Dutch cuisine
Overview
 
Dutch cuisine is shaped by the practice of fishing and farming, including the cultivation of the soil for raising crops and the raising of domesticated animals, and the history of the Netherlands
History of the Netherlands
The history of the Netherlands is the history of a maritime people thriving on a watery lowland river delta at the edge of northwestern Europe. When the Romans and written history arrived in 57 BC, the country was sparsely populated by various tribal groups at the periphery of the empire...

.
Traditionally the Dutch diet consisted of bread
Bread
Bread is a staple food prepared by cooking a dough of flour and water and often additional ingredients. Doughs are usually baked, but in some cuisines breads are steamed , fried , or baked on an unoiled frying pan . It may be leavened or unleavened...

 and herring
Herring
Herring is an oily fish of the genus Clupea, found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans, including the Baltic Sea. Three species of Clupea are recognized. The main taxa, the Atlantic herring and the Pacific herring may each be divided into subspecies...

. In the 18th century the potato
Potato
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae family . The word potato may refer to the plant itself as well as the edible tuber. In the region of the Andes, there are some other closely related cultivated potato species...

 (which had been brought from Peru to Europe by the Spanish in the 16th century) gained popularity, to become the staple food by 1800.

Historically Dutch cuisine was closely related to northern French cuisine
French cuisine
French cuisine is a style of food preparation originating from France that has developed from centuries of social change. In the Middle Ages, Guillaume Tirel , a court chef, authored Le Viandier, one of the earliest recipe collections of Medieval France...

, which is still visible in traditional Dutch restaurants and the Southern regional cuisine.
Encyclopedia
Dutch cuisine is shaped by the practice of fishing and farming, including the cultivation of the soil for raising crops and the raising of domesticated animals, and the history of the Netherlands
History of the Netherlands
The history of the Netherlands is the history of a maritime people thriving on a watery lowland river delta at the edge of northwestern Europe. When the Romans and written history arrived in 57 BC, the country was sparsely populated by various tribal groups at the periphery of the empire...

.

History

Traditionally the Dutch diet consisted of bread
Bread
Bread is a staple food prepared by cooking a dough of flour and water and often additional ingredients. Doughs are usually baked, but in some cuisines breads are steamed , fried , or baked on an unoiled frying pan . It may be leavened or unleavened...

 and herring
Herring
Herring is an oily fish of the genus Clupea, found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans, including the Baltic Sea. Three species of Clupea are recognized. The main taxa, the Atlantic herring and the Pacific herring may each be divided into subspecies...

. In the 18th century the potato
Potato
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae family . The word potato may refer to the plant itself as well as the edible tuber. In the region of the Andes, there are some other closely related cultivated potato species...

 (which had been brought from Peru to Europe by the Spanish in the 16th century) gained popularity, to become the staple food by 1800.

Historically Dutch cuisine was closely related to northern French cuisine
French cuisine
French cuisine is a style of food preparation originating from France that has developed from centuries of social change. In the Middle Ages, Guillaume Tirel , a court chef, authored Le Viandier, one of the earliest recipe collections of Medieval France...

, which is still visible in traditional Dutch restaurants and the Southern regional cuisine. In the course of the 15th century haute cuisine
Haute cuisine
Haute cuisine or grande cuisine was characterised by French cuisine in elaborate preparations and presentations served in small and numerous courses that were produced by large and hierarchical staffs at the grand restaurants and hotels of Europe.The 17th century chef and writer La Varenne...

 began to emerge, largely limited to the aristocracy, but from the 17th century onward these kinds of dishes became available to the wealthy citizens as well, often consisting of a rich variety of fruits, cheeses, meat, wine, and nuts.

The national cuisine however became greatly impoverished at the turn of the 20th century, when there was great poverty in the Netherlands . As mass education
Mass education
Mass education refers to a massive educational system funded and run by the state to educate people on the state's interest....

 became available, a great number of girls were sent to a new school type, the Huishoudschool (housekeeping school), where young women were trained to become domestic servants and where lessons in cooking cheap and simple meals were a major part of the curriculum, often based on more traditional Dutch dishes, a process which has been slowly turned.

Regional cuisines

Modern culinary writers distinguish between three general regional forms of Dutch cuisine.

Northeastern cuisine

The regions in the north and east of the Netherlands, roughly the provinces of Groningen
Groningen (province)
Groningen [] is the northeasternmost province of the Netherlands. In the east it borders the German state of Niedersachsen , in the south Drenthe, in the west Friesland and in the north the Wadden Sea...

, Friesland
Friesland
Friesland is a province in the north of the Netherlands and part of the ancient region of Frisia.Until the end of 1996, the province bore Friesland as its official name. In 1997 this Dutch name lost its official status to the Frisian Fryslân...

, Drenthe
Drenthe
Drenthe is a province of the Netherlands, located in the north-east of the country. The capital city is Assen. It is bordered by Overijssel to the south, Friesland to the west, Groningen to the north, and Germany to the east.-History:Drenthe, unlike many other parts of the Netherlands, has been a...

, Overijssel
Overijssel
Overijssel is a province of the Netherlands in the central eastern part of the country. The region has a NUTS classification of NL21. The province's name means "Lands across river IJssel". The capital city of Overijssel is Zwolle and the largest city is Enschede...

 and Gelderland north of the great rivers
Grote rivieren
The Grote rivieren, literally translated Great rivers, is a landform in the Netherlands. In addition, it is commonly used as a figure speech to denote a divide in Dutch culture linking to the broader Dutch-Flemish culture.-Geographical meaning:...

 make up north eastern Dutch cuisine.

The region is the least populated area of the Netherlands; and, historically, the least developed part. The late (18th century) introduction of large scale agriculture means that the cuisine is generally known for its many kinds of meats. The relative lack of farms allowed for an abundance of game and husbandry
Animal husbandry
Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock.- History :Animal husbandry has been practiced for thousands of years, since the first domestication of animals....

, though dishes near the coastal regions of Friesland, Groningen and the parts of Overijssel bordering the IJsselmeer
IJsselmeer
IJsselmeer is a shallow artificial lake of 1100 km² in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland, with an average depth of 5 to 6 m. The IJsselmeer is the largest lake in Western Europe....

 also include a large amount of fish.

The various dried sausages, belonging to the metworst
Metworst
Metworst or droge worst is a type of traditional Dutch sausage. The sausages have a very strong flavour and are made from raw minced pork which is then air dried....

-family of Dutch sausages, are found throughout the region and are highly prized for their often very strong taste. Most towns and various villages have their own variety of this sausage. The region also produces the traditional smoked sausages, of which (Gelderse) rookworst
Rookworst
Rookworst is a type of Dutch sausage in which ground meat is mixed with spices and salt and stuffed into a casing . Rookworst is a traditional ingredient in stamppot...

 is the most renowned. These sausages traditionally have been smoked over wood chips, and are served after they' ve been boiled in water. The sausage contains a lot of fat and is very juicy. Larger sausages are often eaten alongside stamppot
Stamppot
Stamppot is a traditional Dutch dish made from a combination of potatoes mashed with one or several other vegetables, sometimes also with bacon. These vegetable pairings traditionally include sauerkraut, endive, kale, spinach, turnip greens, or carrot and onion...

, hutspot
Hutspot
Hotchpotch Hotchpotch Hotchpotch (or in Dutch: Hutspot is a dish of boiled and mashed potatoes, carrots and onions with a long history in traditional Dutch cuisine.-History of the dish:...

 or zuurkool
Sauerkraut
Sauerkraut , directly translated from German: "sour cabbage", is finely shredded cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus. It has a long shelf-life and a distinctive sour flavor, both of which result from the lactic acid...

; whereas smaller ones are often eaten as a street food
Street food
Street food is ready-to-eat food or drink sold in a street or other public place, such as a market or fair, by a hawker or vendor, often from a portable stall. While some street foods are regional, many are not, having spread beyond their region of origin. Most street food are both finger and fast...

.

The provinces are also home to many kinds of pastries and cookies. In contrast to southern Dutch cuisine, which tend to be soft and moist, the northeastern pastries generally are of a hard texture and heavily spiced with ginger
Ginger
Ginger is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale, consumed as a delicacy, medicine, or spice. It lends its name to its genus and family . Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric, cardamom, and galangal....

 or contain small bits of meat. Various kinds of Kruidkoek (such as Groninger koek), Fryske dúmkes and small savory pancakes (including spekdikken) are considered typical.

In terms of alcoholic beverages, the region is renowned for its many bitters
Bitters
A bitters is an alcoholic beverage that is flavored with herbal essences and has a bitter or bittersweet flavor. There are numerous brands of bitters that were formerly marketed as patent medicines but are now considered to be digestifs, rather than medicines...

 (such as Beerenburg
Beerenburg
Beerenburg is a Dutch drink, made by adding herbs to jenever, with about 30% alcohol.The original Beerenburg was made in the mid-19th century with a secret mixture of spices of the Amsterdam spice merchant Hendrik Beerenburg, to whom it owes its name. Soon local Beerenburg varieties emerged, each...

) and other high-proof liquors rather than beer, which, apart from Jenever
Jenever
Jenever , is the juniper-flavored and strongly alcoholic traditional liquor of the Netherlands and Belgium, from which gin evolved...

, is typical for the rest of the country.

Western cuisine

The provinces of North Holland
North Holland
North Holland |West Frisian]]: Noard-Holland) is a province situated on the North Sea in the northwest part of the Netherlands. The provincial capital is Haarlem and its largest city is Amsterdam.-Geography:...

, South Holland
South Holland
South Holland is a province situated on the North Sea in the western part of the Netherlands. The provincial capital is The Hague and its largest city is Rotterdam.South Holland is one of the most densely populated and industrialised areas in the world...

, Zeeland
Zeeland
Zeeland , also called Zealand in English, is the westernmost province of the Netherlands. The province, located in the south-west of the country, consists of a number of islands and a strip bordering Belgium. Its capital is Middelburg. With a population of about 380,000, its area is about...

, Utrecht
Utrecht (province)
Utrecht is the smallest province of the Netherlands in terms of area, and is located in the centre of the country. It is bordered by the Eemmeer in the north, Gelderland in the east, the river Rhine in the south, South Holland in the west, and North Holland in the northwest...

 and the Gelderlandic region of Betuwe
Betuwe
The Betuwe is an area in the Netherlands in the province of Gelderland...

 are the parts of the Netherlands which make up the region in which western Dutch cuisine is found. The area is known for its many dairy products, which includes prominent cheeses such as Gouda
Gouda (cheese)
Gouda is an orange cheese made from cow's milk. The cheese is named after the city of Gouda in the Netherlands, but its name is not protected. However, the European Commission has confirmed that "Gouda Holland" is to be protected...

, Leyden
Leyden cheese
Leyden, from , is a yellow cumin spiced cheese made in the Netherlands from semi-skimmed cow's milk.It is made both in factories and on farms, historically in the Leiden area....

 (spiced cheese with cumin), Edam (traditionally in small spheres) as well as Leerdammer
Leerdammer
Leerdammer is a Dutch semi-hard cheese made from cow's milk. It has an aging time of around 3–12 months.It has a creamy white texture and was made to be similar in appearance and flavor to Emmental, but it is rounder in taste. It has a sweet and somewhat nutty flavour that becomes more pronounced...

 and Beemster
Beemster
Beemster is a municipality in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. Also, the Beemster is the first so-called polder in the Netherlands that was reclaimed from a lake, the water being extracted out of the lake by windmills. The Beemster Polder was dried during the period 1609 through...

, while the adjacent Zaanstreek in North Holland
North Holland
North Holland |West Frisian]]: Noard-Holland) is a province situated on the North Sea in the northwest part of the Netherlands. The provincial capital is Haarlem and its largest city is Amsterdam.-Geography:...

 is known for its mayonaise and mustard
Mustard (condiment)
Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds of a mustard plant...

s.

Zeeland and South Holland produce a lot of butter, which contains a larger amount of milkfat than most other European butter varieties. A by-product of the butter-making process, buttermilk
Buttermilk
Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks. Originally, buttermilk was the liquid left behind after churning butter out of cream. It also refers to a range of fermented milk drinks, common in warm climates where unrefrigerated fresh milk otherwise sours quickly...

, is also considered typical for this region.

Sea food such as herring
Herring
Herring is an oily fish of the genus Clupea, found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans, including the Baltic Sea. Three species of Clupea are recognized. The main taxa, the Atlantic herring and the Pacific herring may each be divided into subspecies...

 (eaten raw), mussels
Blue mussel
The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is a medium-sized edible marine bivalve mollusc in the family Mytilidae. In spite of its specific name edulis, it is not the sole edible Mytilus species.-Distribution:...

, eels
European eel
The European eel, Anguilla anguilla, is a species of eel, a snake-like, catadromous fish. They can reach in exceptional cases a length of 1½ m, but are normally much smaller, about 60–80 cm, and rarely more than 1 m....

, oyster
Oyster
The word oyster is used as a common name for a number of distinct groups of bivalve molluscs which live in marine or brackish habitats. The valves are highly calcified....

s and shrimps are widely available and typical for the region. Kibbeling, once a local delicacy consisting of small chunks of battered white fish, has become a national fast food
Fast food
Fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a...

.

Pastries in this area tend to be quite doughy, and often contain large amounts of sugar; either caramelised, powdered or crystallised. The oliebol
Oliebol
An oliebol An oliebol An oliebol (plural oliebollen is a traditional Dutch food. Oliebollen (literally oil balls) are traditionally eaten on New Year's Eve and at funfairs...

 (in its modern form) and Zeeuwse bolus are good examples. Cookies are also produced in great number and tend to contain a lot of butter as well as a filling of some kind, mostly almond.

The traditional alcoholic beverages of this region are beer
Beer
Beer is the world's most widely consumed andprobably oldest alcoholic beverage; it is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of sugars, mainly derived from malted cereal grains, most commonly malted barley and malted wheat...

 (strong pale lager) and Jenever
Jenever
Jenever , is the juniper-flavored and strongly alcoholic traditional liquor of the Netherlands and Belgium, from which gin evolved...

, a high proof juniper
Juniper
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, there are between 50-67 species of juniper, widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, from the Arctic, south to tropical Africa in the Old World, and to the...

-flavored spirit. A noted exception within the traditional Dutch alcoholic landscape, Advocaat
Advocaat
Advocaat is a rich and creamy liqueur made from eggs, sugar and brandy. It has a smooth, custard-like flavor and is similar to eggnog. In English-speaking countries it generally contains 15% alcohol , but in Continental Europe the typical alcohol content differs from country to country and is...

, a rich and creamy liqueur made from eggs, sugar and brandy, is also native to this region.

Southern Cuisine

Southern Dutch cuisine constitutes the cuisine of the Dutch provinces of North-Brabant and Limburg
Limburg (Netherlands)
Limburg is the southernmost of the twelve provinces of the Netherlands. It is located in the southeastern part of the country and bordered by the province of Gelderland to the north, Germany to the east, Belgium to the south and part of the west, andthe Dutch province of North Brabant partly to...

 and the Flemish Region
Flemish Region
The Flemish Region is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium—alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region. Colloquially, it is usually simply referred to as Flanders, of which it is the institutional iteration within the context of the Belgian political system...

 in Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

. It is renowned for its many rich pastries, soups, stew
Stew
A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of vegetables , meat, especially tougher meats suitable for slow-cooking, such as beef. Poultry, sausages, and seafood are also used...

s and vegetable dishes and is often called Burgundian
Burgundians
The Burgundians were an East Germanic tribe which may have emigrated from mainland Scandinavia to the island of Bornholm, whose old form in Old Norse still was Burgundarholmr , and from there to mainland Europe...

which is a Dutch idiom invoking the rich Burgundian court which ruled the Low Countries
Low Countries
The Low Countries are the historical lands around the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse rivers, including the modern countries of Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and parts of northern France and western Germany....

 in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

 renowned for its splendor and great feasts.

It is the only Dutch culinary region which developed a haute cuisine
Haute cuisine
Haute cuisine or grande cuisine was characterised by French cuisine in elaborate preparations and presentations served in small and numerous courses that were produced by large and hierarchical staffs at the grand restaurants and hotels of Europe.The 17th century chef and writer La Varenne...

 and it forms the base of most traditional Dutch restaurants including typical main course
Main course
A main dish is the featured or primary dish in a meal consisting of several courses. It usually follows the entrée course, and the salad course. In North American usage it may in fact be called the "entree"....

s served such as Biefstuk
Sirloin steak
The sirloin steak is a steak cut from the rear back portion of the animal, continuing off the short loin from which T-bone, porterhouse, and club steaks are cut....

, Varkenshaas
Fillet (cut)
A fillet is a cut or slice of boneless meat or fish.- Meat :In the case of beef, in the USA, the term most often refers to beef tenderloin, especially filet mignon.- Chicken :...

, Ossenhaas
Beef tenderloin
A beef tenderloin, known as an eye fillet in New Zealand and Australia, filet in France and Germany and fillet in the United Kingdom, is cut from the loin of beef. As with all quadrupeds, the tenderloin refers to the psoas major muscle ventral to the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae,...

, these are premium cuts of meat, generally pork
Pork
Pork is the culinary name for meat from the domestic pig , which is eaten in many countries. It is one of the most commonly consumed meats worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC....

 or beef
Beef
Beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines, especially domestic cattle. Beef can be harvested from cows, bulls, heifers or steers. It is one of the principal meats used in the cuisine of the Middle East , Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Europe and the United States, and is also important in...

, accompanied by a wide variety of sauces and potatoes which have been double fried in the traditional Dutch (or Belgian) manner.

Stews, such as Waterzooi
Waterzooi
Waterzooi is a classic stew of Flanders. Its name is Dutch, "zooien" meaning "to boil". It is sometimes called Gentse Waterzooi which refers to Ghent, a city in Belgium....

 or Hachee
Hachee
Hachée is a traditional Dutch stew based on diced meat, fish or bird, and vegetables. Hachee based on beef, onions and acid is a typical example of traditional Dutch cuisine and particularly of Brabantish cuisine. Clove and bay leaves are added to the thick gravy...

, a stew of onions, beef
Beef
Beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines, especially domestic cattle. Beef can be harvested from cows, bulls, heifers or steers. It is one of the principal meats used in the cuisine of the Middle East , Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Europe and the United States, and is also important in...

 and a thick gravy, contain a lot of flavour and require hours to prepare. Vegetable soups are made from richly flavored stock
Stock
The capital stock of a business entity represents the original capital paid into or invested in the business by its founders. It serves as a security for the creditors of a business since it cannot be withdrawn to the detriment of the creditors...

 or bouillon
Bouillon
Bouillon is a municipality in Belgium. It lies in the country's Walloon Region and Luxembourg Province.The municipality, which covers 149.09 km², had 5,477 inhabitants, giving a population density of 36.7 inhabitants per km².- History :...

 and typically contain small meatballs alongside a wide variety of different vegetables. Asparagus and witlo(o)f
Chicory
Common chicory, Cichorium intybus, is a somewhat woody, perennial herbaceous plant usually with bright blue flowers, rarely white or pink. Various varieties are cultivated for salad leaves, chicons , or for roots , which are baked, ground, and used as a coffee substitute and additive. It is also...

 are highly prized and traditionally eaten with cheese and/or ham
Ham
Ham is a cut of meat from the thigh of the hind leg of certain animals, especiallypigs. Nearly all hams sold today are fully cooked or cured.-Etymology:...

.

Pastries are abundant, often with rich fillings of cream, custard or fruits. Cakes, such as the Vlaai
Vlaai
Vlaai, better known as Limburgse vlaai, is a pie or tart consisting of a pastry and filling. Vlaai is usually 27—30 centimeters in diameter. Originally vlaai was created in Weert, Limburg and is therefore also known as Weertervlaai...

 from Limburg and the Moorkop and Bossche Bol
Bossche bol
A Bossche bol , sometimes called chocoladebol in its city of origin, is a pastry from the Dutch city of 's-Hertogenbosch . It is effectively a large profiterole, about 12 cm/5" in diameter A Bossche bol (Dutch for 'Den Bosch ball'), sometimes called chocoladebol ('chocolate ball') in its city...

 from Brabant, are typical pastries. Savoury pastries also occur, with the worstenbroodje (a roll with a sausage of ground beef
Ground beef
Beef mince, ground beef, hamburger meat , hamburg or minced meat is a minced meat food, made of beef finely chopped by a mincer. It is used in many recipes including hamburgers and cottage pie...

) being the most popular.

The traditional alcoholic beverage of the region is beer. There are many local brands, ranging from Trappist
Trappist beer
A Trappist beer is a beer brewed by or under control of Trappist monks. There are a total of 174 Trappist monasteries worldwide ; only seven produce Trappist beer and are authorized to label their beers with the Authentic Trappist Product logo that indicates a compliance to the various rules of...

 to Kriek
Kriek
Kriek is a style of Belgian beer, made by fermenting lambic with sour Morello cherries. The name is derived from the Dutch word for this type of cherry . Traditionally "Schaarbeekse krieken" from the area around Brussels are used...

. Beer, like wine in French cuisine, is also used in cooking; often in stews.

Foods

Dutch agriculture roughly consists of five sectors: tillage
Tillage
Tillage is the agricultural preparation of the soil by mechanical agitation of various types, such as digging, stirring, and overturning. Examples of human-powered tilling methods using hand tools include shovelling, picking, mattock work, hoeing, and raking...

-based, greenhouse
Greenhouse
A greenhouse is a building in which plants are grown. These structures range in size from small sheds to very large buildings...

-based, and fruit agriculture, animal husbandry
Animal husbandry
Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock.- History :Animal husbandry has been practiced for thousands of years, since the first domestication of animals....

 and fishery
Fishery
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery. According to the FAO, a fishery is typically defined in terms of the "people involved, species or type of fish, area of water or seabed, method of fishing, class of boats,...

.
  • Tillage-based crops include potato
    Potato
    The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae family . The word potato may refer to the plant itself as well as the edible tuber. In the region of the Andes, there are some other closely related cultivated potato species...

    es, kale
    Kale
    Kale is very high in beta carotene, vitamin K, vitamin C, lutein, zeaxanthin, and reasonably rich in calcium. Kale, as with broccoli and other brassicas, contains sulforaphane , a chemical with potent anti-cancer properties. Boiling decreases the level of sulforaphane; however, steaming,...

    , beetroot
    Beetroot
    The beetroot, also known as the table beet, garden beet, red beet or informally simply as beet, is one of the many cultivated varieties of beets and arguably the most commonly encountered variety in North America, Central America and Britain.-Consumption:The usually deep-red roots of beetroot are...

    , green bean
    Green bean
    Green beans , also known as French beans , are the unripe fruit of any kind of bean, including the yardlong bean, the hyacinth bean, the winged bean, and especially the common bean , whose pods are also usually called string beans in the northeastern and western United States, but can also be...

    s, carrot
    Carrot
    The carrot is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, red, white, and yellow varieties exist. It has a crisp texture when fresh...

    s, celeriac
    Celeriac
    Celeriac is also known as celery root, turnip-rooted celery or knob celery. It is a kind of celery, grown as a root vegetable primarily for its large and bulbous hypocotyl rather than for its stem and leaves. The swollen hypocotyl is typically used when it is about 10–12 cm in...

    , onion
    Onion
    The onion , also known as the bulb onion, common onion and garden onion, is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium. The genus Allium also contains a number of other species variously referred to as onions and cultivated for food, such as the Japanese bunching onion The onion...

    s, all kind of cabbage
    Cabbage
    Cabbage is a popular cultivar of the species Brassica oleracea Linne of the Family Brassicaceae and is a leafy green vegetable...

    s, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower
    Cauliflower
    Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea, in the family Brassicaceae. It is an annual plant that reproduces by seed...

    , endive
    Endive
    Endive , Cichorium endivia, is a leaf vegetable belonging to the daisy family. Endive can be cooked or used raw in salads.-Background:Endive is also a common name for some types of chicory...

    , spinach
    Spinach
    Spinach is an edible flowering plant in the family of Amaranthaceae. It is native to central and southwestern Asia. It is an annual plant , which grows to a height of up to 30 cm. Spinach may survive over winter in temperate regions...

    , Belgian endive, asparagus
    Asparagus
    Asparagus officinalis is a spring vegetable, a flowering perennialplant species in the genus Asparagus. It was once classified in the lily family, like its Allium cousins, onions and garlic, but the Liliaceae have been split and the onion-like plants are now in the family Amaryllidaceae and...

     and lettuce
    Lettuce
    Lettuce is a temperate annual or biennial plant of the daisy family Asteraceae. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable. It is eaten either raw, notably in salads, sandwiches, hamburgers, tacos, and many other dishes, or cooked, as in Chinese cuisine in which the stem becomes just as important...

    . Recently some initiatives have been started to encourage interest in such "forgotten" vegetables as common purslane
    Common Purslane
    Portulaca oleracea , is an annual succulent in the family Portulacaceae, which can reach 40 cm in height....

    , medlars, parsnip
    Parsnip
    The parsnip is a root vegetable related to the carrot. Parsnips resemble carrots, but are paler than most carrots and have a sweeter taste, especially when cooked. The buttery, slightly spicy, sweet flavor of cooked mature parsnips is reminiscent of butterscotch, honey, and subtle cardamom...

    s, and black salsify
    Black salsify
    Scorzonera hispanica, black salsify or Spanish salsify, also known as black oyster plant, serpent root, viper's herb, viper's grass or simply Scorzonera, is a perennial member of the genus Scorzonera in the sunflower family , cultivated as a root vegetable in the same way as some of the members of...


  • Greenhouses are used to produce tomato
    Tomato
    The word "tomato" may refer to the plant or the edible, typically red, fruit which it bears. Originating in South America, the tomato was spread around the world following the Spanish colonization of the Americas, and its many varieties are now widely grown, often in greenhouses in cooler...

    es, lettuce
    Lettuce
    Lettuce is a temperate annual or biennial plant of the daisy family Asteraceae. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable. It is eaten either raw, notably in salads, sandwiches, hamburgers, tacos, and many other dishes, or cooked, as in Chinese cuisine in which the stem becomes just as important...

    , cucumber
    Cucumber
    The cucumber is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, which includes squash, and in the same genus as the muskmelon. The plant is a creeping vine which bears cylindrical edible fruit when ripe. There are three main varieties of cucumber: "slicing", "pickling", and...

    s, and sweet peppers

  • Fruits include apple
    Apple
    The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family . It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits, and the most widely known of the many members of genus Malus that are used by humans. Apple grow on small, deciduous trees that blossom in the spring...

    s, pear
    Pear
    The pear is any of several tree species of genus Pyrus and also the name of the pomaceous fruit of these trees. Several species of pear are valued by humans for their edible fruit, but the fruit of other species is small, hard, and astringent....

    s, cherries
    Cherry
    The cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy stone fruit. The cherry fruits of commerce are usually obtained from a limited number of species, including especially cultivars of the wild cherry, Prunus avium....

    , berries
    Berry
    The botanical definition of a berry is a fleshy fruit produced from a single ovary. Grapes are an example. The berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit in which the entire ovary wall ripens into an edible pericarp. They may have one or more carpels with a thin covering and fleshy interiors....

    , and plum
    Plum
    A plum or gage is a stone fruit tree in the genus Prunus, subgenus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera in the shoots having a terminal bud and solitary side buds , the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one...

    s

  • The Dutch keep cows both for milk and for their meat, chickens
    Chicken (food)
    Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world, and is prepared as food in a wide variety of ways, varying by region and culture.- History :...

     for their eggs and for meat, pig
    Pig
    A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the Suidae family of even-toed ungulates. Pigs include the domestic pig, its ancestor the wild boar, and several other wild relatives...

    s for their meat and sheep for their wool
    Wool
    Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, vicuña, alpaca, camel from animals in the camel family, and angora from rabbits....

     and meat. Goat
    Goat
    The domestic goat is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the Bovidae family and is closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over three hundred distinct breeds of...

     are increasingly kept for cheese production. Traditionally horse meat
    Horse meat
    Horse meat is the culinary name for meat cut from a horse. It is a major meat in only a few countries, notably in Central Asia, but it forms a significant part of the culinary traditions of many others, from Europe to South America to Asia. The top eight countries consume about 4.7 million horses...

     was a common dish (steak and sausage) but is less popular today.

  • The fishery sector lands cod
    Cod
    Cod is the common name for genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae, and is also used in the common name for various other fishes. Cod is a popular food with a mild flavor, low fat content and a dense, flaky white flesh. Cod livers are processed to make cod liver oil, an important source of...

    , herring
    Herring
    Herring is an oily fish of the genus Clupea, found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans, including the Baltic Sea. Three species of Clupea are recognized. The main taxa, the Atlantic herring and the Pacific herring may each be divided into subspecies...

    , plaice
    European plaice
    The European plaice, Pleuronectes platessa, is a commercially important flatfish.- Distribution and habitat :The geographical range of the European plaice is off all coasts from the Barents Sea to the Mediterranean, also in the Northeast Atlantic and along Greenland...

    , sole
    Soleidae
    The true soles are a family, Soleidae, of flatfishes, and include species that live in salt water and fresh water. They are bottom-dwelling fishes feeding on small crustaceans and other invertebrates. Other flatfishes are also known as soles....

    , mackerel
    Mackerel
    Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae. They may be found in all tropical and temperate seas. Most live offshore in the oceanic environment but a few, like the Spanish mackerel , enter bays and can be...

    , eel
    Eel
    Eels are an order of fish, which consists of four suborders, 20 families, 111 genera and approximately 800 species. Most eels are predators...

    s, tuna
    Tuna
    Tuna is a salt water fish from the family Scombridae, mostly in the genus Thunnus. Tuna are fast swimmers, and some species are capable of speeds of . Unlike most fish, which have white flesh, the muscle tissue of tuna ranges from pink to dark red. The red coloration derives from myoglobin, an...

    , salmon
    Salmon
    Salmon is the common name for several species of fish in the family Salmonidae. Several other fish in the same family are called trout; the difference is often said to be that salmon migrate and trout are resident, but this distinction does not strictly hold true...

    , trout
    Trout
    Trout is the name for a number of species of freshwater and saltwater fish belonging to the Salmoninae subfamily of the family Salmonidae. Salmon belong to the same family as trout. Most salmon species spend almost all their lives in salt water...

    , oysters, mussels, shrimp
    Shrimp
    Shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. Adult shrimp are filter feeding benthic animals living close to the bottom. They can live in schools and can swim rapidly backwards. Shrimp are an important...

    , and sardine
    Sardine
    Sardines, or pilchards, are several types of small, oily fish related to herrings, family Clupeidae. Sardines are named after the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, around which they were once abundant....

    s. The Dutch are famous for their smoked eel and soused herring
    Soused herring
    The term soused herring usually means 'soaked in a mild preserving liquid', and can be used to refer to raw herring in a mild vinegar pickle or the famous Dutch brined herring...

    , which is eaten raw.


Breakfast and lunch

Breakfast and lunch differ little in Dutch cuisine and both consist of a wide variety of cold cuts
Cold Cuts
Cold Cuts is a 2002 live album by English acoustic roots duo Show of Hands. It was their first live album to be released in a gatefold/digipack case...

, cheeses and sweet toppings; such as hagelslag, vlokken
Vlokken
Vlokken is a commonly used sandwich topping in the Netherlands. One vlok is made of chocolate and is curved, its size is about 0.5 cm x 2 cm x 0.1 cm....

 and muisjes
Muisjes
Muisjes are a traditional Dutch open-faced sandwich topping, very similar to nonpareils. While customary on bread, their most typical use is on beschuit, or rusk. Muisjes are made of aniseed sprinkles with a sugared and colored outer layer...

. Chocolate spread
Chocolate spread
Chocolate spread is a chocolate-flavoured paste which is eaten mostly spread on breads and toasts or similar pastries such as muffins and pitas.Chocolate spread is a product favored mainly by children and serves as a prevalent spread on their sandwiches....

, treacle
Treacle
Treacle is any syrup made during the refining of sugar and is defined as "uncrystallized syrup produced in refining sugar". Treacle is used chiefly in cooking as a form of sweetener or condiment....

 (a thick, dark brown sugar syrup called stroop), peanut butter
Peanut butter
Peanut butter is a food paste made primarily from ground dry roasted peanuts, popular in North America, Netherlands, United Kingdom, and parts of Asia, particularly the Philippines and Indonesia. It is mainly used as a sandwich spread, sometimes in combination as in the peanut butter and jelly...

 (which is savoury, not sweet) and confiture are popular too.

The Dutch are famous for their dairy products and especially for their cheese
Cheese
Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced throughout the world in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms....

s. The vast majority of Dutch cheeses are semi-hard or hard cheeses. Famous Dutch cheeses include Gouda, Edam, and Leyden
Leyden cheese
Leyden, from , is a yellow cumin spiced cheese made in the Netherlands from semi-skimmed cow's milk.It is made both in factories and on farms, historically in the Leiden area....

. A typically Dutch way of making cheese is to blend in herbs or spices during the first stages of the production process. Famous examples of this are cheeses with cloves (usually the Frisia
Frisia
Frisia is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea, i.e. the German Bight. Frisia is the traditional homeland of the Frisians, a Germanic people who speak Frisian, a language group closely related to the English language...

n nagelkaas), cumin
Cumin
Cumin is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native from the east Mediterranean to India. Its seeds are used in the cuisines of many different cultures, in both whole and ground form.-Etymology:...

 (most famously Leyden cheese
Leyden cheese
Leyden, from , is a yellow cumin spiced cheese made in the Netherlands from semi-skimmed cow's milk.It is made both in factories and on farms, historically in the Leiden area....

), or nettle
Nettle
Nettles constitute between 24 and 39 species of flowering plants of the genus Urtica in the family Urticaceae, with a cosmopolitan though mainly temperate distribution. They are mostly herbaceous perennial plants, but some are annual and a few are shrubby...

s.

Dutch bread tends to be very airy, as it is made from yeast dough. From the 1970s onward Dutch bread became predominantly whole grain
Whole grain
Whole grains are cereal grains that contain cereal germ, endosperm, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm. Whole grains can generally be sprouted while refined grains generally will not sprout. Whole-meal products are made by grinding whole grains in order to make...

, with additional seeds such as sunflower or pumpkin seeds often mixed with the dough for taste. Rye
Rye
Rye is a grass grown extensively as a grain and as a forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe and is closely related to barley and wheat. Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, some whiskeys, some vodkas, and animal fodder...

 bread is one of the few dense breads of the Netherlands. White bread
White bread
White bread is made from wheat flour from which the bran and the germ have been removed through a process known as milling. Milling gives white flour a longer shelf life by removing the bran which contains oil, allowing products made with it, like white bread, the ability to survive storage and...

 used to be the luxury bread, often made with milk as well as water. A Frisia
Frisia
Frisia is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea, i.e. the German Bight. Frisia is the traditional homeland of the Frisians, a Germanic people who speak Frisian, a language group closely related to the English language...

n luxury version of white bread is suikerbrood
Suikerbrood
Suikerbrood is a yeast-based bread not unlike a brioche. It contains a significant amount of sugar, traditionally added as nib sugar, though sometimes sugar cubes are used. While eaten throughout the Netherlands and Belgium, it is especially associated with Friesland. Suikerbrood is usually...

, white bread with large lumps of sugar
Sugar
Sugar is a class of edible crystalline carbohydrates, mainly sucrose, lactose, and fructose, characterized by a sweet flavor.Sucrose in its refined form primarily comes from sugar cane and sugar beet...

 mixed with the dough. Kerststol
Kerststol
Kerststol is a traditional Dutch oval-shaped fruited Christmas bread loaf.-The pastry:The pastry is made of yeast-bread dough with dried fruits, raisins and currants, lemon and orange zest, water, milk, butter, sugar, vanilla, brandy and cinamon....

 is a traditional Dutch Christmas bread made of bread dough with sugar, dried fruits, raisins and currants and lemon and orange zest, eaten sliced, spread with butter.

Those who do not want to have breakfast but need something on their stomach in the morning often eat the famous Dutch ontbijtkoek
Ontbijtkoek
An Ontbijtkoek is a Dutch spiced cake. Rye is its most important ingredient, coloring the cake a light brown. It is often spiced with cloves, cinnamon, ginger, succade and nutmeg...

. It is usually served as a small slice, possibly with delicious rich Dutch butter.

Tea time

Dutch people invite friends over for koffietijd (coffee time), which consists of coffee and cake or a biscuit, served between 10 and 11 a.m. (before lunch) and/or between 7 and 8 p.m. (after dinner)
The Dutch drink coffee
Coffee
Coffee is a brewed beverage with a dark,init brooo acidic flavor prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant, colloquially called coffee beans. The beans are found in coffee cherries, which grow on trees cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in equatorial Latin America, Southeast Asia,...

 and tea
Tea
Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by adding cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant to hot water. The term also refers to the plant itself. After water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world...

 throughout the day, often served with a single biscuit. Dutch thrift led to the famous standard rule of only one cookie with each cup of coffee. It has been suggested that the reasons for this can be found in the Protestant mentality and upbringing in the northern Netherlands.
The traditionally Roman Catholic south does not share this tradition (in Limburg a vlaai
Vlaai
Vlaai, better known as Limburgse vlaai, is a pie or tart consisting of a pastry and filling. Vlaai is usually 27—30 centimeters in diameter. Originally vlaai was created in Weert, Limburg and is therefore also known as Weertervlaai...

(sweet pie or pastry with filling), cut in eight pieces, is traditionally served when visitors are expected).

A popular Dutch story (never confirmed) says that in the late 1940s the wife of the then Prime minister
Prime minister
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime...

, Willem Drees
Willem Drees
Willem Drees was a Dutch politician of the Labour Party . He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from August 7, 1948 until December 22, 1958....

, served coffee and one biscuit to a visiting American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 diplomat
Diplomacy
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of groups or states...

, who then became convinced that the money from the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
The Marshall Plan was the large-scale American program to aid Europe where the United States gave monetary support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to combat the spread of Soviet communism. The plan was in operation for four years beginning in April 1948...

 (European Recovery Program, the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger foundation for the countries of Western Europe, after World War II) was being well-spent.

Café au lait
Café au lait
Café au lait is a French coffee drink. The meaning of the term differs between Europe and the United States; in both cases it means some kind of coffee with hot milk added, in contrast to white coffee, which is coffee with room temperature milk or other whitener added.- Europe :In Europe, "café au...

 is also very common. It is called koffie verkeerd (literally "wrong-way-round-coffee") and consists of equal parts black coffee and hot milk. The Dutch drink tea without milk and the tea is quite a lot weaker than the typical English types of tea which are taken with milk. Other hot drinks used to include warm lemonade
Lemonade
Lemonade is a lemon-flavored drink, typically made from lemons, water and sugar.The term can refer to three different types of beverage:...

, called kwast (hot water with lemon
Lemon
The lemon is both a small evergreen tree native to Asia, and the tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit. The fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world – primarily for its juice, though the pulp and rind are also used, mainly in cooking and baking...

 juice), and anijsmelk (hot milk with anise
Anise
Anise , Pimpinella anisum, also called aniseed, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia. Its flavor resembles that of liquorice, fennel, and tarragon.- Biology :...

ed). In the autumn and winter the very popular hot chocolate
Hot chocolate
Hot chocolate is a heated beverage typically consisting of shaved chocolate, melted chocolate or cocoa powder, heated milk or water, and sugar...

 or chocolate milk
Chocolate milk
Chocolate milk is a sweetened, usually cold, cocoa-flavored milk drink. It is created when chocolate syrup is mixed with milk . It can be purchased pre-mixed or made at home with either cocoa powder and a sweetener , or with melted chocolate, chocolate syrup, or chocolate milk mix...

 is drunk. Both anijsmelk and kwast are hardly drunk anymore and have lost their popularity.

Dinner

Dinner, traditionally served early by international standards, starts at about 6 o'clock in the evening. The old-fashioned Dutch dinner consists of one simple course: beans or potatoes, meat and vegetables. Traditionally potatoes with a large portion of vegetables and a small portion of meat with gravy, or a potato and vegetable stew. A typical traditional Dutch dinner would include stamppot
Stamppot
Stamppot is a traditional Dutch dish made from a combination of potatoes mashed with one or several other vegetables, sometimes also with bacon. These vegetable pairings traditionally include sauerkraut, endive, kale, spinach, turnip greens, or carrot and onion...

(Dutch mashed potato mixed with other mashed vegetables) and pea soup
Pea soup
Pea soup or split pea soup is soup made, typically, from dried peas. It is, with variations, a part of the cuisine of many cultures. It is greyish-green or yellow in color depending on the regional variety of peas used; all are cultivars of Pisum sativum.Pea soup has been eaten since antiquity; it...

. Vegetable stews served as side dishes are for example rodekool met appeltjes (red cabbage with apples), or rode bieten (beetroot
Beetroot
The beetroot, also known as the table beet, garden beet, red beet or informally simply as beet, is one of the many cultivated varieties of beets and arguably the most commonly encountered variety in North America, Central America and Britain.-Consumption:The usually deep-red roots of beetroot are...

). Regular spices used in stews of this kind may be bayleaves
Bay leaf
Bay leaf refers to the aromatic leaf of the bay laurel . Fresh or dried bay leaves are used in cooking for their distinctive flavor and fragrance. The leaves are often used to flavor soups, stews, braises and pâtés in Mediterranean cuisine...

, juniper
Juniper
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, there are between 50-67 species of juniper, widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, from the Arctic, south to tropical Africa in the Old World, and to the...

 berries, clove
Clove
Cloves are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae. Cloves are native to the Maluku islands in Indonesia and used as a spice in cuisines all over the world...

s, and vinegar. Stews are often served with mixed pickle
Mixed pickle
Mixed pickles are pickles made from a variety of vegetables mixed together in the same pickling process. Mixed pickles are eaten much like other pickles: in small amounts to add flavor and to accent a meal.Mixed pickles occur in many different world cuisines....

s, including zure zult (head cheese
Head cheese
Head cheese , or brawn , is a cold cut that originated in Europe. A version pickled with vinegar is known as souse. Head cheese is not a cheese but a terrine or meat jelly made with flesh from the head of a calf or pig , and often set in aspic. Which parts of the head are used can vary, but the...

) or stewed pears (stoofperen). Due to the influx of other countries traditional meals have lost some popularity. Stamppot is traditionally eaten in winter.

If there is a starter
Entrée
An entrée is a dish served before the main course, or between two principal courses of a meal.The disappearance in the early 20th century of a large communal main course such as a roast as a standard part of the meal in the English-speaking world has led to the term being used to describe the main...

, it is usually soup. The final course is a sweet dessert, traditionally yoghurt
Yoghurt
Yoghurt, yogurt or yogourt is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yoghurt are known as "yoghurt cultures"...

 with some sugar or vla
Vla
Vla is a Dutch food product. It is a type of custard .-Vla custard:This dairy product made from fresh milk first appeared in the 1950s. Traditional vla is made of cooked milk with custard, or with a combination of eggs, cornstarch, vanilla and sugar...

, thin milk pudding (cooked milk with custard).

The below listed meals have historic origins as meals for common laborers. In the 17th to 19th century workers worked 10 to 16 hours on farms or in factories in unheated rooms, hence these meals are very heavy on calories and fat and were meant to replenish a laborer's energy.

Well-known Dutch dishes are:
  • Hutspot
    Hutspot
    Hotchpotch Hotchpotch Hotchpotch (or in Dutch: Hutspot is a dish of boiled and mashed potatoes, carrots and onions with a long history in traditional Dutch cuisine.-History of the dish:...

    , made with potatoes, carrots, and onions served with meats like rookworst
    Rookworst
    Rookworst is a type of Dutch sausage in which ground meat is mixed with spices and salt and stuffed into a casing . Rookworst is a traditional ingredient in stamppot...

     (smoked sausage), slow-cooked meat, or bacon
    Bacon
    Bacon is a cured meat prepared from a pig. It is first cured using large quantities of salt, either in a brine or in a dry packing; the result is fresh bacon . Fresh bacon may then be further dried for weeks or months in cold air, boiled, or smoked. Fresh and dried bacon must be cooked before eating...

    . This is a legacy of the Spanish invaders, who, according to legend, left a pot of this stew behind in their abandoned trenches when the town of Leiden, which they had been besieging
    Siege of Leiden
    The Siege of Leiden occurred during the Eighty Years' War in 1573 and 1574, when the Spanish attempted to capture the rebellious city of Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands, and ultimately failed.-Background:...

    , was liberated in 1574 – so this hutspot was one of the first foods its starving inhabitants found. Before potatoes were introduced in Europe hutspot was made from parsnip
    Parsnip
    The parsnip is a root vegetable related to the carrot. Parsnips resemble carrots, but are paler than most carrots and have a sweeter taste, especially when cooked. The buttery, slightly spicy, sweet flavor of cooked mature parsnips is reminiscent of butterscotch, honey, and subtle cardamom...

    s, carrots, and onions
  • Andijviestamppot, raw endive
    Endive
    Endive , Cichorium endivia, is a leaf vegetable belonging to the daisy family. Endive can be cooked or used raw in salads.-Background:Endive is also a common name for some types of chicory...

     mashed with hot potatoes, served with diced fried speck
    Speck
    Speck is a distinctively juniper-flavored ham originally from Tyrol, a historical region that since 1918 partially lies in Austria and partially in Italy...

     (a kind of bacon)
  • Hete bliksem (literally Hot Lightning), boiled potatoes and green apples, served with "stroop" (syrup
    Syrup
    In cooking, a syrup is a thick, viscous liquid consisting primarily of a solution of sugar in water, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars but showing little tendency to deposit crystals...

    ) or tossed with diced speck
  • Zuurkoolstamppot, sauerkraut
    Sauerkraut
    Sauerkraut , directly translated from German: "sour cabbage", is finely shredded cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus. It has a long shelf-life and a distinctive sour flavor, both of which result from the lactic acid...

     mashed with potatoes. Served with fried bacon or a sausage. Sometimes curry
    Curry
    Curry is a generic description used throughout Western culture to describe a variety of dishes from Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan, Thai or other Southeast Asian cuisines...

     powder, raisins or slices of pineapple or banana are used to give a stamppot an exotic touch
  • Boerenkoolstamppot, curly kale
    Kale
    Kale is very high in beta carotene, vitamin K, vitamin C, lutein, zeaxanthin, and reasonably rich in calcium. Kale, as with broccoli and other brassicas, contains sulforaphane , a chemical with potent anti-cancer properties. Boiling decreases the level of sulforaphane; however, steaming,...

     mixed with potatoes, served with gravy, mustard, and rookworst
    Rookworst
    Rookworst is a type of Dutch sausage in which ground meat is mixed with spices and salt and stuffed into a casing . Rookworst is a traditional ingredient in stamppot...

     sausage. This dish, boerenkool met rookworst, (which could be translated literally as farmers cabbage with smoked sausage), is made of mashed potatoes mixed with cabbage and it is usually eaten with smoked sausage. 'Boerenkool met worst' is one of the oldest and most popular Dutch dishes. Boerenkool was mentioned in cookbooks from the year 1661. 1661 mashed potatoes were not used in this dish yet, although the sausage was already served with the cabbage in this dish. The dish became popular after a few bad corn-seasons when potatoes became popular as food. Boerenkool contains a lot of carbohydrates, which makes it a popular meal for cold winter days


Another dish served at the dinner table is a very thick pea soup, called snert and it can be served either as a main dish or as an appetizer and is traditionally eaten during the winter. Snert
Pea soup
Pea soup or split pea soup is soup made, typically, from dried peas. It is, with variations, a part of the cuisine of many cultures. It is greyish-green or yellow in color depending on the regional variety of peas used; all are cultivars of Pisum sativum.Pea soup has been eaten since antiquity; it...

has a very thick consistency and often includes pieces of pork and rookworst - smoked sausage - and is almost a stew rather than a soup. The thick consistency of the Dutch pea soup is often described as that "..you should be able to stand a spoon upright in a good pea soup". It is customarily served with roggebrood (rye bread
Rye bread
Rye bread is a type of bread made with various percentages of flour from rye grain. It can be light or dark in color, depending on the type of flour used and the addition of coloring agents, and is typically denser than bread made from wheat flour...

) spread with butter and topped with katenspek, a variety of bacon which is first cooked and then smoked. The meat from the soup may also be put on the rye bread and eaten with mustard.

Meat dishes include gehaktballen meatball
Meatball
A meatball is made from an amount of ground meat rolled into a small ball, sometimes along with other ingredients, such as breadcrumbs, minced onion, spices, and possibly eggs...

s, slavink
Slavink
Slavink is a Dutch meat dish consisting usually of ground meat called "half and half" wrapped in bacon , and cooked in butter or vegetable oil for about 15 minutes. A variation of the dish called blinde vink is made by wrapping ground veal in a thin veal cutlet...

, minced meat wrapped in bacon, balkenbrij
Balkenbrij
Balkenbrij is a traditional Dutch food. 'Panhas', 'Pannas' or 'Möppkenbrot' ar widely known in the whole northwest of Germany, the last variety is a speciality of middle Westphalia.At first it was made at the end of the slaughtering process at farms in the pot used to cook the swill. It shares...

, a type of liverwurst
Liverwurst
The German , that translates literally as "liver sausage," is the typical sausage served in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Serbia, Slovenia, the Netherlands, Finland, Sweden and Romania . Liverwurst normally contains pigs' livers, rather than calves' livers and also contains veal...

 and meatloaf
Meatloaf
Meatloaf is a dish of ground meat formed into a loaf shape and baked or smoked. The loaf shape is formed by either cooking it in a loaf pan, or forming it by hand on a flat baking pan...

. The butter based gravy
Gravy
Gravy is a sauce made often from the juices that run naturally from meat or vegetables during cooking. In North America the term can refer to a wider variety of sauces and gravy is often thicker than in Britain...

 (boterjus), in which the meat has been fried and/or cooked, is also served. A variant of this, eaten around the IJsselmeer
IJsselmeer
IJsselmeer is a shallow artificial lake of 1100 km² in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland, with an average depth of 5 to 6 m. The IJsselmeer is the largest lake in Western Europe....

(a shallow lake in the central Netherlands), is butter en eek, where vinegar
Vinegar
Vinegar is a liquid substance consisting mainly of acetic acid and water, the acetic acid being produced through the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria. Commercial vinegar is produced either by fast or slow fermentation processes. Slow methods generally are used with traditional...

 is added to the gravy.

Another Dutch dinner dish is pannenkoeken (pancakes are named after pannenkoeken), which come in several varieties including poffertjes
Poffertjes
Poffertjes are a traditional Dutch batter treat. Resembling small, fluffy pancakes, they are made with yeast and buckwheat flour. Unlike American pancakes, they have a light, spongey texture...

(miniature pancakes) and spekdik (a Northern variant with bacon
Bacon
Bacon is a cured meat prepared from a pig. It is first cured using large quantities of salt, either in a brine or in a dry packing; the result is fresh bacon . Fresh bacon may then be further dried for weeks or months in cold air, boiled, or smoked. Fresh and dried bacon must be cooked before eating...

). Wentelteefjes (French toast
French toast
French toast or Eggy Bread, is a food made with bread and eggs. It is a Christmas time dessert in Portugal and Brazil.Where French toast is served as a sweet dish, milk, sugar, or cinnamon are also commonly added before frying, and it may be then topped with sugar, butter, fruit, syrup, or other...

) are similar. Broeder, a type of cake, is also eaten for dinner, mainly in West Friesland
West Friesland (region)
West Friesland is a contemporary region in the northwestern Netherlands, in the province of North Holland.The region covers an area of about , delineated by the Westfriese Omringdijk...

.

In season, mosselen (mussel
Mussel
The common name mussel is used for members of several families of clams or bivalvia mollusca, from saltwater and freshwater habitats. These groups have in common a shell whose outline is elongated and asymmetrical compared with other edible clams, which are often more or less rounded or oval.The...

s) are quite popular and commonly served with friet/patat (french fries
French fries
French fries , chips, fries, or French-fried potatoes are strips of deep-fried potato. North Americans tend to refer to any pieces of deep-fried potatoes as fries or French fries, while in the United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland and New Zealand, long, thinly cut slices of deep-fried potatoes are...

).

Desserts often include vla
Vla
Vla is a Dutch food product. It is a type of custard .-Vla custard:This dairy product made from fresh milk first appeared in the 1950s. Traditional vla is made of cooked milk with custard, or with a combination of eggs, cornstarch, vanilla and sugar...

(vanilla custard) or yoghurt
Yoghurt
Yoghurt, yogurt or yogourt is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yoghurt are known as "yoghurt cultures"...

. Regional variants include broodpap, a bread porridge made from old bread, milk, butter and sugar.

Other puddings and porridges are griesmeel
Semolina
Semolina is the coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat used in making pasta, and also used for breakfast cereals and puddings. Semolina is also used to designate coarse middlings from other varieties of wheat, and from other grains such as rice and corn.-Name:The term semolina derives from...

pudding
, grutjespap, Haagse bluf, hangop, Jan in de zak, karnemelksepap, rijstebrij (rice pudding
Rice pudding
Rice pudding is a dish made from rice mixed with water or milk and sometimes other ingredients such as cinnamon and raisins. Different variants are used for either desserts or dinners. When used as a dessert, it is commonly combined with a sweetener such as sugar.-Rice pudding around the world:Rice...

), krentjebrij
Krentjebrij
Krentjebrij is a Groningen / North-Drenthe name for a traditional soup or porridge-like dessert with juice of berries that is eaten either warm or cold. It is also known as watergruel or krintsjebrij in Friesland...

(also called watergruwel).

Special occasions

On special occasions, usually different types of pastries are eaten.
When a baby is born in a family, the young parents traditionally serve their guests beschuit met muisjes (Dutch rusk
Rusk
A rusk is a hard, dry biscuit or a twice-baked bread. It is sometimes used as a baby teething food. In the United Kingdom, the name also refers to a wheat-based food additive.- Germany :The zwieback A rusk is a hard, dry biscuit or a twice-baked bread. It is sometimes used as a baby teething food....

 covered with sugared aniseed).

The Dutch festival of Sinterklaas
Sinterklaas
Sinterklaas is a traditional Winter holiday figure still celebrated today in the Low Countries, including the Netherlands and Belgium, as well as French Flanders and Artois...

(dedicated to Saint Nicholas
Saint Nicholas
Saint Nicholas , also called Nikolaos of Myra, was a historic 4th-century saint and Greek Bishop of Myra . Because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession, he is also known as Nikolaos the Wonderworker...

, celebrating his name day) is held on the 5 December. Saint Nicholas, leaves gifts in the children’s shoes. On this occasion, the Dutch drink hot chocolate milk and eat spice cookies, like speculaas
Speculaas
Speculoos is a type of shortcrust biscuit, traditionally baked for consumption on St Nicholas' Eve in the Netherlands , Belgium . and Northern France. In recent decades it has become available all year round...

. These special pastries are said to be distributed by Saint Nicholas' aide Zwarte Piet
Zwarte Piet
In the folklore and legends of the Netherlands and Belgium, Zwarte Piet is a companion of Saint Nicholas whose yearly feast in the Netherlands is usually celebrated on the evening of 5 December In the folklore and legends of the Netherlands and Belgium, Zwarte Piet (meaning Black Pete) is a...

; and they include pepernoten
Pepernoot
thumb|right|Pepernoten Pepernoten are a cookie-like kind of confectionery, traditionally associated with the early December Sinterklaas holiday in the Netherlands....

(gingernut-like biscuits but made with cinnamon, pepper, cloves and nutmeg mix of spices), boterletter or banket
Banket (food)
Banket or Letterbanket is a sweet pastry that originated in the Netherlands and is popular in the Christmas season.Banket is made by rolling pastry dough around an almond paste filling and then baking it. The log is then cut into short lengths for serving...

, (a baked pastry crust filled with a sugared almond paste
Almond paste
Almond paste is made from ground almonds or almond meal and sugar, typically 50-55%, with a small amount of cooking oil, beaten eggs, heavy cream or corn syrup added to bind the two ingredients...

 filling and shaped into a letter), letters made from chocolate, marzipan
Marzipan
Marzipan is a confection consisting primarily of sugar and almond meal. Persipan is a similar, yet less expensive product, in which the almonds are replaced by apricot or peach kernels...

, borstplaat (discs of fondant
Fondant
Fondant is one of several kinds of icing-like substance used to decorate or sculpt pastries. The word, in French, means "melting", coming from the same root as "foundry" in English....

); and several other types of spiced cookies: taai-taai and kruidnoten and banketstaaf.

Christmas in the Netherlands is a typical family holiday. Traditionally there is family brunch with "Kerststol
Kerststol
Kerststol is a traditional Dutch oval-shaped fruited Christmas bread loaf.-The pastry:The pastry is made of yeast-bread dough with dried fruits, raisins and currants, lemon and orange zest, water, milk, butter, sugar, vanilla, brandy and cinamon....

" (fruited raisinbread; often filled with almond paste
Almond paste
Almond paste is made from ground almonds or almond meal and sugar, typically 50-55%, with a small amount of cooking oil, beaten eggs, heavy cream or corn syrup added to bind the two ingredients...

). Christmas dinner is also a family occasion where roast pork, game or other luxury meat may be served. An alternative typical Dutch tradition for Christmas meals is 'gourmet', when people sit together around a gourmet-set (small table top cooking stove with miniature frying pans) and use their own small frying pans to cook different types of meats, fish
Fish (food)
Fish is a food consumed by many species, including humans. The word "fish" refers to both the animal and to the food prepared from it. Fish has been an important source of protein for humans throughout recorded history.-Terminology:...

 prawns/shrimps and finely chopped vegetables accompanied by salads, fruits and sauces.

On New Year's Eve, Dutch houses smell of the piping hot oil used to prepare oliebollen, appelflappen and appelbeignets (battered apple rings) in deep-fat fryers. These yeast dough balls, either plain or filled with glacé fruits, pieces of apple and raisins and sultanas
Sultana (grape)
The sultana is a type of white, seedless grape assumed to originate from the Turkish, Greek, or Iranian area...

, are served with powdered sugar and are a special treat for New Year's Eve. The Dutch also took their oliebollen to America, where they are now known in a slightly different form as doughnut
Doughnut
A doughnut or donut is a fried dough food and is popular in many countries and prepared in various forms as a sweet snack that can be homemade or purchased in bakeries, supermarkets, food stalls, and franchised specialty outlets...

s. In Limburg nonnevotte are sometimes served during New Year's Eve, although it is mostly eaten during Carnival. Around New Years Knieperties are popular, in particular in the northern provinces.

On birthdays all kinds of cakes and cookies are eaten, including appeltaart (apple pie
Apple pie
An apple pie is a fruit pie in which the principal filling ingredient is apples. It is sometimes served with whipped cream or ice cream on top...

), Bokkepootjes, Bossche bol, dikke koek, cream cake, Fryske dumkes, gevulde koek (cookies filled with almond meal), Groninger koek, Janhagel, Ketelkoek, Kindermanstik, Krakeling, Krentenwegge, Kruidkoek, Limburgse vlaai, Ouwewijvenkoek, peperkoek (gingerbread
Gingerbread
Gingerbread is a term used to describe a variety of sweet food products, which can range from a soft, moist loaf cake to something close to a ginger biscuit. What they have in common are the predominant flavors of ginger and a tendency to use honey or molasses rather than just sugar...

), Rijstekoek, Spekkoek
Spekkoek
Spekkoek or more popularly called lapis legit in Indonesia is a Dutch-Indonesian layered cake...

 (from Indonesia), Sprits, Tompouce, Trommelkoek, Bitterkoekjes, Kletskop and Stroopwafel
Stroopwafel
A stroopwafel is a waffle made from two thin layers of baked batter with a caramel-like syrup filling in the middle. They were first made in Gouda in the Netherlands, in 1784...

.
Poffertjes are tiny puffed pancakes served on special occasions, served warm with melting butter and powdered sugar
Powdered sugar
Powdered sugar, also known as confectioners' sugar or icing sugar, is very fine sugar. When intended for home use, it typically contains a small amount of anti-caking agent....

 on top. They are mostly combined with a drink: milk, chocolate milk or yoghurt drink. Cafeterias all around Holland sell poffertjes. Dutch people call such a restaurant a poffertjeskraam. Poffertjes can be eaten as a dessert after dinner or as a sweet lunch.

Sweets

A famous Dutch sweet is zoute drop, salty liquorice and liquorice sweets. These sweets are small, black and look much like gums. The four types of drop are soft sweet, soft salt, hard sweet and hard salt drop. Drop can be bought in shops and pharmacies and has a medical function as it helps to cure throat and stomach aches. Dutch drop is sold in a large variety of shapes and forms. Drop can be either sweet or salty (or very salty). It is sometimes flavoured with coconut fondant (Engelse drop or English drop ), honey (honingdrop ), mint (muntdrop ), salmiak (salmiakdrop
Salmiakki
Salty liquorice, also known as salmiak or salmiakki is a variety of liquorice flavoured with ammonium chloride, common in Netherlands, Nordic Countries, Baltic States and Northern Germany. Ammonium chloride gives salty liquorice an astringent, salty taste , which has been described as...

), or laurel (laurierdrop). Typical shapes are diamonds, ovals, oblongs and coins. Honeycomb shape for honeydrop are also familiar. Some manufacturers have introduced speciality ranges where the drop is made in thematic shapes, such as cars (autodrop), farm animals and farm machinery (boerderijdrop), etc.

Another popular Dutch sweet is the Stroopwafel
Stroopwafel
A stroopwafel is a waffle made from two thin layers of baked batter with a caramel-like syrup filling in the middle. They were first made in Gouda in the Netherlands, in 1784...

 ("stroop" meaning syrup). A thin wafer made typically in a pizelle pan is sliced horizontally and sandwiched with a light caramel syrup, the stroop. Occasionally crushed hazelnuts will be mixed with the stroop, and the wafers may be spiced with cinnamon.

One of the Dutch confectionary
Confectionery
Confectionery is the set of food items that are rich in sugar, any one or type of which is called a confection. Modern usage may include substances rich in artificial sweeteners as well...

 specialties is vlaai, made of a yeast dough and stuffed with fruit (such as apple, apricot, pineapple, plum) or berry filling. Other ingredients may include custard
Custard
Custard is a variety of culinary preparations based on a cooked mixture of milk or cream and egg yolk. Depending on how much egg or thickener is used, custard may vary in consistency from a thin pouring sauce , to a thick pastry cream used to fill éclairs. The most common custards are used as...

 and rhubarb
Rhubarb
Rhubarb is a group of plants that belong to the genus Rheum in the family Polygonaceae. They are herbaceous perennial plants growing from short, thick rhizomes. They have large leaves that are somewhat triangular-shaped with long fleshy petioles...

. Rice vlaais, stuffed with a rich rice-cream filling, are also produced. They can be additionally grafted with fruits, whipped cream
Whipped cream
Whipped cream is cream that has been beaten by a mixer, whisk, or fork until it is light and fluffy. Whipped cream is often sweetened and sometimes flavored with vanilla, in which case it may be called Chantilly cream or crème Chantilly ....

 or chocolate.

Alcoholic drinks

Wine plays only a modest role in Dutch cuisine, but there are many brands of beer
Beer
Beer is the world's most widely consumed andprobably oldest alcoholic beverage; it is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of sugars, mainly derived from malted cereal grains, most commonly malted barley and malted wheat...

 (mainly lager
Lager
Lager is a type of beer made from malted barley that is brewed and stored at low temperatures. There are many types of lager; pale lager is the most widely-consumed and commercially available style of beer in the world; Pilsner, Bock, Dortmunder Export and Märzen are all styles of lager...

) and strong alcoholic liquor. The most famous Dutch beer
Dutch beer
Beer in the Netherlands is known for the pale lagers, especially Heineken and Grolsch, which are exported globally. Grolsch is the leading import lager in the United Kingdom...

 producers are Heineken
Heineken
Heineken is a Dutch beer which has been brewed by Heineken International since 1873. It is available in a 4.6% alcohol variety in countries such as Ireland. It is the flagship product of the Heineken company and is made of purified water, malted barley, hops, and yeast. In 1886 H...

 in the west and Grolsch in the east. Traditionally Noord-Brabant and Limburg had a strong beer tradition, with many different types of beer (not unlike Belgium). However in the 20th century big brewers took over many of the small time breweries or offered them a license to sell their beer brand, while stopping their own production. Also a variety of bitters where Beerenburg
Beerenburg
Beerenburg is a Dutch drink, made by adding herbs to jenever, with about 30% alcohol.The original Beerenburg was made in the mid-19th century with a secret mixture of spices of the Amsterdam spice merchant Hendrik Beerenburg, to whom it owes its name. Soon local Beerenburg varieties emerged, each...

 is the most famous. Strong liquors include Jenever
Jenever
Jenever , is the juniper-flavored and strongly alcoholic traditional liquor of the Netherlands and Belgium, from which gin evolved...

 (gin) and Brandewijn (brandy
Brandy
Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine. Brandy generally contains 35%–60% alcohol by volume and is typically taken as an after-dinner drink...

), but also kandeel (made from white wine), Kraamanijs (a liquor made from aniseed), Oranjebitter (a type of orange brandy, which is served on festivities surrounding the royal family), advocaat
Advocaat
Advocaat is a rich and creamy liqueur made from eggs, sugar and brandy. It has a smooth, custard-like flavor and is similar to eggnog. In English-speaking countries it generally contains 15% alcohol , but in Continental Europe the typical alcohol content differs from country to country and is...

, Boerenjongens, raisin
Raisin
Raisins are dried grapes. They are produced in many regions of the world. Raisins may be eaten raw or used in cooking, baking and brewing...

s in brandewijn, Boerenmeisjes, apricot
Apricot
The apricot, Prunus armeniaca, is a species of Prunus, classified with the plum in the subgenus Prunus. The native range is somewhat uncertain due to its extensive prehistoric cultivation.- Description :...

s in brandewijn.

Fast food

The Dutch have their own types of fast food
Fast food
Fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a...

, sold in snackbars. A Dutch fast-food meal often consists of a portion of french fries
French fries
French fries , chips, fries, or French-fried potatoes are strips of deep-fried potato. North Americans tend to refer to any pieces of deep-fried potatoes as fries or French fries, while in the United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland and New Zealand, long, thinly cut slices of deep-fried potatoes are...

 (called friet or patat), with a sauce and a meat product. The most common sauce to accompany French fries is mayonnaise
Mayonnaise
Mayonnaise, , often abbreviated as mayo, is a sauce. It is a stable emulsion of oil, egg yolk and either vinegar or lemon juice, with many options for embellishment with other herbs and spices. Lecithin in the egg yolk is the emulsifier. Mayonnaise varies in color but is often white, cream, or pale...

 (or a sweeter low fat alternative called fritessaus), while others can be ketchup
Ketchup
Ketchup is a sweet-and-tangy condiment typically made from tomatoes, vinegar, sugar or high-fructose corn syrup and an assortment of...

 or spiced ketchup, peanut sauce
Peanut sauce
Peanut sauce, satay sauce, bumbu kacang, or sambal kacang is a sauce widely used in the cuisines of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, China and Africa. It is also used, to a lesser extent, in European and Middle Eastern cuisine.-Ingredients:The main ingredient is ground roasted peanuts, for...

 or a pickle relish of chopped vegetables and spices, like piccalilli
Piccalilli
Piccalilli is a British relish of chopped pickled vegetables and spices; regional recipes vary considerably. A more finely chopped variety "sandwich piccalilli" is also available from major British supermarkets.-Etymology:...

. Sometimes the French fries are served with a combinations of different sauces, most famously speciaal (special): mayonnaise with spiced ketchup and chopped onions; and oorlog (literally "war"): mayonnaise and peanut sauce, sometimes with chopped onions. A quite new addition to Dutch Fastfood is the Kapsalon
Kapsalon
Kapsalon is a Dutch food item consisting of fries, topped with donair or shawarma meat, grilled with a layer of Gouda cheese until melted and then subsequently covered with a layer of dressed salad greens topped with a green pepper. The dish is often served with garlic sauce and may substitute the...

 (literally Barbershop), consisting of either shawarma
Shawarma
Shawarma is a Levantine Arab sandwich-like wrap of shaved lamb, goat, chicken, turkey, beef, or mixed meats. The meat is placed on a spit, and may be grilled for as long as a day. It is eaten with pita bread, tabbouleh, fattoush, taboon bread, tomato and cucumber. Toppings include tahini, hummus,...

 or döner, fries, salad, cheese and various sauces. It was given its name because the original (Friet) Kapsalon, which was a lunch meal as ordered by the owner of a barbershop in Rotterdam.

The meat is usually deep fried; this includes the frikandel
Frikandel
A frikandel is a Dutch snack, a sort of minced-meat hot dog,developed either in 1954 or in 1958/1959 in the Netherlands, depending on the source.-Overview:...

 (a deep fried, skinless minced meat sausage), and the kroket (meat ragout covered in breadcrumbs, deep-fried).

A smaller, spherical version of the kroket, the bitterbal
Bitterballen
Bitterballen are a savoury Dutch meat-based snack, typically containing a mixture of beef , beef broth, flour and butter for thickening, parsley, salt and pepper. This is also called ragout. Some recipes also include nutmeg and/or curry powder. The ingredients are combined and cooked, then...

, is often served with mustard as a snack in bars and at official receptions. Regional snacks include eierbal (a combination of egg and ragout
Ragout
-Etymology:The term comes from the French ragoûter, to revive the taste. The etymologically related Italian ragù is a sauce such as Bolognese used typically to dress pasta.-Preparation:...

) in the North and East, and Brabants worstenbrood or more commonly saucijzenbroodjes, slightly spiced sausage meat baked in pastry (similar to the English pigs in a blanket
Pigs in a blanket
Pigs in blankets Pigs in blankets Pigs in blankets (also known as worstenbroodjes or saucijzenbroodjes (dutch), kilted sausages (UK), pølse i svøb (danish) refers to different sausage-based foods in the United States, United Kingdom, Denmark, Australia, Ireland, Germany, the Netherlands, Russia,...

).

Other snacks are the Indonesian-inspired bamihap or bamischijf (disk shaped mie goreng in breadcrumbs, deep-fried), nasibal (ball shaped nasi goreng
Nasi goreng
Nasi goreng, literally meaning "fried rice" in Indonesian, can refer simply to fried pre-cooked rice, a meal including stir fried rice in small amount of cooking oil or margarine, typically spiced with kecap manis , shallot, garlic, tamarind and chilli and accompanied with other ingredients,...

in breadcrumbs, deep-fried) and kaassouflé (cheese soufflé, or fried puff pastry dough with a small amount of cheese in the center, popular amongst vegetarians).

Almost all meat products are factory made from cheap cuts of meat and supplied to the snackbar frozen. French fries need to be deep fried twice at different temperatures. In most cases the fries are supplied frozen and fried once. Some snackbars offer locally prepared snacks, e.g. sliced pork belly covered in breadcrumbs.

Another kind of fast food is fish. This includes raw herring
Soused herring
The term soused herring usually means 'soaked in a mild preserving liquid', and can be used to refer to raw herring in a mild vinegar pickle or the famous Dutch brined herring...

, which is sold in markets and eaten (often with chopped onions and gherkin
Gherkin
The gherkin is a fruit similar in form and nutritional value to a cucumber. Gherkins and cucumbers belong to the same species , but are from different cultivar groups....

), by lifting the herring high in the air by its tail, and eating it upwards, or (less messily) on a bun. Other regular fish snack are Kibbeling (deep-fried nugget-sized chunks of cod
Atlantic cod
The Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a well-known demersal food fish belonging to the family Gadidae. It is also commercially known as cod, codling or haberdine....

), Lekkerbek (deep-fried cod, similar to the British Fish and chips
Fish and chips
Fish and chips is a popular take-away food in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Canada...

, but delicately spiced and with a batter more like tempura), smoked eel
Eel
Eels are an order of fish, which consists of four suborders, 20 families, 111 genera and approximately 800 species. Most eels are predators...

, and rollmops
Rollmops
Rollmops are pickled herring fillets, rolled into a cylindrical shape around slices of onion, pickled gherkin, or green olive with pimento. Rollmops can be served held together with one or two small wooden skewers....

.

See also

  • Beer in the Netherlands
    Beer in the Netherlands
    Beer in the Netherlands is known for the pale lagers, especially Heineken and Grolsch, which are exported globally. Grolsch is the leading import lager in the United Kingdom...

  • Dutch cheese markets
    Dutch Cheese Markets
    There are five cheese markets operating in the Netherlands. Woerden is a modern working commercial cheese market. Four, Alkmaar, Gouda, Edam and Hoorn, are like traditional merchant cheese markets as operated in the post-medieval period, re-enacted during the summer months for tourists...

  • Pannekoek
  • Babi panggang - a Dutch/Indonesian/Chinese fusion dish
  • Spekkoek
    Spekkoek
    Spekkoek or more popularly called lapis legit in Indonesia is a Dutch-Indonesian layered cake...

     - a Dutch/Indonesian cake
  • Coleslaw
    Coleslaw
    Coleslaw, sometimes simply called slaw in some American dialects, is a salad consisting primarily of shredded raw cabbage. It may also include shredded carrots and other ingredients such as fruits and vegetables, apples, onions, green onions, peppers and various spices.-History:The term "coleslaw"...

     - from the Dutch words "kool" (cabbage) and "sla" (salad)
  • Rijsttafel - Dutch for rice table. Indonesian styled dish. Side dishes served in small portions, accompanied by rice prepared in several different ways

External links

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