Edith Cavell
Overview
 
Edith Louisa Cavell was a British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 nurse and spy
SPY
SPY is a three-letter acronym that may refer to:* SPY , ticker symbol for Standard & Poor's Depositary Receipts* SPY , a satirical monthly, trademarked all-caps* SPY , airport code for San Pédro, Côte d'Ivoire...

. She is celebrated for saving the lives of soldiers from all sides without distinction and in helping some 200 Allied
Allies of World War I
The Entente Powers were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The members of the Triple Entente were the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire; Italy entered the war on their side in 1915...

 soldiers escape from German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

-occupied Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 during World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, for which she was arrested. She was then court-martialled and found guilty of treason
Treason
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's sovereign or nation. Historically, treason also covered the murder of specific social superiors, such as the murder of a husband by his wife. Treason against the king was known as high treason and treason against a...

, sentenced to death and shot by firing squad, and subsequently received worldwide sympathetic press coverage.

She is well-known for her statement that "patriotism is not enough." Her strong Anglican beliefs propelled her to help all those who needed it, both German and Allied soldiers.
Quotations

I have no fear nor shrinking; I have seen death so often that it is not strange or fearful to me.

I thank God for this ten weeks' quiet before the end... Life has always been hurried and full of difficulty... This time of rest has been a great mercy.

Encyclopedia
Edith Louisa Cavell was a British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 nurse and spy
SPY
SPY is a three-letter acronym that may refer to:* SPY , ticker symbol for Standard & Poor's Depositary Receipts* SPY , a satirical monthly, trademarked all-caps* SPY , airport code for San Pédro, Côte d'Ivoire...

. She is celebrated for saving the lives of soldiers from all sides without distinction and in helping some 200 Allied
Allies of World War I
The Entente Powers were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The members of the Triple Entente were the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire; Italy entered the war on their side in 1915...

 soldiers escape from German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

-occupied Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 during World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, for which she was arrested. She was then court-martialled and found guilty of treason
Treason
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's sovereign or nation. Historically, treason also covered the murder of specific social superiors, such as the murder of a husband by his wife. Treason against the king was known as high treason and treason against a...

, sentenced to death and shot by firing squad, and subsequently received worldwide sympathetic press coverage.

She is well-known for her statement that "patriotism is not enough." Her strong Anglican beliefs propelled her to help all those who needed it, both German and Allied soldiers. She was quoted as saying, "I can’t stop while there are lives to be saved". Cavell was also an influential pioneer of modern nursing in Belgium.

Early life and career

Edith Cavell was born on 4 December 1865 in Swardeston
Swardeston
Swardeston is a village four miles south of Norwich in Norfolk, England, on high ground above the Tas valley. It covers an area of and had a population of 540 in 246 households as of the 2001 census.-History:...

, a village near Norwich
Norwich
Norwich is a city in England. It is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom...

, where her father, the Reverend Frederick Cavell, was vicar for 45 years. She was the eldest of four children and was taught to always share with the less fortunate, despite her family’s meagre earnings. After a period as a governess, including for a family in Brussels
Brussels
Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

 1900 -1905, she trained as a nurse at the London Hospital
Royal London Hospital
The Royal London Hospital was founded in September 1740 and was originally named The London Infirmary. The name changed to The London Hospital in 1748 and then to The Royal London Hospital on its 250th anniversary in 1990. The first patients were treated at a house in Featherstone Street,...

 under Matron Eva Luckes
Eva Luckes
Eva Charlotte Ellis Luckes was Matron of The London Hospital from 1880 to 1919.-Early life:Eva Charlotte Ellis Luckes was born in Exeter, Devon on 8 July 1854 into an upper middle class family. Her father, Henry Richard Luckes, was a banker who had established a comfortable home for his family...

. In 1907, Cavell was recruited by Dr. Antoine Depage
Antoine Depage
Dr. Antoine Depage , was the Belgian royal surgeon, the founder and president of the Belgian Red Cross, and one of the founders of Scouting in Belgium....

 to be matron of a newly established nursing school by the name of L'École Belge d’Infirmières Diplômées on the Rue de la Culture in Brussels. By 1910, "Miss Cavell 'felt that the profession of nursing had gained sufficient foothold in Belgium to warrant the publishing of a professional journal,' and therefore launched the nursing journal, L'infirmière. A year later, she was a training nurse for three hospitals, 24 schools, and 13 kindergartens in Belgium.

When World War I broke out, she was visiting her widowed mother in Norfolk
Norfolk
Norfolk is a low-lying county in the East of England. It has borders with Lincolnshire to the west, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest and Suffolk to the south. Its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea coast and to the north-west the county is bordered by The Wash. The county...

 in the East of England
East of England
The East of England is one of the nine official regions of England. It was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics from 1999. It includes the ceremonial counties of Essex, Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Norfolk and Suffolk. Essex has the highest population in the region.Its...

. She returned to Brussels where her clinic and nursing school were taken over by the Red Cross.

World War I and execution

In late 1914, after the German occupation of Brussels, Cavell began sheltering British soldiers and funnelling them out of occupied Belgium to the neutral Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

. In the following months, an underground organisation developed, allowing her to guide some 200 Allied soldiers to safety, which placed Cavell in violation of German military law. German authorities became increasingly suspicious of the nurse's actions, which were backed up by her outspokenness.

She was arrested on 3 August 1915 and charged with harbouring Allied soldiers. She was held in St Gilles prison for 10 weeks, the last two in solitary confinement, and was court-martialled. She was then prosecuted for aiding British and French soldiers, in addition to young Belgian men, to cross the border and enter Britain. She admitted her guilt when she signed a statement the day before the trial, thus reaffirming the crime in the presence of all other prisoners and lawyers present in the court at the beginning of the trial. Cavell gave the German prosecution a much stronger case against her when she declared that the soldiers she had helped escape thanked her in writing when arriving safely in Britain. This admission proved hard to ignore because it not only confirmed that Cavell had helped the soldiers navigate the Dutch frontier, but it also established that she helped them escape to a country at war with Germany.

As the case stood, the sentence according to German military law was death. Paragraph 58 of the German Military Code says:
“Will be sentenced to death for treason any person who, with the intention of helping the hostile Power, or of causing harm to the German or allied troops, is guilty of one of the crimes of paragraph 90 of the German Penal Code.” The case referred to in the above-mentioned paragraph 90 consists of "Conducting soldiers to the enemy." Additionally, the penalties according to paragraph 160 of the German Code, in case of war, apply to both foreigners as well as Germans.

The British government said they could do nothing to help her. Sir Horace Rowland of the Foreign Office said, "I am afraid that it is likely to go hard with Miss Cavell; I am afraid we are powerless." The sentiment was echoed by Lord Robert Cecil
Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood CH, PC, QC , known as Lord Robert Cecil from 1868 to 1923, was a lawyer, politician and diplomat in the United Kingdom...

, Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs. "Any representation by us", he advised, "will do her more harm than good."The United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 however had not yet joined the war and was in a position to apply diplomatic pressure. Hugh S. Gibson, First Secretary of the U.S. legation at Brussels, made clear to the German government that executing Cavell would further harm Germany's already damaged reputation. Later, he wrote:
The German civil governor, Baron von der Lancken, is known to have stated that Cavell should be pardoned because of her complete honesty and because she had helped save so many lives, German as well as Allied. However, the German military acted quickly to execute Cavell and so deny higher authorities the opportunity to consider clemency. Of the 27 put on trial, Cavell and four others were condemned to death, among them Philippe Baucq, an architect in his thirties who had also been instrumental in the escapes.

Cavell was not arrested for espionage, as many were led to believe, but for treason. However, Cavell was in fact a spy working for the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) who turned away from her espionage duties in order to help Allied soldiers escape.

When in custody, Cavell was questioned in French, but the session was minuted in German. This gave the interrogator the opportunity to misinterpret her answers. Although she may have been misrepresented, she made no attempt to defend herself. Cavell was provided with a defender approved by the German military governor. A previous defender, who was chosen for Cavell by her assistant, Elizabeth Wilkins, was ultimately rejected by the governor.

The night before her execution, she told the Reverend Stirling Gahan, the Anglican chaplain who had been allowed to see her and to give her Holy Communion, "Patriotism is not enough, I must have no hatred or bitterness towards anyone." These words are inscribed on her statue in St Martin's Place, near Trafalgar Square in London. Her final words to the German Lutheran prison chaplain, Paul Le Seur, were recorded as, "Ask Father Gahan to tell my loved ones later on that my soul, as I believe, is safe, and that I am glad to die for my country."

Despite efforts by Brand Whitlock
Brand Whitlock
Brand Whitlock , an American municipal reformer, diplomat, journalist, and author. Born Joseph Brand Whitlock at Urbana, Ohio, son of the Rev. Elias and Mollie Lavinia Whitlock, he was educated in the public schools and by private tutors. He also studied law under Senator J. M...

, the U.S. minister to Belgium, and by the Marquis de Villalobar, the Spanish minister, on Cavell's behalf, on 11 October, Baron von der Lancken allowed the execution to proceed. Sixteen men, forming two firing squads, carried out the sentence pronounced on her and on four Belgian men at Tir National shooting range in Schaerbeek, at 6:00 am on 12 October 1915. There are conflicting reports of the details of Cavell's execution. However, according to the eyewitness account of the Reverend Le Seur, who attended Cavell in her final hours, eight soldiers fired at Cavell while the other eight executed Philippe Baucq.

There is also a dispute over the sentencing imposed under the German Military Code. Supposedly, the death penalty relevant to the offence committed by Cavell was not officially declared until a few hours after her death.

On instructions from the Spanish minister, Belgian women immediately buried her body next to St. Gilles Prison. After the War, her body was taken back to Britain for a memorial service at Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, popularly known as Westminster Abbey, is a large, mainly Gothic church, in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English,...

 and then transferred to Norwich, to be laid to rest at Life's Green.

Role in World War I propaganda

In the months and years following Cavell's death, countless newspaper articles, pamphlets, images, and books publicised her story. She became an iconic propaganda figure for military recruitment in Britain to help increase favourable sentiment towards the Allies in the United States. She was a popular icon because of her sex, her nursing profession, and her apparently heroic approach to death. Her execution was represented as an act of German barbarism and moral depravity.

News reports shortly following Cavell's execution were found to be only true in part. Even the American Journal of Nursing repeated the fictional account of Cavell's execution in which she fainted and fell because of her refusal to wear a blindfold in front of the firing squad. Allegedly, while she lay unconscious, the German commanding officer shot her dead with a revolver. Numerous accounts like these stimulated international outrage and general anti-German sentiments.

Along with the invasion of Belgium, and the sinking of the Lusitania
RMS Lusitania
RMS Lusitania was a British ocean liner designed by Leonard Peskett and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. The ship entered passenger service with the Cunard Line on 26 August 1907 and continued on the line's heavily-traveled passenger service between Liverpool, England and New...

, Cavell's execution was widely publicised in both Britain and North America by Wellington House
Wellington House
Wellington House is the more common name for Britain's War Propaganda Bureau, which operated during World War I from Wellington House, a building located in Buckingham Gate, London, which was the headquarters of the National Insurance Commission before the War...

, the British War Propaganda Bureau.

Because of the British government's decision to use her story as propaganda, Cavell became the most prominent British female casualty of World War I. The combination of heroic appeal and a resonant atrocity-story narrative made Cavell's case one of the most effective in British propaganda of World War I.

German response

Unlike the rest of the world, the German government thought that they had acted fairly towards Cavell. In a letter, the German Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Arthur Zimmermann
Arthur Zimmermann
Arthur Zimmermann was State Secretary for Foreign Affairs of the German Empire from November 22, 1916, until his resignation on August 6, 1917. His name is associated with the Zimmermann Telegram during World War I...

, stated:

It was a pity that Miss Cavell had to be executed, but it was necessary. She was judged justly. We hope it will not be necessary to have any more executions.


Their laws do not make distinctions between sexes, the only exception to this rule being that according to legal customs, women in a “delicate” (probably this means "pregnant") condition could not be executed; Cavell was not considered delicate. From the Germans' perspective, had they released Cavell, there would have been an influx of women partaking in acts against Germany because the women knew they would not be severely punished. It was up to the responsible men to follow their legal duty to Germany and ignore the world’s condemnation.

The German government also believed that all of the convicted people were thoroughly aware of the nature of their acts. The court paid particular attention to this point, releasing several accused persons because there was doubt as to whether the accused knew that their actions were punishable. The condemned, on the other hand, knew full well what they were doing and the punishment for committing their crimes because “numerous public proclamations had pointed out the fact that aiding enemies’ armies was punishable with death.”

Two representations of Edith Cavell

"Cavell was not a particularly well-known figure outside the field of nursing prior to the Great War". This allowed for the creation of two different depictions of her in British propaganda
Propaganda
Propaganda is a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position so as to benefit oneself or one's group....

. British propaganda ignored anything that did not fit this image, including the suggestion that Cavell, during her interrogation, had given information that incriminated others. In November 1915, the British Foreign Office issued a denial that Cavell had implicated anyone else in her testimony.

"The first representation was the distorted but highly emotive portrayal of her as the girlish innocent victim of a ruthless enemy with no sense of honour in its dealings with frail women". This depicted Edith Cavell as innocent of espionage, which was most commonly used in various forms of British propaganda, such as postcards and newspaper illustrations during the war. "The British Press presented her story in such a way as to capture the public imagination and fuel the masculine desire for vengeance on the battlefield". These important images implied that men must enlist in the armed forces immediately in order to stop the murder of innocent British females.

The second representation of Cavell during World War I described her as a serious, reserved, brave, and patriotic woman who devoted her life to nursing and died to save others. This portrayal has been illustrated in numerous biographical sources, from personal first-hand experiences of the Red Cross nurse. Pastor Le Seur, the German army chaplain, recalled at the time of her execution, "I do not believe that Miss Cavell wanted to be a martyr
Martyr
A martyr is somebody who suffers persecution and death for refusing to renounce, or accept, a belief or cause, usually religious.-Meaning:...

…but she was ready to die for her country… Miss Cavell was a very brave woman and a faithful Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

". Another account from British chaplain, the Reverend Mr Gahan, remembers Cavell's words, "I have no fear or shrinking; I have seen death so often it is not strange, or fearful to me!" In this interpretation, "her gender made her remarkable enough to be remembered as an individual on a scale that, had she been a man, she would not have been".

Burial and memorials

Her remains were returned to Britain after the war and a state funeral
State funeral
A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony, observing the strict rules of protocol, held to honor heads of state or other important people of national significance. State funerals usually include much pomp and ceremony as well as religious overtones and distinctive elements of military tradition...

 was held at Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, popularly known as Westminster Abbey, is a large, mainly Gothic church, in the City of Westminster, London, United Kingdom, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English,...

. On 19 May 1919, her body was reburied at the east side of Norwich Cathedral
Norwich Cathedral
Norwich Cathedral is a cathedral located in Norwich, Norfolk, dedicated to the Holy and Undivided Trinity. Formerly a Catholic church, it has belonged to the Church of England since the English Reformation....

; a graveside service is still held each October.

Following her death, many memorials were created around the world to remember Cavell. One of the first was the one unveiled in October 1918 by Queen Alexandra
Alexandra of Denmark
Alexandra of Denmark was the wife of Edward VII of the United Kingdom...

 on the grounds of Norwich Cathedral, near a home for nurses which also bore her name.

Other honours include:

Memorials:
  • a stone memorial, including a statue of Cavell, adjacent to Trafalgar Square
    Trafalgar Square
    Trafalgar Square is a public space and tourist attraction in central London, England, United Kingdom. At its centre is Nelson's Column, which is guarded by four lion statues at its base. There are a number of statues and sculptures in the square, with one plinth displaying changing pieces of...

     in London
  • a memorial in Peterborough Cathedral
    Peterborough Cathedral
    Peterborough Cathedral, properly the Cathedral Church of St Peter, St Paul and St Andrew – also known as Saint Peter's Cathedral in the United Kingdom – is the seat of the Bishop of Peterborough, dedicated to Saint Peter, Saint Paul and Saint Andrew, whose statues look down from the...

    , Peterborough
    Peterborough
    Peterborough is a cathedral city and unitary authority area in the East of England, with an estimated population of in June 2007. For ceremonial purposes it is in the county of Cambridgeshire. Situated north of London, the city stands on the River Nene which flows into the North Sea...

  • a memorial outside Norwich Cathedral
    Norwich Cathedral
    Norwich Cathedral is a cathedral located in Norwich, Norfolk, dedicated to the Holy and Undivided Trinity. Formerly a Catholic church, it has belonged to the Church of England since the English Reformation....

  • a marble and stone memorial near The Shrine
    Shrine of Remembrance
    The Shrine of Remembrance, located in Kings Domain on St Kilda Road, Melbourne, Australia was built as a memorial to the men and women of Victoria who served in World War I and is now a memorial to all Australians who have served in war...

     in Melbourne, Australia
  • an inscription on a war memorial, naming the 35 people executed by the German army in a place called Tir national on the Schaerbeek municipality
    Municipalities of Belgium
    Belgium comprises 589 municipalities grouped into five provinces in each of two regions and into a third region, the Brussels-Capital Region, comprising 19 municipalities that do not belong to a province...

  • a dedication on the war memorial on the grounds of Sacred Trinity Church, Salford, Greater Manchester
  • Monument to Edith Cavell and Marie Depage in Brussels by Paul Du Bois
    Paul Du Bois
    Paul Du Bois was a Belgian sculptor and medalist, born in Aywaille, and died in Uccle.Du Bois was a student of Eugène Simonis and Charles van der Stappen...

    .
  • a stone memorial statue by Canadian sculptor R. Tait McKenzie
    R. Tait McKenzie
    Robert Tait McKenzie was an internationally renowned Canadian-born sculptor, doctor, soldier, physical educator, athlete and Scouter...

     in the garden behind the Red Cross National (U.S.) Headquarters, 1730 E Street, NW Washington, DC in the block south of the Corcoran Gallery of Art and north of the Daughters of the American Revolution building.


Medical facilities:
  • Edith Cavell Hospital
    Edith Cavell Hospital
    The Edith Cavell Hospital in the United Kingdom, opened by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second on 20 May 1988, was situated on a green field site at Westwood in the city of Peterborough, Cambridgeshire...

    , in Peterborough, where she received part of her education
  • the Edith Cavell Hospital in the Brussels borough of Uccle (Ukkel)
    Uccle
    Uccle or Ukkel is one of the nineteen municipalities located in the Brussels-Capital Region of Belgium.Uccle is known for its well-to-do areas, its green spots and its high rental rates.-History:...

    , Belgium
  • a wing of Homerton Hospital, Hackney, London
  • a wing of Toronto Western Hospital
    Toronto Western Hospital
    -External links:****...

    , Canada
  • Cavell Building, Quinte Children's Treatment Centre, Belleville, Ontario
    Belleville, Ontario
    Belleville is a city located at the mouth of the Moira River on the Bay of Quinte in Southern Ontario, Canada, in the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. It is the seat of Hastings County, but is politically independent of it. and the centre of the Bay of Quinte Region...

    , Canada
  • University of East Anglia
    University of East Anglia
    The University of East Anglia is a public research university based in Norwich, United Kingdom. It was established in 1963, and is a founder-member of the 1994 Group of research-intensive universities.-History:...

    , Norwich, named its School of Nursing and Midwifery centre, the Edith Cavell building, when it opened in 2006.
  • Edith Cavell Care Centre, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada,
  • a ward in the Whittington Hospital
    Whittington Hospital
    The Whittington Hospital is a British hospital in Archway, Islington, London. It is named after Richard Whittington.It is a district general hospital, although it is also a teaching hospital of the UCL Medical School and Middlesex University School of Health and Social Sciences.- History :Although...

     in Archway, London
  • a building at the Medical School, University of Queensland, Australia
  • The Edith Cavell Home, Hospital, and Village (a retirement village) is located in Sumner
    Sumner
    -Surname:The surname Sumner originates in the English-language word that is spelled, in modern English, summoner, denoting a person who serves a summons...

    , Christchurch
    Christchurch
    Christchurch is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the country's second-largest urban area after Auckland. It lies one third of the way down the South Island's east coast, just north of Banks Peninsula which itself, since 2006, lies within the formal limits of...

    , New Zealand
    New Zealand
    New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

    .


Streets:
  • Cavell Road, Billericay
    Billericay
    Billericay is a town and civil parish in the Basildon borough of Essex, England. It lies within the London Basin, has a population of 40,000, and constitutes a commuter town east of central London. The town has three secondary schools and a variety of open spaces...

    , Essex, UK
  • Cavell Road, Norwich
    Norwich
    Norwich is a city in England. It is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom...

    , UK
  • Cavell Road, Dudley
    Dudley
    Dudley is a large town in the West Midlands county of England. At the 2001 census , the Dudley Urban Sub Area had a population of 194,919, making it the 26th largest settlement in England, the second largest town in the United Kingdom behind Reading, and the largest settlement in the UK without...

    , West Midlands
    West Midlands (county)
    The West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England with a 2009 estimated population of 2,638,700. It came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972, formed from parts of Staffordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire. The...

     (formerly Worcestershire
    Worcestershire
    Worcestershire is a non-metropolitan county, established in antiquity, located in the West Midlands region of England. For Eurostat purposes it is a NUTS 3 region and is one of three counties that comprise the "Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire" NUTS 2 region...

    ), UK
  • Edith Cavell Drive Steeple Bumpstead
    Steeple Bumpstead
    Steeple Bumpstead is a village near Braintree, Essex, England, south of Haverhill.The parish church does not actually have a steeple, however the Congregational Church has a small Victorian one. It is believed that the Steeple referred to was actually located on the A1307 close to what is now the...

    , UK
  • Cavell Avenue, Twin Cities
    Twin cities
    Twin cities are a special case of two cities or urban centres which are founded in close geographic proximity and then grow into each other over time...

    , Minnesota
    Minnesota
    Minnesota is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern United States. The twelfth largest state of the U.S., it is the twenty-first most populous, with 5.3 million residents. Minnesota was carved out of the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory and admitted to the Union as the thirty-second state...

  • Cavell Street, running next to the London Hospital in Whitechapel
    Whitechapel
    Whitechapel is a built-up inner city district in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, London, England. It is located east of Charing Cross and roughly bounded by the Bishopsgate thoroughfare on the west, Fashion Street on the north, Brady Street and Cavell Street on the east and The Highway on the...

    , where Cavell trained, formerly known as Bedford Street
  • Cavell Street, West Hobart, Tasmania
    West Hobart, Tasmania
    West Hobart is an inner-city suburb of Hobart, Tasmania . It is located in the hills immediately west of the city centre, and shares the postcode 7000 with that district....

    , Australia
  • Cavell Street, Dunedin
    Dunedin
    Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the Otago Region. It is considered to be one of the four main urban centres of New Zealand for historic, cultural, and geographic reasons. Dunedin was the largest city by territorial land area until...

    , New Zealand
  • Rue Edith Cavell / Edith Cavellstraat, a street in Uccle
    Uccle
    Uccle or Ukkel is one of the nineteen municipalities located in the Brussels-Capital Region of Belgium.Uccle is known for its well-to-do areas, its green spots and its high rental rates.-History:...

    /Ukkel, Brussels, Belgium
  • Edith Cavellstraat, a street in Ostend
    Ostend
    Ostend  is a Belgian city and municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. It comprises the boroughs of Mariakerke , Stene and Zandvoorde, and the city of Ostend proper – the largest on the Belgian coast....

    /Oostende, Belgium
  • Rue Edith Cavell, Vitry-sur-Seine
    Vitry-sur-Seine
    Vitry-sur-Seine is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the centre of Paris.-Name:Vitry-sur-Seine was originally called simply Vitry. The name Vitry comes from Medieval Latin Vitriacum, and before that Victoriacum, meaning "estate of Victorius", a...

    , France
  • Avenue Edith-Cavell, in Nice
    Nice
    Nice is the fifth most populous city in France, after Paris, Marseille, Lyon and Toulouse, with a population of 348,721 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Nice extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of more than 955,000 on an area of...

    , France
  • Rue Miss Cavell, Arques
    Arques, Pas-de-Calais
    Arques is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.-Geography:Arques is situated in the middle of the region 40 km from Calais and Dunkerque, and 45 km from Boulogne-sur-Mer. It lies on the border between the departments of Pas-de-Calais and Nord.The town is crossed by...

    , France
  • Rua Edith Cavell, a street in Lisbon, Portugal
  • Cavell Drive in Winnipeg, Manitoba
  • Cavell Drive in Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire
    Hertfordshire
    Hertfordshire is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in the East region of England. The county town is Hertford.The county is one of the Home Counties and lies inland, bordered by Greater London , Buckinghamshire , Bedfordshire , Cambridgeshire and...

    , UK
  • Cavell Avenue in Guelph
    Guelph
    Guelph is a city in Ontario, Canada.Guelph may also refer to:* Guelph , consisting of the City of Guelph, Ontario* Guelph , as the above* University of Guelph, in the same city...

    , Ontario
  • Edith Cavell Boulevard, a road in Port Stanley, Ontario
    Port Stanley, Ontario
    Port Stanley is a community in the Municipality of Central Elgin, Ontario, Elgin County, located on the north shore of Lake Erie at the mouth of Kettle Creek.-History:...

    , Canada
  • Cavell Avenue, in Trenton, New Jersey
    Trenton, New Jersey
    Trenton is the capital of the U.S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County. As of the 2010 United States Census, Trenton had a population of 84,913...

  • a street in Hillbrow, Johannesburg, South Africa
  • a street in Port Louis
    Port Louis
    -Economy:The economy is dominated by its port, which handles Mauritius' international trade. The port was founded by the French who preferred Port Louis as the City is shielded by the Port Louis/Moka mountain range. It is the largest container handling facility in the Indian Ocean and can...

    , Mauritius
  • Cavell Avenue in The Danforth neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • Avenue Miss Cavell,St-Maur-Des-Fosses,France
  • Cavell Way, Pendleton
    Pendleton
    -Places:United States*Pendleton, Indiana*Pendleton, Missouri*Pendleton, New York*Pendleton, Oregon*Pendleton, South Carolina*Pendleton County, Kentucky*Pendleton, Texas*Pendleton County, West Virginia*Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, Oceanside, California...

    , Salford, Greater Manchester
  • Cavell Walk, Stevenage
    Stevenage
    Stevenage is a town and borough in Hertfordshire, England. It is situated to the east of junctions 7 and 8 of the A1, and is between Letchworth Garden City to the north, and Welwyn Garden City to the south....

    , UK
  • Edith Cavell Way, Shooters Hill, London
    London
    London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

    , UK


Schools:
  • Cavell Primary School, Norwich
    Norwich
    Norwich is a city in England. It is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom...

    , UK
  • Edith Cavell Regional School of Nursing, in Belleville, Ontario, Canada
  • Edith Cavell School, Moncton, New Brunswick
    New Brunswick
    New Brunswick is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the only province in the federation that is constitutionally bilingual . The provincial capital is Fredericton and Saint John is the most populous city. Greater Moncton is the largest Census Metropolitan Area...

    , Canada
  • Edith Cavell Elementary School, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • Edith Cavell Lower School in Bedford
    Bedford
    Bedford is the county town of Bedfordshire, in the East of England. It is a large town and the administrative centre for the wider Borough of Bedford. According to the former Bedfordshire County Council's estimates, the town had a population of 79,190 in mid 2005, with 19,720 in the adjacent town...

    , UK
  • Edith Cavell Elementary School, St. Catharines, Ontario
    St. Catharines, Ontario
    St. Catharines is the largest city in Canada's Niagara Region and the sixth largest urban area in Ontario, Canada, with 97.11 square kilometres of land...

  • a middle school in Windsor, Ontario
    Windsor, Ontario
    Windsor is the southernmost city in Canada and is located in Southwestern Ontario at the western end of the heavily populated Quebec City – Windsor Corridor. It is within Essex County, Ontario, although administratively separated from the county government. Separated by the Detroit River, Windsor...

    , which closed in 1987
  • an elementary school in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
    Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
    Sault Ste. Marie is a city on the St. Marys River in Algoma District, Ontario, Canada. It is the third largest city in Northern Ontario, after Sudbury and Thunder Bay, with a population of 74,948. The community was founded as a French religious mission: Sault either means "jump" or "rapids" in...

    , which was later renamed to S.F. Howe
  • Wymondham College
    Wymondham College
    Wymondham College is a state boarding school, located in Norfolk, England, which was the largest in Europe when it opened in 1951.-Admissions:...

     in Norfolk
    Norfolk
    Norfolk is a low-lying county in the East of England. It has borders with Lincolnshire to the west, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest and Suffolk to the south. Its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea coast and to the north-west the county is bordered by The Wash. The county...

    , Britain, has a boarding block named after her.
  • Cavell House, green house at Queen Mary School, Mumbai
  • Edith Cavell House, green house at Barnes School, Deolali
  • Cavell House, the fourth, blue house of St Aidan's Anglican Girls' School
    St Aidan's Anglican Girls' School
    St Aidan’s Anglican Girls' School is an independent, Anglican, day school for girls, located in Corinda, a western suburb of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia...

    , Brisbane, Australia
  • Cavell House, blue house at Sheringham High School, Norfolk.
  • Northlands School Cavell House
  • Cavell House, green house at Pratt Memorial School, Kolkata

Other:
  • Cavell Gardens, Inverness
    Inverness
    Inverness is a city in the Scottish Highlands. It is the administrative centre for the Highland council area, and is regarded as the capital of the Highlands of Scotland...

    , Britain
  • Cavell Park, a playground in Northeast Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.
  • Mount Edith Cavell
    Mount Edith Cavell
    Mount Edith Cavell is a mountain located in the Athabasca River and Astoria River valleys of Jasper National Park, Canada. The mountain was named in 1916 for Edith Cavell, an English nurse and spy executed by the Germans during World War I for having helped allied soldiers escape from occupied...

    , a peak in the Canadian Rockies
    Canadian Rockies
    The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. They are the eastern part of the Canadian Cordillera, extending from the Interior Plains of Alberta to the Rocky Mountain Trench of British Columbia. The southern end borders Idaho and Montana of the USA...

    , named in 1916
  • Cavell Corona, a geological feature on Venus
    Venus
    Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. The planet is named after Venus, the Roman goddess of love and beauty. After the Moon, it is the brightest natural object in the night sky, reaching an apparent magnitude of −4.6, bright enough to cast shadows...

  • a bridge in Queenstown, New Zealand
    Queenstown, New Zealand
    Queenstown is a resort town in Otago in the south-west of New Zealand's South Island. It is built around an inlet called Queenstown Bay on Lake Wakatipu, a long thin Z-shaped lake formed by glacial processes, and has spectacular views of nearby mountains....

  • The Edith Cavell Trust was established by the New South Wales Nurses' Association
    New South Wales Nurses' Association
    The New South Wales Nurses' Association in a trade union which represents nurses in both the public and private sectors of New South Wales, Australia...

     which provides scholarships to nurses in New South Wales
    New South Wales
    New South Wales is a state of :Australia, located in the east of the country. It is bordered by Queensland, Victoria and South Australia to the north, south and west respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the Tasman Sea, which forms part of the Pacific Ocean. New South Wales...

  • The Edith Cavell Nursing Scholarship Fund, a philanthropy of the Dallas County Medical Society Alliance Foundation providing scholarships to exceptional nursing students in Dallas, Texas
    Dallas, Texas
    Dallas is the third-largest city in Texas and the ninth-largest in the United States. The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is the largest metropolitan area in the South and fourth-largest metropolitan area in the United States...

     and the surrounding area
  • a guest house in Clevedon, Somerset (Cavell House) where she spent some of her childhood
  • a variety of rose first bred in 1917 is named after her.
  • a YWCA camp in Lexington, Michigan
    Lexington, Michigan
    Lexington is a village in Sanilac County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,104 at the 2000 census. The village is located within Lexington Township.-Geography:...

  • Edith became a popular name for French and Belgian girls after her execution. The French chanteuse Édith Piaf
    Édith Piaf
    Édith Piaf , born Édith Giovanna Gassion, was a French singer and cultural icon who became widely regarded as France's greatest popular singer. Her singing reflected her life, with her specialty being ballads...

    , born two months after Cavell was executed, was the best known of these.
  • Radio Cavell 1350am. Broadcasting to the staff and patients on The Royal Oldham Hospital! Charity Radio.
  • The Edith Cavell public house
    Public house
    A public house, informally known as a pub, is a drinking establishment fundamental to the culture of Britain, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. There are approximately 53,500 public houses in the United Kingdom. This number has been declining every year, so that nearly half of the smaller...

    , Tombland, Norwich.
  • The Nurse Cavell Van
    Cavell Van
    The Cavell Van is the prototype Parcels and Miscellaneous Van built by the South Eastern and Chatham Railway in 1919. It is so named because it was the van which carried the body of Edith Cavell when it was repatriated to the United Kingdom following the end of the First World War...

     is the prototype passenger luggage van that transported her remains from Dover to London during her repatriation.
  • Cavell Gardens Care Home, Vancouver
    Vancouver
    Vancouver is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada. It is the hub of Greater Vancouver, which, with over 2.3 million residents, is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country,...

    , Canada; Site was Edith Cavell Hospital from 1955 to 2000.
  • a car park in Peterborough
    Peterborough
    Peterborough is a cathedral city and unitary authority area in the East of England, with an estimated population of in June 2007. For ceremonial purposes it is in the county of Cambridgeshire. Situated north of London, the city stands on the River Nene which flows into the North Sea...

    's Queensgate shopping centre
    Queensgate shopping centre
    The Queensgate shopping centre in the United Kingdom, is situated at Peterborough city centre in Cambridgeshire. It was opened by Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands on 9 March 1982 and contains over 90 stores and parking for 2,300 cars. Queensgate bus station is adjacent to the shopping centre and...

     (until November 2011 when it was renamed as a colour).

In popular culture

The song "Que Sera" on the album Silent June by O'Hooley & Tidow
Belinda O'Hooley
Belinda O'Hooley is a British singer-songwriter and pianist with Irish roots, who was born in Leeds and went to university in Huddersfield,where she is now based...

 was inspired by the execution of Edith Cavell.

The French singer Édith Piaf
Édith Piaf
Édith Piaf , born Édith Giovanna Gassion, was a French singer and cultural icon who became widely regarded as France's greatest popular singer. Her singing reflected her life, with her specialty being ballads...

 is said to have been named after Edith Cavell. In general, it was due to Cavell that "Edith" became a common female first name in France.

See also

  • Gabrielle Petit
    Gabrielle Petit
    Gabrielle Alina Eugenia Maria Petit was a Belgium woman who spied for the British Secret Service during World War I...

     a Belgian nurse executed by the German army for spying for Britain in 1916.
  • Andrée de Jongh
    Andrée de Jongh
    Countess Andrée de Jongh was a member of the Belgian Resistance during World War II. She organized the Comet Line for escaped Allied soldiers...

     a Belgian nurse who in World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

     helped POWs escape, being inspired by Edith Cavell.

Further reading

  • Kindred Spirit: Memory, Landscape and the Martyrdom of Edith Cavell, by Katie Pickles, Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan (due for publication June 2007), ISBN 1-4039-8607-X
  • The Edith Cavell Nurse from Massachusetts—The War Letters of Alice Fitzgerald, an American Nurse Serving in the British Expeditionary Force, Boulogne-The ... ... Trial, And Death of Nurse Edith Cavell by Alice L. Fitzgerald, E. Lymon Cabot (July 2006), Publisher: Diggory Press, ISBN 1-84685-202-1
  • A Journal from our Legation in Belgium bu Hugh Gibson, Doubleday vPage, New York, 1917.
  • Edith Cavell by Sally Grant, David Yaxley and Robert Yaxley (illustrators), Publisher: The Larks Press (May 1995) ISBN 0-948400-28-5
  • A whisper of eternity;: The mystery of Edith Cavell by A. A Hoehling, Publisher: T. Yoseloff (1957),
  • Friend Within the Gates: The Story of Nurse Edith Cavell, by Elizabeth Grey, Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Co (June 1971), ISBN 0-395-06786-3
  • The Story of Edith Cavell, by Iris Vinton, Publisher: Grosset & Dunlap (1959),
  • Dawn;: A biographical novel of Edith Cavell, by Reginald Cheyne Berkeley, Publisher: Sears (1928),
  • Edith Cavell, by Rowland Ryder, Publisher: Hamilton (1975), ISBN 0-241-89173-6
  • Edith Cavell: Nurse, Spy, Heroine, by Leeuwen, Published: G. P. Putnams Sons (1968),
  • Edith Cavell, heroic nurse, by Juliette Elkon Hamelecourt, Publisher: J. Messner (1956),
  • The Secret Task of Nurse Cavell: A Story about Edith Cavell, by Jan Johnson, Publisher: Harper San Francisco (1979), ISBN 0-03-041661-2
  • A noble woman: The life story of Edith Cavell, by Ernest Protheroe, Publisher: C.H. Kelly; 3rd ed edition (1918),
  • With Edith Cavell in Belgium, by Jacqueline Van Til, Publisher: H.W. Bridges (1922),
  • Ready to Die: The Story of Edith Cavell (Faith in Action Series), by Brian Peachment, Publisher: Canterbury Press, ISBN 0-08-024189-1
  • In memoriam: Edith Cavell, by William S. Murphy, Publisher: Stoneham (1916),
  • The case of Edith Cavell: A study of the rights of non-combatants, by James M. Beck, Publisher: G.P. Putnam's Sons,
  • The secret trial: An unhistorical charade suggested by the life and death of Edith Cavell, by Richard Heron Ward,
  • The Dutiful Edith Cavell, by Noel Boston, Publisher: Norwich Cathedral (1955),
  • "The Meaning of a Memory: The Case of Edith Cavell and the Lusitania in Post-World War I Belgium" by Peter van Alfen, ANS Magazine 5.1 (Spring 2006).

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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