in the theatre. His major works include Brand
, Peer Gynt
, An Enemy of the People
, Emperor and Galilean
, A Doll's House
, Hedda Gabler
, The Wild Duck
, and Rosmersholm
Several of his plays were considered scandalous to many of his era, when European theater was required to model strict mores of family life and propriety.
Erring soul of man — if thou wast indeed forced to err, it shall surely be accounted to thee for good on that great day when the Mighty One shall descend in the clouds to judge the living dead and the dead who are yet alive!
The great secret of power is never to will to do more than you can accomplish. The great secret of action and victory is to be capable of living your life without ideals. Such is the sum of the whole world's wisdom.
I hold that man is in the right who is most closely in league with the future.
The great task of our time is to blow up all existing institutions — to destroy.
I thank God that in the bath of Pain He purged my love. What strong compulsion drew Me on I knew not, till I saw in you The treasure I had blindly sought in vain. I praise Him, who our love has lifted thus To noble rank by sorrow, — licensed us To a triumphal progress, bade us sweep Thro' fen and forest to our castle-keep, A noble pair, astride on Pegasus|Pegasus!
in the theatre. His major works include Brand
, Peer Gynt
, An Enemy of the People
, Emperor and Galilean
, A Doll's House
, Hedda Gabler
, The Wild Duck
, and Rosmersholm
Several of his plays were considered scandalous to many of his era, when European theater was required to model strict mores of family life and propriety. Ibsen's work examined the realities that lay behind many façades, revealing much that was disquieting to many contemporaries. It utilized a critical eye and free inquiry into the conditions of life and issues of morality
. The poetic and cinematic play Peer Gynt, however, has strong surreal
Ibsen is often ranked as one of the truly great playwrights in the European tradition. Richard Hornby describes him as "a profound poetic dramatist—the best since Shakespeare". He influenced other playwrights and novelists such as George Bernard Shaw
, Oscar Wilde
, James Joyce
, and Eugene O'Neill
. Many critics consider him the greatest playwright since Shakespeare.
Although most of his plays are set in Norway—often in places reminiscent of Skien
, the port town where he grew up—Ibsen lived for 27 years in Italy
, and rarely visited Norway during his most productive years.
Family and youthIbsen was born to Knud Ibsen
(1797–1877) and Marichen Altenburg (1799–1869), a well-to-do merchant family, in the small port town of Skien
county, a city which was noted for shipping timber. As he wrote in an 1882 letter to critic and scholar Georg Brandes
, "my parents were members on both sides of the most respected families in Skien", explaining that he was closely related with "just about all the patrician families who then dominated the place and its surroundings", mentioning the families Paus
, Plesner, von der Lippe
and Blom. According to Einar Ingvald Haugen, "there is more than a touch of pride in his bourgeois background in this enumeration of names whose very form associates them with the more or less foreign ancestry of the Norwegian upper middle class". Ibsen's grandfather, ship's captain Henrich Ibsen (1765–1797), had died at sea in 1797, and Knud Ibsen was raised on the estate of ship-owner Ole Paus (1776–1855), after his mother Johanne, née Plesner (1770–1847), remarried.
Knud Ibsen's paternal ancestors were ship's captains of Danish origin, but he decided to become a merchant, having initial success. His marriage to Marichen Altenburg, a daughter of ship-owner Johan Andreas Altenburg (1763–1824) and Hedevig Christine Paus (1763–1848), was "an excellent family arrangement. Marichen's mother and Knud's step-father were sister and brother, and the bride and groom, who had grown up together, were practically regarded as sister and brother themselves. Marichen Altenburg was a fine catch, the daughter of one of the wealthiest merchants in the prosperous lumber town of Skien." Theodore Jorgenson points out that "Henrik's ancestry [thus] reached back into the important Telemark family of Paus both on the father's and on the mother's side. Hedvig Paus must have been well known to the young dramatist, for she lived until 1848." Henrik Ibsen was fascinated by his parents' "strange, almost incestuous marriage," and would treat the subject of incestuous relationships in several plays, notably his masterpiece Rosmersholm
When Henrik Ibsen was around seven years old, however, his father's fortunes took a significant turn for the worse, and the family was eventually forced to sell the major Altenburg building in central Skien and move permanently to their small summer house, Venstøp, outside of the city. His bankruptcy made Knud Ibsen a moody and embittered man who turned to alcoholism
, and Marichen became a recluse who found solace in piety
. Henrik's sister Hedvig would write about their mother: "She was a quiet, lovable woman, the soul of the house, everything to her husband and children. She sacrificed herself time and again. There was no bitterness or reproach in her." Marichen Altenburg was "small, brunette, and dark-complexioned, and the only existing likeness of her, a silhoutte, bears out the tradition that she was beautiful". The Ibsen family eventually moved to a city house, Snipetorp, owned by Knud Ibsen's half-brother, wealthy banker and ship-owner Christopher Blom Paus.
His déclassé background would have a strong influence on Ibsen's later work; the characters in his plays often mirror his parents, and his themes often deal with issues of financial difficulty as well as moral conflicts stemming from dark secrets hidden from society. Ibsen would both model and name characters in his plays after his own family.
At fifteen, Ibsen was forced to leave school. He moved to the small town of Grimstad
to become an apprentice pharmacist
and began writing plays. In 1846, when Ibsen was age 18, a liaison with a servant
produced an illegitimate child, whose upbringing Ibsen had to pay for until the boy was in his teens, though Ibsen never saw the boy. Ibsen went to Christiania
(later renamed Oslo) intending to matriculate at the university. He soon rejected the idea (his earlier attempts at entering university were blocked as he did not pass all his entrance exams), preferring to commit himself to writing. His first play, the tragedy
(1850), was published under the pseudonym
"Brynjolf Bjarme", when he was only 20, but it was not performed. His first play to be staged, The Burial Mound
(1850), received little attention. Still, Ibsen was determined to be a playwright, although the numerous plays he wrote in the following years remained unsuccessful. Ibsen's main inspiration in the early period, right up to Peer Gynt
, was apparently Norwegian author Henrik Wergeland
and the Norwegian folk tales as collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen
and Jørgen Moe
. In Ibsen's youth, Wergeland was the most acclaimed, and by far the most read, Norwegian poet and playwright.
Life and writingsHe spent the next several years employed at Det norske Theater (Bergen)
, where he was involved in the production of more than 145 plays as a writer, director, and producer. During this period, he did not publish any new plays of his own. Despite Ibsen's failure to achieve success as a playwright, he gained a great deal of practical experience at the Norwegian Theater, experience that was to prove valuable when he continued writing.
Ibsen returned to Christiania in 1858 to become the creative director of the Christiania Theatre
. He married Suzannah Thoresen
on 18 June 1858 and she gave birth to their only child Sigurd
on 23 December 1859. The couple lived in very poor financial circumstances and Ibsen became very disenchanted with life in Norway. In 1864, he left Christiania and went to Sorrento
in Italy in self-imposed exile. He was not to return to his native land for the next 27 years, and when he returned it was as a noted, but controversial, playwright.
His next play, Brand
(1865), was to bring him the critical acclaim he sought, along with a measure of financial success, as was the following play, Peer Gynt
(1867), to which Edvard Grieg
famously composed incidental music
and songs. Although Ibsen read excerpts of the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard
and traces of the latter's influence are evident in Brand, it was not until after Brand that Ibsen came to take Kierkegaard seriously. Initially annoyed with his friend Georg Brandes for comparing Brand to Kierkegaard, Ibsen nevertheless read Either/Or
and Fear and Trembling
. Ibsen's next play Peer Gynt was consciously informed by Kierkegaard.
With success, Ibsen became more confident and began to introduce more and more of his own beliefs and judgments into the drama, exploring what he termed the "drama of ideas". His next series of plays are often considered his Golden Age, when he entered the height of his power and influence, becoming the center of dramatic controversy across Europe.
, Germany in 1868, where he spent years writing the play he regarded as his main work, Emperor and Galilean
(1873), dramatizing the life and times of the Roman emperor Julian the Apostate
. Although Ibsen himself always looked back on this play as the cornerstone of his entire works, very few shared his opinion, and his next works would be much more acclaimed. Ibsen moved to Munich
in 1875 and published A Doll's House
in 1879. The play is a scathing criticism of the marital roles accepted by men and women which characterized Ibsen's society.
followed in 1881, another scathing commentary on the morality of Ibsen's society, in which a widow reveals to her pastor that she had hidden the evils of her marriage for its duration. The pastor had advised her to marry her fiancé despite his philandering
, and she did so in the belief that her love would reform him. But his philandering continued right up until his death, and his vices are passed on to their son in the form of syphilis
. The mention of venereal disease alone was scandalous, but to show how it could poison a respectable family was considered intolerable.
In An Enemy of the People
(1882), Ibsen went even further. In earlier plays, controversial elements were important and even pivotal components of the action, but they were on the small scale of individual households. In An Enemy, controversy became the primary focus, and the antagonist was the entire community. One primary message of the play is that the individual, who stands alone, is more often "right" than the mass of people, who are portrayed as ignorant and sheeplike. Contemporary society's belief was that the community was a noble institution that could be trusted, a notion Ibsen challenged. In An Enemy of the People, Ibsen chastised not only the conservatism
of society, but also the liberalism
of the time. He illustrated how people on both sides of the social spectrum could be equally self-serving. An Enemy of the People was written as a response to the people who had rejected his previous work, Ghosts. The plot of the play is a veiled look at the way people reacted to the plot of Ghosts. The protagonist is a physician in a vacation spot whose primary draw is a public bath. The doctor discovers that the water is contaminated by the local tannery
. He expects to be acclaimed for saving the town from the nightmare of infecting visitors with disease, but instead he is declared an 'enemy of the people' by the locals, who band against him and even throw stones through his windows. The play ends with his complete ostracism. It is obvious to the reader that disaster is in store for the town as well as for the doctor.
As audiences by now expected of him, his next play again attacked entrenched beliefs and assumptions; but this time, his attack was not against society's mores, but against overeager reformers and their idealism. Always an iconoclast
, Ibsen was equally willing to tear down the ideologies of any part of the political spectrum, including his own.
The Wild Duck
(1884) is by many considered Ibsen's finest work, and it is certainly the most complex. It tells the story of Gregers Werle, a young man who returns to his hometown after an extended exile and is reunited with his boyhood friend Hjalmar Ekdal. Over the course of the play, the many secrets that lie behind the Ekdals' apparently happy home are revealed to Gregers, who insists on pursuing the absolute truth, or the "Summons of the Ideal". Among these truths: Gregers' father impregnated his servant Gina, then married her off to Hjalmar to legitimize the child. Another man has been disgraced and imprisoned for a crime the elder Werle committed. Furthermore, while Hjalmar spends his days working on a wholly imaginary "invention", his wife is earning the household income.
Ibsen displays masterful use of irony
: despite his dogmatic insistence on truth, Gregers never says what he thinks but only insinuates, and is never understood until the play reaches its climax. Gregers hammers away at Hjalmar through innuendo and coded phrases until he realizes the truth; Gina's daughter, Hedvig, is not his child. Blinded by Gregers' insistence on absolute truth, he disavows the child. Seeing the damage he has wrought, Gregers determines to repair things, and suggests to Hedvig that she sacrifice the wild duck, her wounded pet, to prove her love for Hjalmar. Hedvig, alone among the characters, recognizes that Gregers always speaks in code, and looking for the deeper meaning in the first important statement Gregers makes which does not contain one, kills herself rather than the duck in order to prove her love for him in the ultimate act of self-sacrifice. Only too late do Hjalmar and Gregers realize that the absolute truth of the "ideal" is sometimes too much for the human heart to bear.
(1890) and The Master Builder
(1892), Ibsen explored psychological conflicts that transcended a simple rejection of current conventions. Many modern readers, who might regard anti-Victorian didacticism as dated, simplistic or hackneyed, have found these later works to be of absorbing interest for their hard-edged, objective consideration of interpersonal confrontation. Hedda Gabler is probably Ibsen's most performed play, with the title role regarded as one of the most challenging and rewarding for an actress even in the present day. Hedda Gabler and A Doll's House center on female protagonists whose almost demonic energy proves both attractive and destructive for those around them, and while Hedda has a few similarities with the character of Nora in A Doll's House, many of today's audiences and theater critics feel that Hedda's intensity and drive are much more complex and much less comfortably explained than what they view as rather routine feminism on the part of Nora.
Ibsen had completely rewritten the rules of drama with a realism which was to be adopted by Chekhov
and others and which we see in the theater to this day. From Ibsen forward, challenging assumptions and directly speaking about issues has been considered one of the factors that makes a play art
rather than entertainment
. He had a profound influence on the young James Joyce who venerates him in his early autobiographical novel "Stephen Hero". Ibsen returned to Norway in 1891, but it was in many ways not the Norway he had left. Indeed, he had played a major role in the changes that had happened across society. The Victorian Age was on its last legs, to be replaced by the rise of Modernism not only in the theater, but across public life.
DeathOn 23 May 1906, Ibsen died in his home at Arbins gade 1 in Christiania
(now Oslo) after a series of stroke
s in March 1900. When, on 22 May, his nurse assured a visitor that he was a little better, Ibsen spluttered his last words "On the contrary" ("Tvertimod!"). He died the following day at 2:30 P.M.
Ibsen was buried in Vår Frelsers gravlund
("The Graveyard of Our Savior") in central Oslo.
CentenaryThe 100th anniversary of Ibsen's death in 2006 was commemorated with an "Ibsen year" in Norway and other countries. This year the homebuilding company Selvaag also opened Peer Gynt Sculpture Park
, Norway, in Henrik Ibsen's honour, making it possible to follow the dramatic play Peer Gynt
scene by scene.
On 23 May 2006, The Ibsen Museum (Oslo)
reopened to the public the house where Ibsen had spent his last eleven years, completely restored with the original interior, colors, and decor.
AncestryThe oldest documented Ibsen was ship's captain Rasmus Ibsen (1632–1703) from Stege, Denmark
. His son, ship's captain Peder Ibsen became a burgher
in Norway in 1726. Henrik Ibsen has Danish, German, Norwegian and some distant Scottish ancestry. Most of his ancestors belonged to the merchant class of original Danish/German extraction, and many of his ancestors were ship's captains. His biographer Henrik Jæger
famously wrote in 1888 that Ibsen did not have a drop of Norse blood in his veins, stating that "the ancestral Ibsen was a Dane". This, however, is not completely accurate; notably through his grandmother Hedevig Paus, Ibsen was descended from one of the very few families of the patrician class of original Norwegian extraction, known since the 15th century. Ibsen's ancestors had mostly lived in Norway for several generations, even though many had foreign ancestry.
The name Ibsen is originally a patronymic
, meaning "son of Ib" (Ib is a Danish variant of Jacob
). The patronymic became "frozen", i.e. it became a permanent family name
, already in the 17th century. The phenomenon of patronymics becoming frozen started in the 17th century in bourgeois families in Denmark, and the practice was only widely adopted in Norway from around 1900.
DescendantsFrom his marriage with Suzannah Thoresen
, Ibsen had one son, lawyer and government minister Sigurd Ibsen
. Sigurd Ibsen married Bergljot Bjørnson, the daughter of Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
. Their only child was Tancred Ibsen, who became a film director and who was married to Lillebil Ibsen
. Their only child was diplomat Tancred Ibsen, Jr.
- 1850 CatilineCatiline (play)Catiline or Catalina was Henrik Ibsen's first play. It was written during winter 1848-49 and first performed under Ibsen's name on December 3, 1881 at the Nya Teatern , Stockholm, Sweden...
- 1850 The Burial MoundThe Burial MoundThe Burial Mound was Henrik Ibsen's second play and the first play to be performed. It is a three-act verse drama, written in 1850 when Ibsen was 22 years old. The play was first performed at the Christiania Theater on 26 September 1850, under Ibsen's pseudonym Brynjolf Bjarme....
also known as The Warrior's Barrow (Kjæmpehøjen)
- 1851 Norma (Norma)
- 1852 St. John's EveSt. John's Eve (play)St. John's Eve, is a play written by Henrik Ibsen in 1853. The play is considered apocryphal, because it never entered Ibsen's collected works...
- 1854 Lady Inger of OestraatLady Inger of OestraatLady Inger of Oestraat is a play by Henrik Ibsen, inspired by the life of Inger, Lady of Austraat. The play, the third work of the Norwegian's career, reflects the birth of Romantic Nationalism in the Norway of that period, and had a strongly anti-Danish sentiment...
(Fru Inger til Østeraad)
- 1855 The Feast at SolhaugThe Feast at SolhaugThe Feast at Solhaug is the first publicly successful drama by Henrik Ibsen. It was written in 1855 and had its premier at Det norske Theater in Bergen on January 2, 1856...
(Gildet paa Solhaug)
- 1856 Olaf Liljekrans (Olaf Liljekrans)
- 1857 The Vikings at HelgelandThe Vikings at HelgelandThe Vikings at Helgeland is Henrik Ibsen's seventh play.The Vikings at Helgeland was written during 1857 and first performed at Christiania Norske Theater in Oslo on 24 November 1858. The scenes take place during the time of Erik Blood-axe in the north of Norway in historic Helgeland...
(Hærmændene paa Helgeland)
- 1862 Digte - only released collection of poetry, included "Terje VigenTerje VigenTerje Vigen is a poem written by Henrik Ibsen, published in 1862. Much of the story and setting is from the area around the town of Grimstad in southern Norway where Ibsen lived for a few years in his youth...
- 1862 Love's ComedyLove's ComedyLove's Comedy is a comedy by Henrik Ibsen. It was first published on 31 December 1862. As a result of being branded an "immoral" work in the press, the Christiania Theatre would not dare to stage it at first...
- 1863 The PretendersThe Pretenders (play)The Pretenders is a dramatic play by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen.-Play overview:The Pretenders was written in bursts during 1863, but Ibsen claims to have had sources and the idea back in 1858. A five-act play in prose set in the thirteenth-century. The play opened at the old Christiania...
- 1866 BrandBrand (play)Brand is a play by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. It is a verse tragedy, written in 1865 and first performed in Stockholm on 24 March 1867. Brand was an intellectual play that provoked much original thought....
- 1867 Peer GyntPeer GyntPeer Gynt is a five-act play in verse by the Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen, loosely based on the fairy tale Per Gynt. It is the most widely performed Norwegian play. According to Klaus Van Den Berg, the "cinematic script blends poetry with social satire and realistic scenes with surreal ones"...
- 1869 The League of YouthThe League of YouthThe League of Youth is a play by Henrik Ibsen finished in early May 1869. It was Ibsen's first play in colloquial prose and marks a turning point in his style towards realism and away from verse. It was widely considered Ibsen's most popular play in nineteenth-century Norway...
(De unges Forbund)
- 1873 Emperor and GalileanEmperor and GalileanEmperor and Galilean is a play written by Henrik Ibsen. Although it is one of the writer’s lesser known plays, on several occasions Henrik Ibsen called Emperor and Galilean his major work...
(Kejser og Galilæer)
- 1877 Pillars of Society (Samfundets Støtter)
- 1879 A Doll's HouseA Doll's HouseA Doll's House is a three-act play in prose by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. It premièred at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 21 December 1879, having been published earlier that month....
- 1881 GhostsGhosts (play)Ghosts is a play by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. It was written in 1881 and first staged in 1882.Like many of Ibsen's better-known plays, Ghosts is a scathing commentary on 19th century morality....
- 1882 An Enemy of the PeopleAn Enemy of the PeopleAn Enemy of the People is an 1882 play by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. Ibsen wrote it in response to the public outcry against his play Ghosts, which at that time was considered scandalous...
- 1884 The Wild DuckThe Wild DuckThe Wild Duck is an 1884 play by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen.-Plot:The first act opens with a dinner party hosted by Håkon Werle, a wealthy merchant and industrialist. The gathering is attended by his son, Gregers Werle, who has just returned to his father's home following a self-imposed...
- 1886 RosmersholmRosmersholmRosmersholm is a play written in 1886 by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. In the estimation of many critics the piece is Ibsen's masterwork, only equalled by The Wild Duck of 1884...
- 1888 The Lady from the SeaThe Lady from the SeaThe Lady from the Sea is a play written in 1888 by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen.Kvinnan från havet is a ballet by choreographer Birgit Cullberg, and based on Ibsen's play...
(Fruen fra Havet)
- 1890 Hedda GablerHedda GablerHedda Gabler is a play first published in 1890 by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. The play premiered in 1891 in Germany to negative reviews, but has subsequently gained recognition as a classic of realism, nineteenth century theatre, and world drama...
- 1892 The Master BuilderThe Master BuilderThe Master Builder is a play by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. It was first published in December 1892 and is regarded as one of Ibsen's most significant and revealing works.-Performance:...
- 1894 Little EyolfLittle EyolfLittle Eyolf is an 1894 play by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. The play was first performed on January 12, 1895 in the Deutsches Theater in Berlin.-Plot:...
- 1896 John Gabriel BorkmanJohn Gabriel BorkmanJohn Gabriel Borkman is the penultimate composition of the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen, written in 1896.-Plot:The Borkman family fortunes have been brought low by the imprisonment of John Gabriel who used his position as a bank manager to illegally speculate with his investors' money...
(John Gabriel Borkman)
- 1899 When We Dead AwakenWhen We Dead AwakenWhen We Dead Awaken is the last play written by Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen. Published in December 1899, Ibsen wrote the play between February and November of that year. The first performance was at the Haymarket Theatre in London, a day or two before publication.-Plot summary:The first act...
(Når vi døde vaagner)
- Problem playProblem playThe problem play is a form of drama that emerged during the 19th century as part of the wider movement of realism in the arts. It deals with contentious social issues through debates between the characters on stage, who typically represent conflicting points of view within a realistic social...
- NaturalismNaturalism (theatre)Naturalism is a movement in European drama and theatre that developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It refers to theatre that attempts to create a perfect illusion of reality through a range of dramatic and theatrical strategies: detailed, three-dimensional settings Naturalism is a...
- Nineteenth-century theatre
- Centre for Ibsen StudiesCentre for Ibsen StudiesThe Centre for Ibsen Studies is a research centre of the University of Oslo, dedicated to research on the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen....
- Ibsen StudiesIbsen StudiesIbsen Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on the playwright Henrik Ibsen. It is published biannually by Routledge in cooperation with the Centre for Ibsen Studies...
- Boyesen, Hjalmar HjorthHjalmar Hjorth BoyesenHjalmar Hjorth Boyesen was a Norwegian-American author and college professor.-Biography:He was born at the Norwegian naval base Fredriksvern, near the village of Stavern in Vestfold County, Norway. Boyesen grew up in Fredriksvern, then in Kongsberg, and, from 1854, at Systrand in Sogn...
A Commentary on the Works of Henrik Ibsen (New York: Macmillan, 1894)
- Koht, HalvdanHalvdan KohtHalvdan Koht was a Norwegian historian and politician representing the Labour Party.As a politician he served as the Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1935 to 1941. He was never elected as a member of the Parliament of Norway, but was a member of Bærum municipal council in 1917–1919 and...
. The Life of Ibsen translated by Ruth Lima McMahon and Hanna Astrup Larsen. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York, 1931.
- Lucas, F. L.F. L. LucasFrank Laurence Lucas was an English classical scholar, literary critic, poet, novelist, playwright, political polemicist, and Fellow of King's College, Cambridge....
The Drama of Ibsen and Strindberg, Cassell, London, 1962. A useful introduction, giving the biographical background to each play and detailed play-by-play summaries and discussion for the theatre-goer (including the less well-known plays).
- Ferguson, Robert. Henrik Ibsen: A New Biography. Richard Cohen Books, London, 1996.
- Meyer, MichaelMichael MeyerMichael Leverson Meyer was an English translator, biographer, journalist and dramatist.-Life:Meyer was born in London into a timber merchant family of Jewish origin, and studied English at Christ Church College, Oxford. His first translation of a Swedish book was the novel The Long Ships by Frans...
. Ibsen. History Press Ltd., Stroud, 2004.
- Moi, TorilToril MoiToril Moi is James B. Duke Professor of Literature and Romance Studies at Duke University. Previously she held positions as a lecturer in French at the University of Oxford and as Director of the Center for Feminist Research at the University of Bergen, Norway...
. 2006. Henrik Ibsen and the Birth of Modernism: Art, Theater, Philosophy. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP. ISBN 9780199202591.
- Haugan, JørgenJørgen HauganJørgen Haugan is a Norwegian author and lecturer. He was written a number of books, principally biographies of noted Scandinavian writers....
. Henrik Ibsens Metode:Den Indre Utvikling Gjennem Ibsens Dramatikk ( Norwegian: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag. 1977)
- Shaw, George BernardGeorge Bernard ShawGeorge Bernard Shaw was an Irish playwright and a co-founder of the London School of Economics. Although his first profitable writing was music and literary criticism, in which capacity he wrote many highly articulate pieces of journalism, his main talent was for drama, and he wrote more than 60...
. The Quintessence of Ibsenism (1891). The classic introduction, setting the playwright in his time and place.
- Ibsen: The Complete Major Prose Plays (Rolf G. FjeldeRolf G. FjeldeRolf G. Fjelde was an American playwright, educator and poet. Fjelde was the founding president of the Ibsen Society of America which is dedicated to the works of Henrik Ibsen.-Background:...
, translator. Plume: 1978)
- Ibsen - 3 Plays (Kenneth McLeish & Stephen Mulrine, translators. Nick Hern BooksNick Hern BooksNick Hern Books is a London-based independent specialist publisher of plays, theatre books and screenplays. The company was founded by the former Methuen drama editor Nick Hern in 1988.-History:...
- The Ibsen Society of America Official Website
- Ibsen.net: http://ibsen.net/index.gan?id=11111004&subid=0
- Ibsen Studies The only international academic journal devoted to Ibsen
- Online course by Ibsen scholar Brian Johnston author of The Ibsen Cycle and To the Third Empire: Ibsen's Early Drama
- Extensive resource in several languages from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Ibsen's Influence on Hitler
- Peer Gynt Sculpture Park, Official Website
- Works by or about Henrik Ibsen at Internet ArchiveInternet ArchiveThe Internet Archive is a non-profit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge". It offers permanent storage and access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, music, moving images, and nearly 3 million public domain books. The Internet Archive...
(scanned books original editions color illustrated) (plain text and HTML) (the biography by Edmund GosseEdmund GosseSir Edmund William Gosse CB was an English poet, author and critic; the son of Philip Henry Gosse and Emily Bowes.-Early life:...
- Henrik Ibsen - A Bibliography of Criticism and Biography, by Ina Ten Eyck Firkins, from Project Gutenberg
- "Ibsen and His Discontents" - a critical, conservative view of Ibsen's works, written by Theodore Dalrymple
- Ibsen Museum - Former home of the famous playwright is situated in Henrik Ibsen's gate 26, across from the Royal PalaceRoyal Palace, OsloThe Royal Palace in Oslo was built in the first half of the 19th century as the Norwegian residence of Norwegian and Swedish king Charles III and is the official residence of the present Norwegian Monarch. The crown prince couple resides at Skaugum in Asker west of Oslo...
- Henrik Ibsen: Critical Studies Georg BrandesGeorg BrandesGeorg Morris Cohen Brandes was a Danish critic and scholar who had great influence on Scandinavian and European literature from the 1870s through the turn of the 20th century. He is seen as the theorist behind the "Modern Breakthrough" of Scandinavian culture...
, (1899) Retrieved 201-0-16.