Dirk Philips
Dirk Philips was an early Anabaptist
Anabaptists are Protestant Christians of the Radical Reformation of 16th-century Europe, and their direct descendants, particularly the Amish, Brethren, Hutterites, and Mennonites....

 writer and theologian
Theology is the systematic and rational study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truths, or the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university or school of divinity or seminary.-Definition:Augustine of Hippo...

. He was one of the peaceful disciples of Melchior Hoffman
Melchior Hoffman
Melchior Hoffman was an Anabaptist prophet and a visionary leader in northern Germany and the Netherlands.-Life:Hoffman was born at Schwäbisch Hall in Franconia before 1500...

 and later joined Menno Simons
Menno Simons
Menno Simons was an Anabaptist religious leader from the Friesland region of the Low Countries. Simons was a contemporary of the Protestant Reformers and his followers became known as Mennonites...

 in laying out practical doctrines for what would become the Mennonite
The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after the Frisian Menno Simons , who, through his writings, articulated and thereby formalized the teachings of earlier Swiss founders...



Dirk Philips was born in Leeuwarden in 1504, the son of a priest (it was not uncommon at the time for a priest to have unofficial wives and families). He was a Franciscan
Most Franciscans are members of Roman Catholic religious orders founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. Besides Roman Catholic communities, there are also Old Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, ecumenical and Non-denominational Franciscan communities....

 monk. He joined the Anabaptist Brotherhood in 1533 and became an elder in 1534. In 1537, he was named one of the outstanding Anabaptist leaders. In 1561, he was described as an old man, not very tall, with a grey beard and white hair. He died in Het Falder in 1568.


He was the leading theologian of his time among Dutch Mennonites
Mennonite Church in the Netherlands
The Mennonite Church in the Netherlands, or Algemene Doopsgezinde Sociëteit, is a body of Mennonite Christians in the Netherlands.The Mennonites are named for Menno Simons , a Dutch Roman Catholic priest from the Province of Friesland who converted to Anabaptism around 1536...

. He was known to be very systematic in his thinking, and very strict and unwavering in his beliefs. There were two key themes to his theology: The word of scripture, and the word incarnate in Jesus. Like other Anabaptists, he gave Christ pre-eminence. He was not as charming or friendly as Menno Simons.

He identifies seven ordinances
Ordinance (Christian)
Ordinance is a Protestant Christian term for baptism, communion and other religious rituals. Some Protestants, like the Mennonites, do not call them "sacraments" because they believe these rituals are outward expressions of faith, rather than impartations of God's grace.While a sacrament is seen...

 of the church:
  • Pure doctrine
  • Scriptural use of the sacraments
  • Washing the feet of the saints
  • Separation (the ban and shunning
    Shunning can be the act of social rejection, or mental rejection. Social rejection is when a person or group deliberately avoids association with, and habitually keeps away from an individual or group. This can be a formal decision by a group, or a less formal group action which will spread to all...

  • Command of love
  • Obedience to the command of Christ
  • Suffering and persecution
    Persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group by another group. The most common forms are religious persecution, ethnic persecution, and political persecution, though there is naturally some overlap between these terms. The inflicting of suffering, harassment, isolation,...

He believed in the strict adherence to the ban or shunning. This is when open sinners are expelled from the church until they repent. He felt this was necessary in order to maintain the purity of the church. His emphasis on the ban and the purity of the community makes Dirk Philips' writings more popular with the Old Order Amish. He believed in the absolute opposition between the church and the world, and therefore that believers should expect persecution.

External links

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