Flag of Texas
The Flag
A flag is a piece of fabric with a distinctive design that is usually rectangular and used as a symbol, as a signaling device, or decoration. The term flag is also used to refer to the graphic design employed by a flag, or to its depiction in another medium.The first flags were used to assist...

 of the State of Texas
is defined by law as follows:
The Texas flag is known as the "Lone Star Flag" (giving rise to the state's nickname "The Lone Star State"). This flag was introduced to the Congress of the Republic of Texas
Republic of Texas
The Republic of Texas was an independent nation in North America, bordering the United States and Mexico, that existed from 1836 to 1846.Formed as a break-away republic from Mexico by the Texas Revolution, the state claimed borders that encompassed an area that included all of the present U.S...

 on December 28, 1838, by Senator William H. Wharton
William H. Wharton
William Harris Wharton was an early colonist, political leader and orator in Texas.Wharton was born in Virginia and was raised by an uncle following the deaths of his parents. He graduated from the University of Nashville and was admitted to the Tennessee bar in 1826...

. It was adopted on January 25, 1839 as the final national flag
National flag
A national flag is a flag that symbolizes a country. The flag is flown by the government, but usually can also be flown by citizens of the country.Both public and private buildings such as schools and courthouses may fly the national flag...

 of the Republic of Texas.

Montgomery county
Montgomery County, Texas
Montgomery County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas within the Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown metropolitan area. The county was created by an act of the Congress of the Republic of Texas on December 14, 1837. The county was named for the town of Montgomery, Texas. In 2000, its...

 is officially the birthplace of the Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

 flag. The actual design of the Lone Star Flag remained a mystery until the Texas House of Representatives
Texas House of Representatives
The Texas House of Representatives is the lower house of the Texas Legislature. The House is composed of 150 members elected from single-member districts across the state. The average district has about 150,000 people. Representatives are elected to two-year terms with no term limits...

 passed House Resolution 1123 in 1997 commemorating Montgomery County as the flag's official birthplace.http://texasheritagesociety.org/House-Resolution-No.-1123.html Dr. Charles B. Stewart
Charles B. Stewart
Charles Bellinger Tate Stewart was an American-born pharmacist, doctor, and political leader in the Republic of Texas. He was born in Charleston, South Carolina but moved to Texas in 1830. Charles B. Stewart was a delegate from the Municipality of Austin to the Convention of 1836 where he signed...

 is credited with creating the inspirational banner of the State of Texas.

When Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

 became the 28th state of the Union
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 on December 29, 1845, its national flag became the state flag
Flags of the U.S. states
The flags of the U.S. states exhibit a wide variety of regional influences and local histories, as well as widely different styles and design principles. Modern state flags date from the 1890s when states wanted to have distinctive symbols at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago...

. While the Lone Star remained the de facto
De facto
De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

 state flag, from 1879 until 1933 there was no official state flag. All statutes not explicitly renewed were repealed under the Revised Civil Statutes of 1879, and since the statutes pertaining to the flag were not among those renewed, Texas was formally flagless until the passage of the 1933 Texas Flag Code. The official Pantone
Pantone Inc. is a corporation headquartered in Carlstadt, New Jersey, USA. The company is best known for its Pantone Matching System , a proprietary color space...

 shades for the Texas flag are 193 (red) and 281 (dark blue). The flag, flown at homes and businesses statewide, is highly popular among Texans and is treated with a great degree of reverence and esteem within Texas.


The exact shades of red, white, and blue to be used in the flag are specified by Texas statute to be the same as those of the Flag of the United States
Flag of the United States
The national flag of the United States of America consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red alternating with white, with a blue rectangle in the canton bearing fifty small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars alternating with rows...

, which are as follows:
Color Cable color
Cable colors
The Standard Color Reference of America is a book of reference fabric swatches of different colors produced by The Color Association of the United States , each color specified by “cable number”...

Pantone Inc. is a corporation headquartered in Carlstadt, New Jersey, USA. The company is best known for its Pantone Matching System , a proprietary color space...

Web Color
Web colors
Web colors are colors used in designing web pages, and the methods for describing and specifying those colors. Hexadecimal color codes begin with a hash ....

RGB Values
Dark Red 70180 193 C #BF0A30 (191,10,48)
White 70001 Safe #FFFFFF (255,255,255)
Navy Blue 70075 281 C #002868 (0,40,104)


The Texas Flag Code assigns the following symbol
A symbol is something which represents an idea, a physical entity or a process but is distinct from it. The purpose of a symbol is to communicate meaning. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a picture of a tent might represent a campsite. Numerals are symbols for...

ism to the colors of the Texas flag: blue stands for loyalty, white for purity, and red for bravery. The code also states that single (lone) star "represents ALL of Texas and stands for our unity as one for God, State, and Country." The "lone star" is, in fact, an older symbol predating the flag which was used to symbolize Texans' solidarity in declaring independence from Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

. It is still seen today as a symbol of Texas' independent spirit, and gave rise to the state's official nickname "The Lone Star State".

The idea of the single red stripe and single white stripe actually dates back to the short-lived Republic of Fredonia, a small state near modern Nacogdoches
Nacogdoches, Texas
Nacogdoches is a city in Nacogdoches County, Texas, in the United States. The 2010 census recorded the city's population to be 32,996. It is the county seat of Nacogdoches County and is situated in East Texas. Nacogdoches is a sister city of Natchitoches, Louisiana.Nacogdoches is the home of...

 which seceded from Mexico in 1826 before being forcibly re-integrated. The new state was formed through an alliance between local Anglo
English American
English Americans are citizens or residents of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England....

 settlers and Native American
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, their descendants and other ethnic groups who are identified with those peoples. Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, and in the United States as Native Americans...

 tribes and the Fredonian flag used a white and red stripe to symbolize the two ethnic/racial groups from which the state was formed. Though this rebellion ultimately failed it served as an inspiration to the later Texas Revolution
Texas Revolution
The Texas Revolution or Texas War of Independence was an armed conflict between Mexico and settlers in the Texas portion of the Mexican state Coahuila y Tejas. The war lasted from October 2, 1835 to April 21, 1836...


Revolutionary Flags

During the Texas Revolution
Texas Revolution
The Texas Revolution or Texas War of Independence was an armed conflict between Mexico and settlers in the Texas portion of the Mexican state Coahuila y Tejas. The war lasted from October 2, 1835 to April 21, 1836...

, a great number and variety of flags appeared. Some of the most well-known are listed:

The Lone Star And Stripes

This flag was widely used by both Texan land and Naval forces. This flag was simply the United States Flag with a lone star in the canton. This flag echoes an earlier design, carried by the forces of James Long
James Long
James Long may refer to:* James Long , filibuster in Spanish and Mexican Texas* James E. Long, current North Carolina Commissioner of Insurance* James Long , Australian Senator...

 in a failed 1818 attempt to separate Texas from Spanish control. This earlier flag was exactly the same, save for the canton having a red background rather than blue. There is evidence that the Lone Star and Stripes was used at the battles of Goliad, the Alamo, and San Jacinto. Although interim President David Burnet issued a decree making the Lone Star and Stripes the first official flag of the Republic of Texas, it never became the legal national flag. It did remain the naval flag of Texas until annexation, and was noted for being "beneficial to our [Texan] Navy and Merchantmen" due to its resemblance to the US flag. Despite its unofficial status, the flag remained well known inside the region and internationally as the symbol of Texas. The official blue and gold "Burnett Flag", on the other hand, was little known by Texans, and no contemporary illustrations of it have been discovered. An 1837 chart of national flags printed in Philadelphia showed the Lone Star and Stripes as the national flag of Texas, and Texas Senator Oliver Jones, who led the 1839 committee which approved the Lone Star Flag, was unaware that the Lone Star and Stripes was not the current official flag. Later, prior to the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

, this flag was carried by Florida Militia in Pensacola during the seizure of Federal property in that city.

The Come And Take It Flag

This flag was created by the people of Gonzales, featuring the phrase, a black five pointed star, and the image of the town cannon Mexican forces had demanded they turn over. In March 1831, Juan Gomez, a Lieutenant in the Mexican Army, granted a small cannon to the colony of San Antonio. The small bronze cannon was received by the colony and signed for by Randy Tumlinson. It was then transported to Gonzales, Texas and later was the object of Texas pride. At the minor skirmish known as the Battle of Gonzales
Battle of Gonzales
The Battle of Gonzales was the first military engagement of the Texas Revolution. It was fought near Gonzales, Texas, on October 2, 1835, between rebellious Texian settlers and a detachment of Mexican army troops....

, a small group of Texans successfully resisted the Mexican forces who had orders to seize their cannon. As a symbol of defiance, the Texans had fashioned a flag containing the phrase along with a black star and an image of the cannon which they had received six years earlier from Mexican officials.

The Alamo Flag

This flag was created by replacing the Eagle in the center of the Mexican tricolor with the year "1824", referencing the 1824 Constitution of Mexico
1824 Constitution of Mexico
The Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1824 was enacted on October 4 of 1824, after the overthrow of the Mexican Empire of Agustin de Iturbide. In the new constitution, the republic took the name of United Mexican States, and was defined as a representative federal republic, with...

, in support of which Texas was fighting. This was the first flag approved for use by rebel forces by a Texan legislative body. In 1835, the Texan provisional government approved the use of this flag for privateers preying on Mexican commerce.

It has often been said that the 1824 flag was flown by Texan forces at the Battle of the Alamo
Battle of the Alamo
The Battle of the Alamo was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna launched an assault on the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar . All but two of the Texian defenders were killed...

. However, this was never alleged until 1860, long after the battle had occurred. Modern writers have pointed out that the presence of the 1824 flag at the time and place of the battle is highly unlikely. A similar flag was flown at least briefly by Texan Tejano forces, featuring two black, six pointed stars in place of the date. It is likely that the actual "Alamo flag" referred to by accounts of the time was the Lone Star and Stripes, which had been depicted in use at earlier battles such as Goliad, and was widely referred to as the "Texian
Texian is an archaic, mostly defunct 19th century demonym which defined a settler of current-day Texas, one of the southern states of the United States of America which borders the country of Mexico...


The Dodson Tricolor

This flag was designed and sewn by a Mrs. Sarah Dodson during the Revolution. It resembled the flag of Revolutionary France, but with longer proportions and the Texan Lone Star in the canton. Stephen F. Austin
Stephen F. Austin
Stephen Fuller Austin was born in Virginia and raised in southeastern Missouri. He was known as the Father of Texas, led the second, but first legal and ultimately successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States. The capital of Texas, Austin in Travis County,...

 was initially so alarmed by the obvious symbolism that he requested the flag not be used, but it nevertheless flew over Texan forces in Cibolo Creek
Cibolo Creek
Cibolo Creek is a stream in South Central Texas, United States that runs approximately from its source at Turkey Knob near Boerne, Texas, to its confluence with the San Antonio River in Karnes County...

, and may have been the first Texan flag raised over San Antonio. The flag was one of two that flew over the small cabin in which Texas delegates ratified their declaration of independence.

The Burnet Flag

The Burnet
David G. Burnet
David Gouverneur Burnet was an early politician within the Republic of Texas, serving as interim President of Texas , second Vice President of the Republic of Texas , and Secretary of State for the new state of Texas after it was annexed to the United States of America.Burnet was born in Newark,...

 Flag was adopted by the Texan Congress on December 10, 1836. It consisted of an azure background with a large golden star, inspired by the 1810 "Bonnie Blue Flag
Bonnie Blue Flag
The Bonnie Blue Flag, a single white star on a blue field, was the flag of the short-lived Republic of West Florida. Decades later, during the Civil War, it became an unofficial banner of the Confederacy, inspiring the song "The Bonnie Blue Flag," which was often sung by Southern troops.The flag...

" of the Republic of West Florida.

Variants of the Burnet Flag with a white star, virtually identical to the Bonnie Blue Flag, were also common. Other variants featured the star (of either color) upside down, and/or ringed with the word TEXAS, with each letter filling one of the gaps of the star.

Pledge of allegiance

The pledge of allegiance to the state flag is as follows:

The pledge was instituted by the Texas Legislature in 1933, and originally referred to the "Texas flag of 1836" (which was the Burnet Flag, and not the Lone Star Flag then in use). In 1965, the error was corrected by deleting the words "of 1836". In 2007, the phrase "one state under God" was added. The addition of "under God" has been challenged in court, though an injunction was denied.

Independence flags

Through the times, there have been several flags used in support of the independence of Texas, both originally in the fight against Mexico, again during the Civil War, and now today. Most are based around the Bonnie Blue and Lone Star designs.

Urban legend

It is a common urban legend
Urban legend
An urban legend, urban myth, urban tale, or contemporary legend, is a form of modern folklore consisting of stories that may or may not have been believed by their tellers to be true...

 that the Texas flag is the only state flag that is allowed to fly at the same height as the U.S. flag
Flag of the United States
The national flag of the United States of America consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red alternating with white, with a blue rectangle in the canton bearing fifty small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars alternating with rows...

. Allegedly, Texas has this right inherently (as a former independent nation) or because it negotiated special provisions when it joined the Union (this version has been stated as fact on a PBS website). However, the legend is false. Neither the Joint Resolution
Joint resolution
In the United States Congress, a joint resolution is a legislative measure that requires approval by the Senate and the House and is presented to the President for his/her approval or disapproval, in exactly the same case as a bill....

 for Annexing Texas
Texas Annexation
In 1845, United States of America annexed the Republic of Texas and admitted it to the Union as the 28th state. The U.S. thus inherited Texas's border dispute with Mexico; this quickly led to the Mexican-American War, during which the U.S. captured additional territory , extending the nation's...

 to the United States nor the Ordinance of Annexation contain any provisions regarding flags. According to the United States Flag Code
United States Flag Code
The United States Flag Code establishes advisory rules for display and care of the flag of the United States. It is Chapter 1 of Title 4 of the United States Code . This is a U.S. federal law, but there is no penalty for failure to comply with it and it is not widely enforced—indeed, the U.S...

, any state flag can be flown at the same height as the U.S. flag; the U.S. flag should be on its right (the viewer's left), however. Consistent with the U.S. Flag Code, the Texas Flag Code specifies that the state flag should either be flown below the U.S. flag if on the same pole or at the same height as the U.S. flag if on separate poles.

Similar flags

  • Texas's flag is similar to the flag of Chile
    Flag of Chile
    The national flag of Chile, consists of two unequal horizontal bands of white and red and a blue square the same height as the white band in the canton, which bears a white five-pointed star in the center. It was adopted on October 18, 1817...

    , first used in 1817. However, the Chilean flag has a blue canton with a white star rather than the entire left side being blue. The red bottom stripe begins below the canton. The Chilean Flag predates the Lone Star Flag by 21 years.
  • The flag of North Carolina
    Flag of North Carolina
    The flag of the state of North Carolina is defined by law as followsA former Confederate soldier and then state Adjutant General, Johnstone Jones, introduced the bill which led the state legislature to adopt this flag in March, 1885 to replace the flag that had been adopted on June 22, 1861,...

     is similar to the flag of Texas; North Carolina's flag has the same basic pattern as Texas's; however, the colors of the fly are reversed. In addition, the star in the hoist is smaller and is surrounded by scrolls and lettering. The Lone Star Flag predates North Carolina's current flag by 47 years.
  • The flag of Guinea-Bissau
    Flag of Guinea-Bissau
    The flag of Guinea-Bissau was adopted in 1973 when independence from Portugal was proclaimed.- History :Like the former flag of Cape Verde, the flag is based on that of the Partido Africano para a Independencia da Guine e Cabo Verde , still the dominant party in Guinea-Bissau...

     is also similar, but has different colors, different dimensions and proportions of the sections, and a differently coloured star.
  • The Flag of the Belgian Congo and its predecessors are essentially the same as the Burnet Flag.
  • The flag of Texas is almost identical to the "Flag of Céspedes" or "flag of La Demajagua", one of the two flags used diring the Cuban War of Independence
    Cuban War of Independence
    Cuban War of Independence was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Ten Years' War and the Little War...

Governor's Flag

The flag of the Governor of Texas
Governor of Texas
The governor of Texas is the head of the executive branch of Texas's government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. The governor has the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Texas Legislature, and to convene the legislature...

 consists of the Seal of Texas centered on a field of azure. Like most U.S. Governor flags, there are 4 five-point stars at the corners of the field.

See also

  • Symbols of the State of Texas
  • Six flags over Texas
    Six flags over Texas
    Six Flags Over Texas is the slogan used to describe the six nations that have had sovereignty over some or all of the current territory of the U.S. state of Texas. This slogan has been incorporated into shopping malls, theme parks , and other enterprises...

  • Texaphyrin
    Texaphyrin is a sub-class of heterocyclic macrocycle molecules known as porphyrins. The molecule was invented by University of Texas at Austin professor Jonathan Sessler. The name texaphryin arose because some of the molecules have a shape that can superimpose onto the points of the star featured...

  • World's Largest Texas Flag
    World's Largest Texas Flag
    The World's Largest Texas Flag is a Texas flag used by the Alpha Rho chapter of Alpha Phi Omega , a national co-ed service fraternity, at the University of Texas at Austin in displays at football pre-game shows, at pep rallies, or for other purposes.-Field flag:The largest flag is used for...

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.