Firearm action
In firearms terminology, an action is the physical mechanism that manipulates cartridge
Cartridge (firearms)
A cartridge, also called a round, packages the bullet, gunpowder and primer into a single metallic case precisely made to fit the firing chamber of a firearm. The primer is a small charge of impact-sensitive chemical that may be located at the center of the case head or at its rim . Electrically...

s and/or seals the breech
Breech-loading weapon
A breech-loading weapon is a firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel....

. The term is also used to describe the method in which cartridges are loaded, locked, and extracted from the mechanism. Actions are generally categorized by the type of mechanism used. A firearm action is technically not present on muzzleloader
A muzzleloader is any firearm into which the projectile and usually the propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the gun . This is distinct from the more popular modern designs of breech-loading firearms...

s as all loading is done by hand. The mechanism that fires a muzzle-loader is called the lock.

Manual operation

Manual operation is a firearms term describing any type of firearm action that is loaded one shot at a time by the user rather than automatically. For example, break action is a form of manual operation using a simple hinge mechanism that is manually unlatched by the operator exposing the chamber(s) for reloading.

Dropping block

These are actions wherein the breechblock
A breechblock is the part of the firearm action that closes the breech of a weapon at the moment of firing....

 lowers or "drops" into the receiver to open the breech, usually actuated by an underlever. There are two principal types of dropping block: the tilting block and the falling block.
Tilting block

In a tilting or pivoting block action, the breechblock is hinged on a pin mounted at the rear. When the lever is operated, the block tilts down and forward, exposing the chamber. The best-known pivoting block designs are the Peabody
Peabody action
The Peabody action was an early form of breechloading firearm action, where the heavy breechblock tilted downwards across a bolt mounted in the rear of the breechblock, operated by a lever under the rifle. The Peabody action most often used an external hammer to fire the cartridge.The Peabody...

, the Peabody-Martini, and Ballard actions.

The original Peabody rifles, manufactured by the Providence Tool Company, used a manually cocked side-hammer. Swiss gunsmith Friedrich Martini developed a pivoting block action by modifying the Peabody, that incorporated a hammerless striker which was cocked by the operating lever with the same single, efficient motion that also pivoted the block. The 1871 Martini-Henry
The Martini-Henry was a breech-loading single-shot lever-actuated rifle adopted by the British, combining an action worked on by Friedrich von Martini , with the rifled barrel designed by Scotsman Alexander Henry...

 which replaced the "trapdoor" Snider-Enfield
The British .577 Snider-Enfield was a type of breech loading rifle. The firearm action was invented by the American Jacob Snider, and the Snider-Enfield was one of the most widely used of the Snider varieties. It was adopted by British Army as a conversion system for its ubiquitous Pattern 1853...

 was the standard British Army rifle of the later Victorian era, and the Martini was also a popular action for civilian rifles.

Charles H. Ballard's self-cocking tilting-block action was produced by the Marlin Firearms Company from 1875, and earned a superlative reputation among long-range "Creedmoor" target shooters. Surviving Marlin Ballards are today highly prized by collectors, especially those mounted in the elaborate Swiss-style Schützen stocks of the day.
Falling block

A falling-block action (also known as a sliding-block action) is a single-shot firearm action in which a solid metal breechblock slides vertically in grooves cut into the breech of the weapon and actuated by a lever. Examples of firearms using the falling block action are the Sharps rifle
Sharps Rifle
Sharps rifles were those of a series begun with a design by Christian Sharps. Sharps rifles were renowned for long range and high accuracy in their day.-History:Sharps's initial rifle was patented September 17, 1848 and manufactured by A. S...

 and Ruger No. 1
Ruger No. 1
The Ruger No. 1 is a single shot rifle, with Farquharson-style internal hammer falling block action, manufactured by Sturm, Ruger. It was introduced in 1967. An underlever lowers the block allowing loading and cocks the rifle. A falling block action is an inherently strong design, and the Ruger...

Rolling block

In a rolling block action the breechblock takes the form of a part-cylinder, with a pivot pin through its axis. The operator rotates or "rolls" the block to open and close the breech; it is a simple, rugged and reliable design. Rolling blocks are most often associated with firearms made by Remington
E. Remington and Sons
E. Remington and Sons was a manufacturer of firearms and typewriters. Founded in 1816 by Eliphalet Remington in Ilion, New York, on March 1, 1873 it started manufacturing the first commercial typewriter.-Becoming "E. Remington & Sons":...

 in the later 19th century; in the Remington action the hammer serves to lock the breech closed at the moment of firing, and the block in turn prevents the hammer from falling with the breech open.


A break action is a type of firearm where the barrel(s) are hinged and can be "broken open" to expose the breech. Multi-barrel break action firearms are usually subdivided into over-and-under or side-by-side configurations for two barrel configurations or "combination gun
Combination gun
A combination gun is a break-action hunting firearm that comprises at least two barrels, a rifle barrel and a shotgun barrel, often but not always in an over and under configuration; side-by-side variations are known as cape guns. A ' refers to a combination gun that has three barrels...

" when mixed rifle and shotgun barrels are used.

Hinged block

The earliest metallic-cartridge breechloaders designed for general military issue began as conversions of muzzle-loading rifle-muskets. The upper rear portion of the barrel was filed or milled away and replaced by a hinged breechblock which opened upward to permit loading. An internal angled firing pin allowed the re-use of the rifle's existing side-hammer. The Allin action made by Springfield Arsenal in the US hinged forward; the Snider-Enfield
The British .577 Snider-Enfield was a type of breech loading rifle. The firearm action was invented by the American Jacob Snider, and the Snider-Enfield was one of the most widely used of the Snider varieties. It was adopted by British Army as a conversion system for its ubiquitous Pattern 1853...

 used by the British opened to the side. Whereas the British quickly replaced the Snider with a dropping-block Peabody style
Peabody action
The Peabody action was an early form of breechloading firearm action, where the heavy breechblock tilted downwards across a bolt mounted in the rear of the breechblock, operated by a lever under the rifle. The Peabody action most often used an external hammer to fire the cartridge.The Peabody...

 Martini action, the US Army felt the trapdoor action to be adequate and followed its muzzleloader conversions with the new-production Springfield Model 1873
Springfield Model 1873
The Model 1873 "Trapdoor" Springfield was the first standard-issued breech-loading rifle adopted by the United States Army...

, which was the principal longarm of the Indian Wars and was still in service with some units in the Spanish-American War.

Bolt action

Although bolt actions are usually associated with fixed or detachable box magazines, in fact the first general-issue military breechloader was a single-shot bolt action: the paper-cartridge Prussian Needle Gun
Needle gun
The Dreyse needle-gun was a military breechloading rifle, famous as the main infantry weapon of the Prussians, who adopted it for service in 1848 as the Dreyse Zündnadelgewehr, or Prussian Model 1848...

 of 1841. France countered in 1866 with its superior Chassepot rifle, also a paper-cartridge bolt action. The first metallic-cartridge bolt actions in general military service were the Berdan Type II
Berdan rifle
The Berdan rifle is a Russian rifle created by famous American firearms expert and inventor Hiram Berdan in 1868. Standard issue in the Russian army from 1869-1891, the Berdan was replaced by the Mosin-Nagant rifle...

 introduced by Russia in 1870, the Mauser Model 1871
Mauser Model 1871
The Mauser Model 1871 adopted as the Gewehr 71 or Infanterie-Gewehr 71 was the first of millions of rifles manufactured to the designs of Paul Mauser and Wilhelm Mauser of the Mauser company.During 1870-71 trials with many different rifles took place, with the "M1869 Bavarian Werder" being the...

, and a modified Chassepot, the Gras rifle of 1874; all these were single-shots.

Today most top-level smallbore match rifles are single-shot bolt actions.

Single-shot bolt actions in .22 caliber were also widely manufactured as inexpensive "boys' guns" in the earlier 20th century; and there have been a few single-shot bolt-action shotguns, usually in .410 bore.

Other actions

  • The Ferguson rifle
    Ferguson rifle
    The Ferguson rifle was one of the first breech loading rifles to be widely tested by the British military. Other breech loaders were experimented with in various commands, including earlier versions of the Ordnance rifle by Patrick Ferguson when he was in the "Fever Islands" . It was often...

    : British Major Patrick Ferguson designed his rifle, considered to be the first military breechloader, in the 1770s. A plug-shaped breechblock was screw-threaded so that rotating the handle underneath would lower and raise it for loading with ball and loose powder; the flintlock action still required conventional priming.
  • The Hall rifle
    M1819 Hall rifle
    The M1819 Hall rifle was a single-shot breech loading rifle designed by John Harris Hall, patented on May 21, 1811, and adopted by the U.S. Army in 1819. It used a pivoting chamber breech design and was made with either flint-lock or percussion cap ignition systems. The main years of production...

    : First U.S. cavalry breechloader, originally made in flint but later made-in and converted-to percussion in 1830's-1840's. The breech section tilts up to accept a paper cartridge. Excellent machine-made construction, but still tended to leak gas at the breech.
  • The Kammerlader
    The Kammerlader, or "chamber loader", was the first Norwegian breech loading rifle, and among the very first breech loaders adopted for use by an armed force anywhere in the world. A single shot black powder rifle, the kammerlader was operated with a crank mounted on the side of the receiver. This...

    : A crank-operated Norwegian firearm produced around the time of the Prussian Needle-gun. Originally used a paper cartridge. Later many were converted to rimfire; this was the first Norwegian breechloader.
  • The Tarpley carbine
    Tarpley carbine
    The Tarpley Carbine was a Confederate weapon produced and used during the American Civil War, however, it was not produced in great numbers. The Tarpley Carbine was a breechloader, and was comparable in this sense to the Sharps Rifle and Carbine more widely used by the Union.On , there are some...

    : This is categorized into falling block action, but the breech block is hinged unlike the others.
  • The M1867 Werndl-Holub
    M1867 Werndl-Holub
    The M1867 Werndl-Holub was a single-shot breechloading rifle adopted by the Austro-Hungarian army in 1867. It replaced the breechloader-conversion Wanzl rifle...

    : Variation of the rotating bolt-style action; uses primed metallic cartridge.
  • The Morse Carbine: The mostly brass action is somewhat like Hall rifle, except it was designed to take a special centerfire cartridge. Very few of these were actually made and were constructed in the late 1850s.
  • The Joslyn rifle
    Joslyn rifle
    The term Joslyn Rifle refers to a series of rifles produced in the mid 19th century. The term is often used to refer specifically to the Joslyn Model 1861/1862, which was the first mass produced breech loading rifle produced at the Springfield Armory.-History:...



A revolver houses cartridges in a rotary cylinder and advances them in-line with the bore prior to each shot. Revolvers are most often handguns however examples of rifles and shotguns have been made. The cylinder is most often rotated by manipulation of the trigger and/or hammer although some are semi-automatic using recoil to rotate the cylinder and cock the hammer.

Bolt action

In bolt action firearms, the opening and closing of the breech is operated manually by a bolt. Opening the breech ejects a cartridge while subsequently closing the breech chambers a new round. The three predominant bolt-action systems are the Mauser, Lee-Enfield
The Lee-Enfield bolt-action, magazine-fed, repeating rifle was the main firearm used by the military forces of the British Empire and Commonwealth during the first half of the 20th century...

, and Mosin–Nagant systems.


Lever action firearms uses a lever to eject and chamber cartridges. An example of firearms using lever action are the Winchester Repeating Rifle
Winchester rifle
In common usage, Winchester rifle usually means any of the lever-action rifles manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, though the company has also manufactured many rifles of other action types...

 and Marlin Model 1894
Marlin Model 1894
The Marlin Model 1894 is a lever-action repeating rifle introduced in 1894 by the Marlin Firearms Company of North Haven, Connecticut. At its introduction the rifle came with a 24-inch barrel and was chambered for a variety of pistol rounds such as .25-20 Winchester, .32-20 Winchester, .38-40, and...



In pump action or slide action firearms, a grip called the fore end is manually operated by the user to eject and chamber a new round. Pump actions are predominantly found in shotguns. An example of firearms using the pump action are the Remington 870
Remington 870
The Remington Model 870 is a U.S.-made pump-action shotgun manufactured by Remington Arms Company, Inc. It is widely used by the public for sport shooting, hunting, and self-defense. It is also commonly used by law enforcement and military organizations worldwide.-Development:The Remington 870 was...

 and Winchester Model 1897
Winchester Model 1897
The Winchester Model 1897, also known as the Model 97, M97, or Trench Gun, was a pump-action shotgunwith an external hammer and tube magazine manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company. The Model 1897 was an evolution of the Winchester Model 1893 designed by John Browning. From 1897...


Falling block

The Krag-Petersson
The Krag-Petersson rifle was the first repeating rifle adopted by the armed forces of Norway and one of the first repeating arms used anywhere in the world. Developed by Ole Herman Johannes Krag, the action of the Krag-Petersson was uniquely actuated by an oversized hammer...

 rifle is the only example; it is loaded by tubular magazine.

Other actions

  • French Guycot Chain Rifle
  • Kalthoff repeater
    Kalthoff repeater
    The Kalthoff repeater was a type of repeating firearm that appeared in the seventeenth century and remained unmatched in its fire rate until the mid-nineteenth century...

  • Cockson repeater
    Cockson repeater
    The Cookson repeater is a flintlock magazine gun made by John Cockson in 1690. The mechanism used in the rifle is similar as those found in Michele Lorenzoni's pistols.-External links:* *...

  • Belton flintlock
    Belton flintlock
    The Belton Flintlock was a repeating flintlock design using superposed loads, invented by Philadelphia, Pennsylvania resident Joseph Belton some time prior to 1777...

  • The Jennings Magazine Rifle
  • Meigs Sliding Guard Action Repeater
  • Roper repeater

Blowback operation

Blowback operation is a system in which semi-automatic and fully automatic firearms operate through the energy created by combustion in the chamber and bore acting directly on the bolt face through the cartridge.

Examples of blowback operation

  • Simple blowback: Halcon M-1943
    Halcon M-1943
    The Halcón M-1943 is a submachine gun of Argentine origin and was chambered in both 9x19mm Parabellum for the Army and .45 ACP for Police Forces. This weapon is comparable in quality and performance with the Thompson submachine gun.-M-1946:...

    , Uzi submachine gun
    Uzi submachine gun
    The Uzi is a family of Israeli open bolt, blowback-operated submachine guns. Smaller variants are considered to be machine pistols. The Uzi was one of the first weapons to use a telescoping bolt design which allows for the magazine to be housed in the pistol grip for a shorter weapon.The first Uzi...

    , Varan PMX-80
    Varan PMX-80
    The Varan PMX-80 was a semi-automatic pistol of South African origin. The PMX-80 was manufactured due to the arms embargo on the-then apartheid South African government. The PMX-80 is chambered in 9x19mm Parabellum and is fed from a grip inserted magazine....

  • Lever-delayed blowback: FAMAS, Sterling 7.62
    Sterling 7.62
    The Sterling 7.62 was a Battle rifle/Light machine gun variant of the Sterling submachine gun which was manufactured in the 7.62x51mm NATO calibre. It used lever-delayed blowback to handle the more powerful rounds and was fed from 30 round Bren magazines as well as 20 round magazines from L1A1 SLR's...

    , AA-52
    The AA-52 is one of the first French-produced guns of the post World War II era. It was manufactured by MAS...

    , 2B-A-40
    The 2B-A-40 is an assault rifle of Russian origin. The weapon uses a delayed blowback operation and is chambered in the 7.62x39mm round. The 2B-A-40 also came as a light machine gun as the 2B-P-40.-See Also:*AVB-7.62*ČZW-556/ČZW-762*FAMAS*TKB-517...

    , TKB-517
    The TKB-517 assault rifle was designed by German A. Korobov. This rifle was similar externally to the AK-47 but turned out to be more reliable and accurate, and easier to produce and maintain . Like the AK series, it was also manufactured with folding stocks, long heavier barrels with bipods...

  • Roller-delayed blowback: SIG 510
    SIG 510
    The SIG SG 510 or Sturmgewehr 57 is an automatic rifle manufactured by Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft of Switzerland. It uses a similar roller-delayed blowback system to the H&K G3 and CETME rifles...

    , HK MP5
    Heckler & Koch MP5
    The Heckler & Koch MP5 is a 9mm submachine gun of German design, developed in the 1960s by a team of engineers from the German small arms manufacturer Heckler & Koch GmbH of Oberndorf am Neckar....

    , HK P9
    Heckler & Koch P9
    The HK P9 is a semi-automatic pistol from Heckler & Koch in 9 mm Parabellum and the first to use a variation of H&K's roller delayed blowback system in a pistol format and polygonal rifling now common in H&K designs. Designed in 1965 and produced between 1969 and 1978, only 485 of these pistols...

    , HK G3
    Heckler & Koch G3
    The G3 is a 7.62mm battle rifle developed in the 1950s by the German armament manufacturer Heckler & Koch GmbH in collaboration with the Spanish state-owned design and development agency CETME ....

  • Gas-delayed blowback: Volkssturmgewehr 1-5
    Volkssturmgewehr 1-5
    The Volkssturmgewehr 1-5 is a set of 5 rifle designs developed by Nazi Germany during the last months of World War II...

    , HK P7, Steyr GB
    Steyr GB
    The Steyr GB, is a double-action 9×19mm Parabellum caliber, large-framed semi-automatic pistol. The GB uses a gas-delayed blowback action and has a magazine capacity of 18 rounds...

  • Toggle-delayed blowback: Schwarzlose MG M.07/12
    Schwarzlose MG M.07/12
    The Maschinengewehr Patent Schwarzlose M.07/12 was a medium machine-gun, and was used as a standard issue firearm in the Austro-Hungarian Army throughout World War I. It was also used by the Dutch, Greek and Hungarian armies during World War II...

    , Luger rifle and Pedersen rifle
    Pedersen rifle
    The Pedersen Rifle, officially known in final form as the T1E3 rifle, was a United States semi-automatic rifle designed by John Pedersen that was made in small numbers for testing by the United States Army during the 1920s as part of a program to standardize and adopt a replacement for the M1903...

  • Blish Lock: early Thompson submachine gun
    Thompson submachine gun
    The Thompson is an American submachine gun, invented by John T. Thompson in 1919, that became infamous during the Prohibition era. It was a common sight in the media of the time, being used by both law enforcement officers and criminals...

  • Hesitation locked: Remington 51
    Remington 51
    The Remington 51 is a small pocket pistol designed by John Pedersen and manufactured by Remington Arms in the early 20th century for the American civilian market...

  • Chamber-ring delayed blowback: Seecamp
    L. W. Seecamp Co., Inc. is a manufacturer of hand made pocket pistols located in Milford, Connecticut from 1981 to present.L. W. Seecamp Co., Inc. was started as a pistolsmithing company in 1973 specializing in double action conversions for the 1911 Colt .45...


Blow-forward operation

Blow-Forward operation is where the firearm lacks a bolt but has a moving barrel that is forced forward by the friction of the projectile against a spring as means of reloading a fresh round.

Examples of blow-forward operation

  • Hino Komuro M1908 Pistol
    Hino Komuro M1908 Pistol
    The Hino Komuro M1908 was a blow-forward operated, semi-automatic pistol of Japanese origin and was patented by Yujiro Komuro.It was chambered in 8mm Nambu, .32 ACP, and .25 ACP...

  • Steyr Mannlicher M1894
    Steyr Mannlicher M1894
    The M1894 Steyr Mannlicher blow-forward, semi-automatic pistol was an early semi-automatic pistol.-General features:This earliest Steyr Mannlicher pistol, manufactured by FAB.D'ARMES Neuhausen, Switzerland, was designed to be self loading and to use a special rimmed cartridge in 6.5 mm caliber...

  • Schwarzlose Model 1908
    Schwarzlose Model 1908
    The Schwarzlose Model 1908 was a semi-automatic pistol, designed by Andreas Schwarzlose, released in 1908 in German Empire and produced until 1911.-Operation:The Schwarzlose employs a very distinctive "blow-forward action" operating mechanism...

  • Special Operations Weapon
    Special Operations Weapon
    The Special Operations Weapon was a blow-forward operated, select fire shotgun used by US Navy SEALs in the Vietnam War. It was designed by Carroll Childers, an engineer at the Naval Special Weapons Center. The 870 mod kit provided SEAL shotgunners with a quick-change magazine holding 20 rounds...

  • Pancor Jackhammer
    Pancor Jackhammer
    The Pancor Corporation Jackhammer is a 12-gauge, gas-operated automatic shotgun. It is one of very few fully automatic shotguns, and although patented in 1987, it never entered full-scale production. Only a few working prototypes of the Jackhammer were ever built; some sources state that only two...

Recoil operation

Recoil operation is a type of locked-breech firearm action used in semi-automatic and fully automatic firearms. As the name implies, these actions use the force of recoil to provide the energy to cycle the action.

Examples of recoil operation

  • Short-recoil: Colt M1911, MAB PA-15, Browning Hi-Power
    Browning Hi-Power
    The Browning Hi-Power is a single-action, 9 mm semi-automatic handgun. It is based on a design by American firearms inventor John Browning, and completed by Dieudonné Saive at Fabrique Nationale of Herstal, Belgium. Browning died in 1926, several years before the design was finalized...

    , HK USP
    Heckler & Koch USP
    The USP is a semi-automatic pistol developed in Germany by Heckler & Koch GmbH of Oberndorf am Neckar as a replacement for the P7 series of handguns.-History:...

    , Glock
    Glock pistol
    The Glock pistol, sometimes referred to by the manufacturer as Glock "Safe Action" Pistol, is a series of semi-automatic pistols designed and produced by Glock Ges.m.b.H., located in Deutsch-Wagram, Austria. The company's founder, engineer Gaston Glock, had no experience with firearm design or...

    , Mamba Pistol
    Mamba Pistol
    The Mamba is a semi-automatic pistol developed in Rhodesia and later produced in the Republic of South Africa, intended for military and police duty...

    , M2 Browning machine gun, MG42
    The MG 42 is a 7.9mm universal machine gun that was developed in Nazi Germany and entered service with the Wehrmacht in 1942...

    , Vz 52 pistol, M82
  • Long-recoil: Browning Auto 5
    Browning Auto-5
    The Browning Automatic 5, most often Auto-5 or simply A-5, is a recoil-operated semi-automatic shotgun designed by John Browning. It was the first successful semi-automatic shotgun designed and remained in production until 1998...

    , Femaru STOP Pistol
    Frommer Stop
    The Frommer Stop is a Hungarian long-recoil pistol manufactured by Fémáru-, Fegyver és Gépgyár [Metalware, Weapons and Machine Factory] in Budapest. It was designed by Rudolf Frommer, and its original design was adopted as the Pisztoly 12M in 1912, created for the Honvédség. The handgun was...

    , Mars Automatic Pistol
    Mars Automatic Pistol
    The Mars Automatic Pistol, also sometimes known as the Webley-Mars, was a semi-automatic pistol developed in 1900 by the Englishman Hugh Gabbet-Fairfax and distributed by the Mars Automatic Pistol Syndicate Ltd. of Birmingham. It was manufactured first by Webley & Scott and later by small gunmakers...

  • Inertia: some Benelli shotguns
    Benelli (firearms)
    Benelli Armi SpA is an Italian firearm manufacturer founded in 1967, located in Urbino, Italy, best known for high quality shotguns used by military, law enforcement and civilians all over the world. Particularly famous is the Benelli M3 12 gauge, used extensively by American SWAT teams...

Gas operation

Gas operation is a system of operation used to provide energy to semi-automatic and fully automatic firearms. In gas-operation, a portion of high pressure gas from the cartridge being fired is used to extract the spent case and chamber a new cartridge. There are three basic types: long stroke gas piston (where the gas piston goes the same distance as the operating stroke of the action parts, and is often attached to the action parts), short stroke gas piston (where the gas piston goes less than distance as the operating stroke of the action parts), and direct impingement (AKA "direct gas", "gas impingement", where there is no piston, and the gas acts directly on the action parts). A fourth type, now considered obsolete and ineffective, are those systems based on the Bang rifle that utilize a muzzle cap to capture gas after the bullet has left the barrel. While this system is successful in boosting the operating power of recoil operated guns, it is insufficient and too susceptible to fouling for use as the primary operating system.

Examples of gas operation

  • Short-stroke gas piston: FN FAL
    FN FAL
    The Fusil Automatique Léger or FAL is a self-loading, selective fire battle rifle produced by the Belgian armaments manufacturer Fabrique Nationale de Herstal . During the Cold War it was adopted by many North Atlantic Treaty Organization countries, with the notable exception of the United States...

    , SAR-87
    Sterling SAR-87
    The Sterling SAR-87 was a military assault rifle of the late Twentieth century. The Sterling Assault Rifle was jointly engineered by Sterling Armaments Company and Chartered Industries of Singapore in the early 1980s as an advanced version of the AR-18 for the export sales...

    , HK G36
    Heckler & Koch G36
    The Heckler & Koch G36 is a 5.56×45mm assault rifle, designed in the early 1990s by Heckler & Koch in Germany as a replacement for the 7.62mm G3 battle rifle. It was accepted into service with the Bundeswehr in 1997, replacing the G3...

  • Long-stroke gas piston: M1 Garand
    M1 Garand
    The M1 Garand , was the first semi-automatic rifle to be generally issued to the infantry of any nation. Called "the greatest battle implement ever devised" by General George S...

    , AK-47
    The AK-47 is a selective-fire, gas-operated 7.62×39mm assault rifle, first developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is officially known as Avtomat Kalashnikova . It is also known as a Kalashnikov, an "AK", or in Russian slang, Kalash.Design work on the AK-47 began in the last year...

  • Direct impingement: MAS 49, M16
    M16 rifle
    The M16 is the United States military designation for the AR-15 rifle adapted for both semi-automatic and full-automatic fire. Colt purchased the rights to the AR-15 from ArmaLite, and currently uses that designation only for semi-automatic versions of the rifle. The M16 fires the 5.56×45mm NATO...

    , AG-42
  • Gas trap: Gewehr 41
    Gewehr 41
    The Gewehr 41 rifles, commonly known as the G41 or G41, were semi-automatic rifles used by Nazi Germany during World War II-Background:...

    , Bang M1922 rifle

See also

  • Matchlock
    The matchlock was the first mechanism, or "lock" invented to facilitate the firing of a hand-held firearm. This design removed the need to lower by hand a lit match into the weapon's flash pan and made it possible to have both hands free to keep a firm grip on the weapon at the moment of firing,...

  • Wheellock
    A wheellock, wheel-lock or wheel lock, is a friction-wheel mechanism to cause a spark for firing a firearm. It was the next major development in firearms technology after the matchlock and the first self-igniting firearm. The mechanism is so-called because it uses a rotating steel wheel to provide...

  • Flintlock
    Flintlock is the general term for any firearm based on the flintlock mechanism. The term may also apply to the mechanism itself. Introduced at the beginning of the 17th century, the flintlock rapidly replaced earlier firearm-ignition technologies, such as the doglock, matchlock and wheellock...

  • Harmonica gun
    Harmonica gun
    A harmonica gun or slide gun is a form of percussion firearm which was breech loaded with a steel slide, containing a number of chambers bored in it. Each chamber contained a separate primer, powder charge, and projectile...

  • Caplock
    Caplock mechanism
    The caplock mechanism or "percussion" lock was the successor of the flintlock mechanism in firearm technology, and used a percussion cap struck by the hammer to set off the main charge, rather than using a piece of flint to strike a steel frizzen....

  • Single-shot
    Single-shot firearms are firearms that hold only a single round of ammunition, and must be reloaded after each shot. The history of firearms began with single-shot designs, and many centuries passed before multi-shot designs became commonplace...

  • Repeater (firearm)
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