First grade
First grade is a year of primary education
Primary education
A primary school is an institution in which children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as primary or elementary education. Primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth Nations, and in most publications of the United Nations Educational,...

 in schools in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and English-speaking provinces of Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

. It is the first school year after kindergarten
A kindergarten is a preschool educational institution for children. The term was created by Friedrich Fröbel for the play and activity institute that he created in 1837 in Bad Blankenburg as a social experience for children for their transition from home to school...

. Pupils are usually 6 to 7 years old in this grade level
Grade level
Often, people are educated through a series of educational stages, such as primary school and university. They vary around the world, and not every person will attend the same stages...

; they are sometimes called "first graders".

In mathematics
Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

 students may learn about addition and subtraction of natural numbers, and about measurement. Basic geometry
Geometry arose as the field of knowledge dealing with spatial relationships. Geometry was one of the two fields of pre-modern mathematics, the other being the study of numbers ....

 and graphing
Graph of a function
In mathematics, the graph of a function f is the collection of all ordered pairs . In particular, if x is a real number, graph means the graphical representation of this collection, in the form of a curve on a Cartesian plane, together with Cartesian axes, etc. Graphing on a Cartesian plane is...

 may be introduced. Clock and calendar time and money may also be in the curriculum.

In language first graders are taught the fundamentals of literacy, including reading sentences, writing very simple statements and mastery of the alphabet, building on what the students have learned in kindergarten or other forms of pre-school (although because first grade is the first compulsory level of education in many U.S. states, the level of literacy in incoming students can vary widely). The expectations for first grade have changed. Curriculum is typically based on state standards developed by educators in each of the 50 United States. First graders are now expected to read and comprehend stories ranging in lengths and difficulty.

In the USA
Primary education in the United States
Primary education in the United States typically refers to the first six years of formal education in most jurisdictions. Primary education may also be referred to as elementary education and most schools offering these programs are referred to as elementary schools...

, students are also typically introduced to the concept of social studies
Social studies
Social studies is the "integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence," as defined by the American National Council for the Social Studies...

 with an emphasis on establishing ideas of history or civics in either a personal or in a larger sense. Some states focus on the basics of USA's history and patriotism is taught, with a focus on the founding fathers
Founding Fathers of the United States
The Founding Fathers of the United States of America were political leaders and statesmen who participated in the American Revolution by signing the United States Declaration of Independence, taking part in the American Revolutionary War, establishing the United States Constitution, or by some...

 and the time period surrounding the American Revolution
American Revolution
The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America...

; other states require a social studies focus on family relationships in first grade, leaving community, state, and nation studies to higher grades. Basic geography is also taught in the 1st grade. Focus on the persons municipal area and culture, along with basic state geography may also be focused in 1st grade, depending on the state. First grade science usually involves the discussion of matter, plant and animal science, earth materials, and balance and motion.

Science as inquiry is taught and practiced in first grade. Students are encouraged to observe the world around them and begin asking questions about things they notice. As they become more comfortable investigating the world around them, students will also begin asking better questions and making better, more advanced predictions.

Brazil equivalent

In Brazil the minimum age for the first grade was changed from five to six years old.

England equivalent

In England
Education in England
Education in England is overseen by the Department for Education and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Local authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for public education and state schools at a regional level....

 the first year of school is called Reception
Reception (school)
Reception or Primary 1 or FS2 is the first year of primary school in the United Kingdom and South Australia. It is preceded by nursery and is followed by Year One in England and Wales or Primary 2 in Northern Ireland and Scotland.Pupils in Reception are usually aged between four and five...

, and the pupils are 4 to 5 years old. However, the first compulsory schooling age starts when the child is 5 and this year is Year One. As most primary or infant schools have a reception which acts like the compulsory school years i.e. they wear uniform and have the same school hours, most children start school in reception. This year is the equivalent of Year Two
Year Two
Year Two is an educational year group in schools in many countries including England, Wales, Australia and New Zealand. It is usually the second year of compulsory education and incorporates students aged between six and seven.-Australia:...

Finland equivalent

Children start this grade in Finland the year they turn seven and end it the year they turn eight.

Ireland equivalent

In Ireland
Education in Ireland
The term Education in Ireland may refer to either of two education systems in Ireland:*Education in the Republic of Ireland*Education in Northern Ireland...

, the equivalent is known as First Class or Rang a haon, Students are usually 6 or 7 years old as it is the 3rd year of primary school.

New Zealand equivalent

In New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

, this level of class is called J2 or Year 2. Children generally start this level between the ages of five and six.

Portugal Equivalent

In Portugal
Education in Portugal
Education in Portugal is regulated by the State through two ministries - the Ministry of Education, and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education. There are a system of public education and also many private schools at all levels of education...

, children enter the 1st year of school aged six or five, in September of the year they turn six years old. It marks the beginning of the First Cycle of Basic School.

Scotland equivalent

Education in Scotland
Scotland has a long history of universal provision of public education, and the Scottish education system is distinctly different from the other countries of the United Kingdom...

 and Welsh
Education in Wales
Education in Wales differs in certain respects from education elsewhere in the United Kingdom. For example, a significant number of students all over Wales are educated either wholly or largely through the medium of Welsh: in 2008/09, 22 per cent of classes in maintained primary schools used Welsh...

 pupils usually enter the corresponding stage one year younger. In Northern Ireland
Education in Northern Ireland
Education in Northern Ireland differs slightly from systems used elsewhere in the United Kingdom, though it is more similar to that used in England and Wales than it is to Scotland. A child's age on 1 July determines the point of entry into the relevant stage of education unlike England and Wales...

they are two years younger.
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