Female ejaculation
Female ejaculation refers to the expulsion of noticeable amounts of clear fluid by human females from the paraurethral ducts
Skene's gland
In human anatomy , the Skene's glands are glands located on the anterior wall of the vagina, around the lower end of the urethra. They drain into the urethra and near the urethral opening and may be near or a part of the G-Spot...

 through and around the urethra
In anatomy, the urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the genitals for the removal of fluids out of the body. In males, the urethra travels through the penis, and carries semen as well as urine...

 during or before an orgasm
Orgasm is the peak of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, characterized by an intense sensation of pleasure...

. The exact source and nature of the fluid continues to be a topic of debate among medical professionals and is related to doubts over the existence of the G-Spot
The Gräfenberg Spot, often called the G-Spot, is a bean-shaped area of the vagina. Many women report that it is an erogenous zone which, when stimulated, can lead to strong sexual arousal, powerful orgasms and female ejaculation...



In questionnaire surveys, 35–50% of women report that they have at some time experienced the gushing of fluid during orgasm. Other studies find anywhere from 10–69%, depending on the definitions and methods used. For instance Kratochvíl (1994) surveyed 200 women and found that 6% reported ejaculating, an additional 13% had some experience and about 60% reported release of fluid without actual gushing. Reports on the volume of fluid expelled vary considerably from amounts that would be imperceptible to a woman, to mean values of 1–5 ml, although volumes as high as one pint (473 ml) have been reported.

The suggestion that women can expel fluid from their genital area as part of sexual arousal
Sexual arousal
Sexual arousal, or sexual excitement, is the arousal of sexual desire, during or in anticipation of sexual activity. Things that precipitate human sexual arousal are called erotic stimuli, or colloquially known as turn-ons. There are many potential stimuli, both physical or mental, which can cause...

 has been described by women's health writer Rebecca Chalker as "one of the most hotly debated questions in modern sexology
Sexology is the scientific study of human sexuality, including human sexual interests, behavior, and function. The term does not generally refer to the non-scientific study of sex, such as political analysis or social criticism....

." Female ejaculation has been discussed in anatomical, medical, and biological literature throughout recorded history. The dichotomy between the interest devoted to female ejaculation and the basic acceptance of its male counterpart has been questioned by feminist writers.

16th to 18th century

In the 16th century, the Dutch physician Laevinius Lemnius, referred to how a woman "draws forth the man's seed and casts her own with it." In the 17th century, François Mauriceau
François Mauriceau
François Mauriceau was a French obstetrician from Paris. He received his training in obstetrics at the Hôtel-Dieu.Mauriceau was a leading obstetrician in 17th century Europe...

 described glands at the urethral meatus that "pour out great quantities of saline liquor during coition, which increases the heat and enjoyment of women." This century saw an increasing understanding of female sexual anatomy and function, in particular the work of the Bartholin
Caspar Bartholin the Elder
Caspar Bartholin the Elder was born at Malmø, Denmark and was a polymath, finally accepting a professorship in medicine at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1613...

 family in Denmark.

De Graaf

In the 17th century the Dutch anatomist Regnier de Graaf
Regnier de Graaf
Regnier de Graaf, Dutch spelling Reinier de Graaf or latinized Reijnerus de Graeff was a Dutch physician and anatomist who made key discoveries in reproductive biology. His first name is often spelled Reinier or Reynier.-Biography:De Graaf was born in Schoonhoven and perhaps a relative to the De...

 wrote an influential treatise on the reproductive organs Concerning the Generative Organs of Women which is much cited in the literature on this topic. De Graaf discussed the original controversy but supported the Aristotelian view.
He identified the source as the glandular structures and ducts surrounding the urethra.
He identified [XIII:212] the various controversies regarding the ejaculate and its origin, but stated he believed that this fluid "which rushes out with such impetus during venereal combat or libidinous imagining" was derived from a number of sources, including the vagina, urinary tract, cervix and uterus. He appears to identify Skene's ducts, when he writes [XIII: 213] "those [ducts] which are visible around the orifice of the neck of the vagina and the outlet of the urinary passage receive their fluid from the female 'parastatae', or rather the thick membranous body around the urinary passage." However he appears not to distinguish between the lubrication of the perineum during arousal and an orgasmic ejaculate when he refers to liquid "which in libidinous women often rushes out at the mere sight of a handsome man." Further on [XIII:214] he refers to "liquid as usually comes from the pudenda in one gush." However, his prime purpose was to distinguish between generative fluid and pleasurable fluid, in his stand on the Aristotelian semen controversy.

19th century

Krafft-Ebing's study of sexual perversion, Psychopathia Sexualis (1886), describes female ejaculation under the heading "Congenital Sexual Inversion in Women" as a perversion related to neurasthenia
Neurasthenia is a psycho-pathological term first used by George Miller Beard in 1869 to denote a condition with symptoms of fatigue, anxiety, headache, neuralgia and depressed mood...

 and homosexuality.
It is also described by Freud
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud , born Sigismund Schlomo Freud , was an Austrian neurologist who founded the discipline of psychoanalysis...

 in pathological terms in his study of Dora (1905), where he relates it to hysteria.
However, women's writing of that time portrayed this in more positive terms. Thus we find Almeda Sperry writing to Emma Goldman
Emma Goldman
Emma Goldman was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing and speeches. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the twentieth century....

 in 1918, about the "rhythmic spurt of your love juices". Anatomical knowledge was also advanced by Alexander Skene
Alexander Skene
Alexander Johnston Chalmers Skene was a British gynaecologist who described what became known as the Skene's glands.-Biography:...

's description of para-urethral or periurethral glands (glands around the urethra
In anatomy, the urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the genitals for the removal of fluids out of the body. In males, the urethra travels through the penis, and carries semen as well as urine...

) in 1880, which have been variously claimed to be one source of the fluids in the ejaculate, and now commonly referred to as the Skene's glands.

Early 20th century understanding

Female ejaculation is mentioned as normal in early 20th century 'marriage manuals', such as TH Van de Velde
Theodoor Hendrik van de Velde
Theodoor Hendrik van de Velde was a Dutch physician and gynæcologist who served as Director at the Gynæcological Institute in Haarlem. His 1926 book Het volkomen huwelijk made him an instant international celebrity...

's Ideal Marriage: Its Physiology and Technique
Ideal Marriage: Its Physiology and Technique
Ideal Marriage: Its Physiology and Technique is a famous popular scientific treatise and self-help book published in London in 1926 by Dutch gynecologist Theodoor Hendrik van de Velde, retired director of the Gynecological Clinic in Haarlem, and "one of the major writers on human sexuality during...

 (1926). Certainly van de Velde was well aware of the varied experiences of women.
Yet the subject was largely ignored for most of the early part of the century. In 1948, Huffman, an American gynaecologist, published his studies of the prostatic tissue in women together with an historical account and detailed drawings. These clearly showed the difference between the original glands identified by Skene at the urinary meatus, and the more proximal collections of glandular tissue emptying directly into the urethra.
To date most of the interest had focussed on the substance and structure rather than function of the glands. A more definitive contemporary account of ejaculation appeared shortly after, in 1950, with the publication of an essay by Gräfenberg
Ernst Gräfenberg
Ernst Gräfenberg was a German-born physician and scientist...

 based on his observations of women during orgasm.
However this paper made little impact, and was dismissed in the major sexological writings of that time, such as Kinsey
Alfred Kinsey
Alfred Charles Kinsey was an American biologist and professor of entomology and zoology, who in 1947 founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University, now known as the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, as well as producing the Kinsey Reports and the Kinsey...

and Masters and Johnson (1966), equating this "erroneous belief" with urinary stress incontinence. Although clearly Kinsey was familiar with the phenomenon, commenting that (p. 612);
as were Masters and Johnson ten years later, who observed (pp 79–80):
(emphasis in original) yet dismissed it (p. 135) – "female ejaculation is an erroneous but widespread concept", and even twenty years later in 1982, they repeated the statement that it was erroneous (p. 69–70) and the result of "urinary stress incontinence".

Late 20th century awareness

The topic did not receive serious attention again until a review by Josephine Lowndes Sevely and JW Bennett appeared in 1978. This latter paper, which traces the history of the controversies to that point, and a series of three papers in 1981 by Beverly Whipple and colleagues in the Journal of Sex Research
Journal of Sex Research
The Journal of Sex Research is a scientific journal published by the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality . In 1963, the society had published a one-issue journal entitled Advances in Sex Research...

, became the focal point of the current debate. Whipple became aware of the phenomenon when studying urinary incontinence, with which it is often confused. As Sevely and Bennett point out, this is "not new knowledge, but a rediscovery of lost awareness that should contribute towards reshaping our view of female sexuality". Nevertheless, the theory advanced by these authors was immediately dismissed by many other authors, such as physiologist Joseph Bohlen, for not being based on rigorous scientific procedures, and psychiatrist Helen Singer Kaplan
Helen Singer Kaplan
Helen Singer Kaplan was an Austrian-born American sex therapist and the founder of the first clinic in the United States for sexual disorders established at a medical school. The New York Times described Kaplan as someone who was "considered a leader among scientific-oriented sex therapists...

 (1983) stated;
Even some radical feminist writers, such as Sheila Jeffreys
Sheila Jeffreys
Sheila Jeffreys is a lesbian feminist scholar and political activist, known for her analysis of the history and politics of sexuality in Britain. She is a professor in Political Science at the University of Melbourne in Australia...

 (1985) were dismissive, claiming it as a figment of male fantasy;
It required the detailed anatomical work of Helen O'Connell from 1998 onwards to more properly elucidate the relationships between the different anatomical structures involved. As she observes, the perineal urethra is embedded in the anterior vaginal wall and is surrounded by erectile tissue in all directions except posteriorly where it relates to the vaginal wall. "The distal vagina, clitoris
The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present only in female mammals. In humans, the visible button-like portion is located near the anterior junction of the labia minora, above the opening of the urethra and vagina. Unlike the penis, which is homologous to the clitoris, the clitoris does not...

, and urethra form an integrated entity covered superficially by the vulval skin and its epithelial features. These parts have a shared vasculature and nerve supply and during sexual stimulation respond as a unit".

Anthropological accounts

Female ejaculation appears in 20th century anthropological
Anthropology is the study of humanity. It has origins in the humanities, the natural sciences, and the social sciences. The term "anthropology" is from the Greek anthrōpos , "man", understood to mean mankind or humanity, and -logia , "discourse" or "study", and was first used in 1501 by German...

 works, such as Malinowski's
Malinowski is a Polish surname. It may refer to the following:People:*Bronisław Malinowski , a Polish anthropologist.*Bronisław Malinowski , a Polish athlete.*Donald Malinowski , a Catholic priest and politician....

 Melanesian study, The Sexual Life of Savages
The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia
The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia is a 1929 book by anthropologist Bronisław Malinowski...

 (1929), and Gladwin and Sarason's "Truk: Man in Paradise" (1956). Malinowski states that in the language of the Trobriand Island
Trobriand Islands
The Trobriand Islands are a 450 km² archipelago of coral atolls off the eastern coast of New Guinea. They are situated in Milne Bay Province in Papua New Guinea. Most of the population of 12,000 indigenous inhabitants live on the main island of Kiriwina, which is also the location of the...

 people, a single word is used to describe ejaculation in both male and female.
In describing sexual relations amongst the Trukese
Chuuk — formerly Truk, Ruk, Hogoleu, Torres, Ugulat, and Lugulus — is an island group in the south western part of the Pacific Ocean. It comprises one of the four states of the Federated States of Micronesia , along with Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap. Chuuk is the most populous of the FSM's...

 Micronesians, Gladwin and Sarason state that "Female orgasm is commonly signalled by urination". Catherine Blackledge (p. 205) provides a number of examples from other cultures, including the Uganda
Uganda , officially the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East Africa. Uganda is also known as the "Pearl of Africa". It is bordered on the east by Kenya, on the north by South Sudan, on the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, on the southwest by Rwanda, and on the south by...

n Batoro
Demographics of Uganda
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Uganda, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.-Ethnic Diversity:...

, Mohave Indians, Mangaia
Mangaia is the most southerly of the Cook Islands and the second largest, after Rarotonga.-Geography:...

ns, and Ponapese
Not to be confused with Pompeii, the ancient city destroyed by Vesuvius in AD 79.Pohnpei "upon a stone altar " is the name of one of the four states in the Federated States of Micronesia , situated among the Senyavin Islands which are part of the larger Caroline Islands group...

. Amongst the Batoro, older women teach the younger women "kachapati" (spraying the wall) at puberty. (See also Chalker 2002 pp. 531–2, Ladas et al. 1983 pp. 74–5)

Controversy, debate and feminist criticism

The debate in the current literature focuses on three threads: the existence of female ejaculation, its source(s) and composition, and its relationship to theories of female sexuality. This debate has been influenced by popular culture, pornography, and physio-chemical and behavioral studies. There is some resistance from feminists to what has been perceived as a male lens in interpreting the data and construct. Often the debate is also tied to the existence of the G-spot
The Gräfenberg Spot, often called the G-Spot, is a bean-shaped area of the vagina. Many women report that it is an erogenous zone which, when stimulated, can lead to strong sexual arousal, powerful orgasms and female ejaculation...

stimulation of the anterior vaginal wall involves simultaneous stimulation of the para-urethral tissue, the site of the Skene's gland
Skene's gland
In human anatomy , the Skene's glands are glands located on the anterior wall of the vagina, around the lower end of the urethra. They drain into the urethra and near the urethral opening and may be near or a part of the G-Spot...

s and ducts and presumed source of the ejaculated fluid, and therefore it has been variously stated that stimulation of this spot results in ejaculation. These tissues, surrounding the distal urethra, and anterior to the vagina, have a common embryological origin to the prostatic tissue in the male.

In an extensive survey, Darling and colleagues claim support for the existence of ejaculation, while in a sharply critical response, Alzate states that direct experimentation fails to provide any evidence. Alzate states:
Shannon Bell
Shannon Bell
Shannon Bell is a performance philosopher who lives and writes philosophy-in-action, experimental philosophy.Her five books include Reading, Writing and Rewriting the Prostitute Body, Whore Carnival, Bad Attitude/s on Trial , New Socialisms , and Fast Feminism.Bell is currently researching extreme...

 argues that the debate is confused by the discussion of two separate phenomena. She comments that Alzate simply dismisses women's subjective experiences in favour of rigorous scientific proof, and is typical of male sexologists withholding the validity of experience from women. Bell's critique lies at the heart of feminist concerns about this debate, namely a tendency to "disregard, reinterpret, and overwrite women's subjective descriptions." For some, she states, it is more a matter of belief than of physiology. Bell further questions why feminists have not been more outspoken in defense of women's control over female ejaculation, pointing out that the literature frames the discussion in only five separate ways; procreation, sexual pleasure, deviance, pathology, and a scientific mystery.

The discussion entered popular culture in 1982 with the publication of the best-selling book The G Spot and Other Recent Discoveries About Human Sexuality
The G Spot and Other Recent Discoveries About Human Sexuality
The G Spot and Other Recent Discoveries About Human Sexuality, published in 1982 by Alice Kahn Ladas, Beverly Whipple and John D. Perry is a controversial book that argued for the existence of the Gräfenberg Spot and popularised the term "G-Spot"...

, by Ladas, Whipple, and Perry. The book discussed female ejaculation and brought the issue back into discussions of women's sexuality both in the medical community and among the general public. This was a popular account of three papers by the authors, the previous year, at the suggestion of Alice Khan Ladas.
Rebecca Chalker notes that this book was largely met with scorn, skepticism and disbelief. The chapter on 'Female Ejaculation' is largely based on anecdotal testimony, and illustrates another issue in the debate, the weight placed on anecdotes and small numbers of observations rather than biomedical investigation or clinical trials. Importantly, a number of the women stated that they had been diagnosed with urinary incontinence. The book advances another feminist theory: that because women's pleasure in their sexuality has been historically excluded, the pleasure of ejaculation has been either discounted or appropriated by health professionals as a physiological phenomenon. Whipple continued to publicise her discoveries, including a 9 min video made in 1981 Orgasmic Expulsions of Fluid in the Sexually Stimulated Female. In 1984, the Journal of Sex Research described the debate surrounding female ejaculation as 'heated'.
Josephine Sevely then followed up her 1978 study by publishing "Eve's Secrets: A new theory of female sexuality" in 1987, emphasising an integrated rather than fragmented approach to understanding female sexuality, with the clitoris, vagina and urethra depicted as a single sexual organ. This not only challenged the traditional fragmentation of female sexuality into clitoral vs. vaginal sensation, but also sexualised the urethra.

The continuing debate is further illustrated in the angry exchange of letters between the author and researchers in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in 2002 following the publication of 'The G-spot: A modern gynecological myth' by Terrence Hines.
As of 2007, and 2008
the existence of a female prostate and of ejaculation are a matter of debate, and articles and book chapters continue to appear with subtitles such as "Fact or Fantasy".


Much of the problem in arriving at a consensus relates to a failure to adopt generally agreed-on definitions or research methodology. Research has used highly selected individuals, case studies, or very small numbers of subjects, making generalization difficult. For instance, much of the research into the nature of the fluid focuses on determining whether it is or contains urine. There are also problems involved in the collection of specimens and issues of contamination. Since the area of interest is para-urethral glands, it is impossible to completely separate the secretions from urine, especially considering that there may be retrograde ejaculation
Retrograde ejaculation
In the human male reproductive system, retrograde ejaculation occurs when semen, which would normally be ejaculated via the urethra, is redirected to the urinary bladder. Normally, the sphincter of the bladder contracts before ejaculation forcing the semen to exit via the urethra, the path of least...

 into the urethra towards the bladder. The best current data comes from studies where women have abstained from coitus, and where their own urine is used as a control both pre and post-orgasm. Research has attempted to use chemicals that are excreted in the urine so that any urinary contamination can be detected. Further methodological issues include the fact that the composition of the fluid appears to vary with the menstrual cycle, and that the biochemical profile of the para-urethral tissues varies with age.
Other issues relate to the sensitivity and specificity of the markers chosen. The key questions are the source of the fluid produced, and its composition. Some relevant findings have been presented in conferences but never published in peer review journals, and many others are in difficult to access resources.

Relation to urinary incontinence

Towards the later part of the twentieth century, there was significant confusion between female ejaculation and urinary incontinence
Urinary incontinence
Urinary incontinence is any involuntary leakage of urine. It is a common and distressing problem, which may have a profound impact on quality of life. Urinary incontinence almost always results from an underlying treatable medical condition but is under-reported to medical practitioners...

. In 1982, Bohlen explained the accepted wisdom;
Scientific studies from the 1980s and later have demonstrated that the substance produced is distinct from urine, though it does show similarities such as alkalinity with urine. A recent study of women who report ejaculation found no evidence of any urological problems, suggesting these two conditions (ejaculation and coital incontinence) are quite distinct physiologically, although perhaps not always distinguishable in a particular individual's mind. Davidson's study of 1,289 women found that the sensation of ejaculation was very similar to that of urination. The best evidence indicates that most fluid expelled during female orgasm is urine. One study used urethral catheterization in order to separate urine from orgasmic expulsions from elsewhere in the body. Seven women claiming to have ejaculations expelled large volumes of urine through the catheter at orgasm, and little to no other fluid. No catheterization study has shown large volumes of fluid expelled at orgasm from any source other than the bladder.

It may be important for physicians to establish whether there is in fact any incontinence in women who report ejaculation, to avoid unnecessary interventions.
It is also important for physicians to distinguish orgasmic ejaculation from vaginal discharges which may require further investigation and treatment. In individual cases, the exact source of any reported discharge may not be obvious without further investigation.

Nature of fluid

Critics have maintained that ejaculation is either stress incontinence or vaginal lubrication
Vaginal lubrication
Vaginal lubrication is a lubricating fluid that is naturally produced in a woman's vagina. Vaginal lubrication or moistness is present at all times, but production increases significantly during a woman's sexual arousal in anticipation of sexual intercourse...

. Research in this area has concentrated almost exclusively on attempts to prove that the ejaculate is not urine, measuring substances such as urea
Urea or carbamide is an organic compound with the chemical formula CO2. The molecule has two —NH2 groups joined by a carbonyl functional group....

, creatinine
Creatinine is a break-down product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body...

, prostatic acid phosphatase
Prostatic acid phosphatase
Prostatic acid phosphatase , also prostatic specific acid phosphatase , is an enzyme produced by the prostate. It may be found in increased amounts in men who have prostate cancer or other diseases....

 (PAP), prostate specific antigen
Prostate specific antigen
Prostate-specific antigen also known as gamma-seminoprotein or kallikrein-3 is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the KLK3 gene. KLK3 is a member of the kallikrein-related peptidase family that are secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland...

 (PSA), glucose
Glucose is a simple sugar and an important carbohydrate in biology. Cells use it as the primary source of energy and a metabolic intermediate...

 and fructose
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple monosaccharide found in many plants. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with glucose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion. Fructose was discovered by French chemist Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut in 1847...

levels. Early work was contradictory; the initial study on one woman by Addiego and colleagues reported in 1981, could not be confirmed in a subsequent study on 11 women in 1983,
but was confirmed in another 7 women in 1984. In 1985 a different group studied 27 women, and found only urine, suggesting that results depend critically on the methods used.

A 2007 study on two women involved ultrasound
Ultrasound is cyclic sound pressure with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing. Ultrasound is thus not separated from "normal" sound based on differences in physical properties, only the fact that humans cannot hear it. Although this limit varies from person to person, it is...

, endoscopy
Endoscopy means looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope , an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body. Unlike most other medical imaging devices, endoscopes are inserted directly into the organ...

, and biochemical analysis of fluid. The ejaculate was compared to pre-orgasmic urine from the same woman, and also to published data on male ejaculate. In both women, higher levels of PSA, PAP, and glucose but lower levels of creatinine were found in the ejaculate than the urine. PSA levels were comparable to those in males.

Source of fluid

One very practical objection relates to the reported volumes ejaculated since this fluid must be stored somewhere in the pelvis, of which the urinary bladder
Urinary bladder
The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination. A hollow muscular, and distensible organ, the bladder sits on the pelvic floor...

 is the largest source. The actual volume of the para-urethral tissue is quite small. By comparison, male ejaculate varies from 0.2–6.6 mL (0.04–1.3 tsp) (95% confidence interval
Confidence interval
In statistics, a confidence interval is a particular kind of interval estimate of a population parameter and is used to indicate the reliability of an estimate. It is an observed interval , in principle different from sample to sample, that frequently includes the parameter of interest, if the...

), with a maximum of 13 mL (2.6 tsp). Therefore claims of larger amounts of ejaculate are likely to contain at least some amount of urine. The eleven specimens analyzed by Goldberg in 1983, ranged from 3–15 mL (0.6–3.0 tsp). One source states that Skene's glands are capable of excreting 30–50 mL (6–10 tsp) in 30–50 seconds, but it is unclear how this was measured and has not been confirmed. One approach is to use a chemical like methylene blue
Methylene blue
Methylene blue is a heterocyclic aromatic chemical compound with the molecular formula C16H18N3SCl. It has many uses in a range of different fields, such as biology and chemistry. At room temperature it appears as a solid, odorless, dark green powder, that yields a blue solution when dissolved in...

 so that any urinary component can be detected. Belzer showed that in one woman he studied, the dye was found in her urine, but not her orgasmic expulsion.

PAP and PSA have been identified in the para-urethral tissues, using biochemical and immunohistochemical methods, suggesting that the ejaculate likely arises from the ducts in these tissues, in a manner homologous to that in the male. Another marker common to the prostate/para-urethral tissue in both sexes is Human Protein 1.

PSA occurs in urine, and is elevated in post-orgasmic samples compared to pre-orgasmic. Simultaneous collection of ejaculate also showed PSA in both urine and ejaculate in all cases, but in higher concentration in the ejaculate than in the urine.


The physiological function of the purported liquid is unknown. A 2009 paper in Medical Hypotheses
Medical Hypotheses
Medical Hypotheses is a medical journal published by Elsevier. It was originally intended as a forum for unconventional ideas without the traditional filter of scientific peer review, "so long as are coherent and clearly expressed" in order to "foster the diversity and debate upon which the...

 suggests that it may have an anti-microbial function, protecting from urinary tract infections.

Social significance

Sexual functions, and orgasm in particular, remain poorly understood scientifically, as opposed to politically and philosophically. Regardless of the facts relating to the details of female ejaculation, the social significance of the popular accounts through the feminist health care movement has been considerable.

Many women, before learning about ejaculation, experienced shame or avoided sexual intimacy under the belief that they had wet the bed. Others suppressed sexual climax, and sought medical advice for this "problem," and even underwent surgery.

There are, however, concerns. The terminology (such as female prostate and female ejaculation) invoke images of the female as merely an imitation of the male, mapping the female body onto the male, as if, like the Galen
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus , better known as Galen of Pergamon , was a prominent Roman physician, surgeon and philosopher...

ic view, it was incomplete. Furthermore, overemphasis of ejaculation may induce performance anxiety. For the reason that 'sameness' has been construed as a male perspective, some feminists reject the term ejaculation. Others argue it should be retained as a distinctive feminine characteristic distinguishable from the male, and imbued with different properties and purpose. A third concern is that of the increasing 'medicalisation' of women's sexuality, as expressed by Leonore Tiefer which finds its most extreme manifestation in the concept of female sexual dysfunction.
Tiefer has expressed concern that overemphasising ejaculation will drive women who might feel inadequate to seek medical attention, as has the Boston Women's Health Collective. Other criticism comes from Barbara Ehrenreich
Barbara Ehrenreich
-Early life:Ehrenreich was born Barbara Alexander to Isabelle Oxley and Ben Howes Alexander in Butte, Montana, which she describes as then being "a bustling, brawling, blue collar mining town."...

  and colleagues who see this new sexuality as one that privileges the male in control, penile retention and body position, but this is denied by others.

Contemporary women's health literature summarises what is considered factual as being that the amount of fluid varies greatly and may be unnoticeable, occurs with or without vaginal stimulation, and may accompany orgasm or merely intense sexual pleasure, and orgasm may occur without ejaculation. Whether it can be learned or not, women report that they can induce it by enhancing their sexual response. Regardless, countless workshops now exist to teach women that learning how to ejaculate is an important form of feminine sexual expression. Sundahl describes it as a birthright and essential part of female creativity.

Legal implications

The presence of chemical markers such as PSA or PAP in the female genital tract has been considered evidence in rape trials, but Sensabaugh and Kahane demonstrated in four specimens that PAP was an order of magnitude greater in a woman's ejaculate than in her urine. Recently, knowledge that these markers can be of female origin has led to acquittal based on forensic evidence.


In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, the British Board of Film Classification
British Board of Film Classification
The British Board of Film Classification , originally British Board of Film Censors, is a non-governmental organisation, funded by the film industry and responsible for the national classification of films within the United Kingdom...

 has banned films alleged to show female ejaculation, claiming that the expert medical advice they received informed them that there is no such thing as female ejaculation, and therefore it was deemed to show urine. Urination during sex (or "piss play", as they refer to it) is considered to be obscenity under English Law. They later stated instead that they do not take any view on whether female ejaculation exists, only claiming that all examples they have seen thus far during classification have been urination during sex.

Easy on the Eye Productions released a press announcement on October 6, 2010 stating that the BBFC passed the DVD "Women Love Porn" (containing a scene including female ejaculation in the scene "Top Milf") on advice of legal counsel when the director, Anna Span
Anna Span
Anna Arrowsmith , who works under the pseudonym Anna Span, is an English pornographic film director. She is also a public speaker on sex, pornography, and feminism.-Early life:...

, pushed for a hearing with the Video Appeals Committee. The BBFC maintains that they do not accept the existence of female ejaculation and their "position remains fundamentally unchanged for future releases". Easy on the Eye Productions considers it a "historic victory".
According to the Carnal Nation site, the issue was first raised by the group Feminists Against Censorship (FAC) in 2001.

In Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

, a similar view has been taken with regard to Internet Censorship proposals, which ban pornographic websites
Internet pornography
Internet pornography is pornography that is distributed by means of various sectors of the Internet, primarily via websites, peer-to-peer file sharing, or Usenet newsgroups...

 featuring female ejaculation.

See also

  • Anterior fornix erogenous zone
    Anterior fornix erogenous zone
    The anterior fornix erogenous zone is a female erogenous zone that when stimulated can lead to rapid vaginal lubrication and arousal, sometimes without any other form of stimulation, with continued stimulation resulting in an intense orgasm.-Early research:The AFE...

     AFE zone
  • Bartholin's gland
    Bartholin's gland
    The Bartholin's glands are two glands located slightly posterior and to the left and right of the opening of the vagina. They secrete mucus to lubricate the vagina and are homologous to bulbourethral glands in males...

  • One sex two sex theory
    One sex two sex theory
    The one-sex and two-sex theory are two models of human anatomy or fetal development discussed in Thomas Laqueur's book Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud. He theorizes that a fundamental change in attitudes toward human sexual anatomy occurred in Europe in the 18th and 19th...

  • Urethral sponge
    Urethral sponge
    The urethral sponge is a spongy cushion of tissue, found in the lower genital area of women, that sits against both the pubic bone and vaginal wall, and surrounds the urethra.-Functions:...

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