music journalism. The academic degrees go from Bachelors to Artists Diplomas.- External links:*...

 is a music conservatory which offers degrees in composition, music performance, education and radio journalism. Since 1989 it is located in the Gottesaue Palace (see picture).

The Karlshochschule International University (formerly known as Merkur Internationale Fachhochschule) was founded in 2004. As a foundation owned state approved Management School Karlshochschule offers Undergraduate education
Undergraduate education
Undergraduate education is an education level taken prior to gaining a first degree . Hence, in many subjects in many educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a bachelor's degree, such as in the United States, where a university entry level is...

 both in German and English focussing on international and Intercultural Management
Management
Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively...

 as well as service- and culture-related industries. Furthermore an international consecutive Master of Arts (postgraduate)
Master of Arts (postgraduate)
A Master of Arts from the Latin Magister Artium, is a type of Master's degree awarded by universities in many countries. The M.A. is usually contrasted with the M.S. or M.Sc. degrees...

 in Leadership studies
Leadership studies
Leadership studies is a multidisciplinary academic field of study that focuses on leadership in organizational contexts and in human life. Leadership studies has origins in the social sciences , in humanities , as well as in professional and applied fields of study...

 (English) is offered.

Knowledge and Innovation Community EIT

Karlsruhe is one of co-location centres of Knowledge and Innovation Community (Sustainable Energy) of The European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT)

Co-location centres—KIC Inno Energy:

CC Germany: Karlsruhe, CC Alps Valleys: Grenoble
Grenoble
Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. Located in the Rhône-Alpes region, Grenoble is the capital of the department of Isère...

, CC Benelux: Eindhoven / Leuven
Leuven
Leuven is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in the Flemish Region, Belgium...

, CC
Iberia: Barcelona
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

, CC PolandPlus: Kraków
Kraków
Kraków also Krakow, or Cracow , is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life...

, CC Sweden: Stockholm
Stockholm
Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...



InnoEnergy is a strongly integrated alliance of reputable players from the education, research and
industry sectors. It was created based on long standing links of cooperation as well as the principles
of excellence and transformation. The partners have jointly developed a strategy to tackle the
weaknesses of the European innovation landscape and aim to be the leading motor for innovation in
the field of sustainable energy.The KIC will create economical and societal value by developing ideas from mind to market.

Culture

In 1999 the ZKM (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie, Centre for Art and Media) was opened. Within a short time it built up a worldwide reputation as a cultural institution. Linking new media theory and practice, the ZKM is located in a former weapons factory. Among the institutes related to the ZKM are the Staatliche Hochschule für Gestaltung (State University of Design), whose president is philosopher Peter Sloterdijk
Peter Sloterdijk
Peter Sloterdijk is a German philosopher, television host, cultural scientist and essayist. He is a professor of philosophy and media theory at the University of Art and Design Karlsruhe. He currently co-hosts the German show Im Glashaus: Das Philosophische Quartett.-Biography:Sloterdijk's father...

 and the Museum for Contemporary Art.

Twin towns / Sister cities

Karlsruhe is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with: Nottingham
Nottingham
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority in the East Midlands of England. It is located in the ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire and represents one of eight members of the English Core Cities Group...

, England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 Nancy, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 Krasnodar
Krasnodar
Krasnodar is a city in Southern Russia, located on the Kuban River about northeast of the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk. It is the administrative center of Krasnodar Krai . Population: -Name:...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 Timişoara
Timisoara
Timișoara is the capital city of Timiș County, in western Romania. One of the largest Romanian cities, with an estimated population of 311,586 inhabitants , and considered the informal capital city of the historical region of Banat, Timișoara is the main social, economic and cultural center in the...

, Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

 Halle
Halle, Saxony-Anhalt
Halle is the largest city in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. It is also called Halle an der Saale in order to distinguish it from the town of Halle in North Rhine-Westphalia...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...



Events

Every year in July there is a huge free open air festival lasting three days called Das Fest ("The Festival").

The Baden State Theatre has sponsored the Händel
HANDEL
HANDEL was the code-name for the UK's National Attack Warning System in the Cold War. It consisted of a small console consisting of two microphones, lights and gauges. The reason behind this was to provide a back-up if anything failed....

 festival
since 1978.

The city hosted the 23rd and 31st European Juggling Convention
European Juggling Convention
The European Juggling Convention , is the largest juggling convention in the world, regularly attracting several thousand participants. It is held every year in a different European city. It is organized by changing local organization committees which are supported by the European Juggling...

s (EJC) in 2000 and 2008.

In July the African Summer Festival is held in the city's Nordstadt. Markets. Drumming workshops, exhibitions, a varied children's programme and musical performances take place during the three days festival.

In the past Karlsruhe has been the host of LinuxTag
LinuxTag
LinuxTag is a Free Software expo with an emphasis on Linux , held every summer in Germany. It is relatively large, claiming that it is the largest expo of this kind in Europe, drawing visitors from many countries....

 (the biggest Linux event in Europe) and until 2006 hosted the annual Linux Audio Conference.

Visitors and locals watched the total solar eclipse
Solar eclipse
As seen from the Earth, a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth, and the Moon fully or partially blocks the Sun as viewed from a location on Earth. This can happen only during a new moon, when the Sun and the Moon are in conjunction as seen from Earth. At least...

 at noon on August 11, 1999. The city was not only located within the eclipse path but was one of the few within Germany not plagued by bad weather.

Sport

Football (Soccer)
Karlsruher SC
Karlsruher SC
Karlsruher SC is a German association football club, based in Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg. KSC rose out of the consolidation of a number of predecessor clubs. They currently play in the 2...

 (KSC), Bundesliga
Fußball-Bundesliga
The Fußball-Bundesliga is a professional association football league in Germany. At the top of Germany's football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. It is contested by 18 teams and operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the 2. Bundesliga...

 (second division)

Basketball
BG Karlsruhe
BG Karlsruhe
BG Karlsruhe is a basketball club based in Karlsruhe, Germany that plays in the 2nd Basketball Bundesliga-Pro A. Their home arena is Europahalle.It plays in the 2nd German basketball league ....

, Basketball-Pro-Liga A (second division)

Tennis
TC Rueppurr (TCR), [Tennis-Bundesliga] (women's first division)

Baseball and Softball
Karlsruhe Cougars, Regional League South-East (men's baseball), 1st Bundesliga South (women's softball I) and State League South (women's softball II)

American Football
Badener Greifs
Badener Greifs
The Badener Greifs are an American football club from Karlsruhe, Germany.The clubs greatest success came in 1987, when it reached the German Bowl but lost to the Berlin Adler.-History:The club was formed in 1982 by a group of motor cycle enthusiasts....

, currently competing in the Regional League Central but formerly a member of the GFL's 1st Bundesliga, lost to the Berlin Adler
Berlin Adler
The Berlin Adler is an American football club based in Berlin, Germany. The club is one of the most successful clubs in the sport in Germany, having won six German Bowls as well as a ten Ladies Bowls and five Junior Bowls....

 in the 1987 German Bowl
German Bowl
The German Bowl is the annual national championship game in the sport of American football in Germany. It is contested by the two best teams of the German Football League....

 (see also: German Football League
German Football League
The German Football League is the elite league for American football in Germany. Playing rules are based on those of the American NCAA....

)

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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