Dieselisation or dieselization is a term generally used for the increasingly common use of diesel fuel in vehicles, as opposed to gasoline
Gasoline , or petrol , is a toxic, translucent, petroleum-derived liquid that is primarily used as a fuel in internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. Some gasolines also contain...
or steam engines.
Water TransportThe two stroke marine diesel engine
The Wärtsilä RT-flex96C is a two-stroke turbocharged low-speed diesel engine designed by the Finnish manufacturer Wärtsilä. It is currently considered the largest reciprocating engine in the world, designed for large container ships, running on heavy fuel oil...
was introduced in 1922 and remains in use today. It is the most efficient prime mover, with models over 100,000 horsepower and a thermal efficiency
In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, a boiler, a furnace, or a refrigerator for example.-Overview:...
of 50%. The market share of steam ships peaked around 1925 (a few sailing ships remained) and by the early 1950s diesel ships held over 50% of the market.
- New York tugboatsNew York tugboatsThe tugboat is one symbol of New York. Along with its morefamous icons of Lady Liberty, the Empire State Building, andthe Brooklyn Bridge, the sturdy little tugs, once all steam powered,working quietly in the harbor became a sight in the city....
Rail transportIn rail transport, dieselisation refers to the replacement of the steam locomotive
A steam locomotive is a railway locomotive that produces its power through a steam engine. These locomotives are fueled by burning some combustible material, usually coal, wood or oil, to produce steam in a boiler, which drives the steam engine...
or electric locomotive
An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electricity from overhead lines, a third rail or an on-board energy storage device...
with the diesel-electric locomotive (often referred to as a "diesel locomotive
A diesel locomotive is a type of railroad locomotive in which the prime mover is a diesel engine, a reciprocating engine operating on the Diesel cycle as invented by Dr. Rudolf Diesel...
"), a process which began in the 1930s and is now substantially complete in the US, UK and Latin America. Elsewhere, electric traction has mostly taken the place of steam locomotives in the main lines and diesel-electric and diesel-hydraulic locomotives are used in less frequently used side lines.
The replacement of either steam or diesel haulage
Haulage may refer to:* The business of being a haulier or hauler , also called haulage contractor, common carrier, contract carrier, or private carrier, in other words of transporting goods by road or rail for other companies or one's own company.* The horizontal transport of ore, coal, supplies,...
with electric locomotive
An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electricity from overhead lines, a third rail or an on-board energy storage device...
s is known as electrification
Railway electrification system
A railway electrification system supplies electrical energy to railway locomotives and multiple units as well as trams so that they can operate without having an on-board prime mover. There are several different electrification systems in use throughout the world...
. Whereas the benefit of replacing steam traction is indisputable, there is some dispute as to whether it is best replaced by dieselisation or electrification. Electrification has a high initial capital cost but the operating costs are lower. The overall savings depend on the effect of the investment cost compared with the savings due to lower operational and maintenance costs and the influence of better acceleration and tractive effort on railroad throughput. These are obviously different for e.g. urban networks and very long-distance networks with low frequencies. However, many railway commentators are increasingly suggesting that the ability of railways to operate with electricity not produced from fossil fuels may offer a decisive advantage over diesel power. In some countries, such as Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...
, electrification ended the use of steam power.
Advantages of diesel in rail transportDieselisation took place largely because of the reduction in operating costs it allowed. Steam locomotives require large pools of labour to clean, load, maintain and run. They also require extensive service, coaling and watering facilities. Diesel locomotives require significantly less time and labour to operate and maintain.
Diesel engines have thermal efficiency above 40% compared to about 6% for single expansion steam. Diesel engines also have higher power-to-weight ratios.
Steam engines caused more hammer blow
Hammer blow, in rail terminology, refers to the vertical forces transferred to the track by the driving wheels of a steam locomotive and some diesel locomotives. The largest proportion of this is due to the unbalanced reciprocating motion, although the piston thrusts also contribute a portion to it...
to the rails than diesel engines.
Impact of World War IIWorld War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...
led to the development of improvements in internal combustion engine technology that made diesel locomotives cheaper and more powerful. The post-war world also re-aligned the business and financial markets, as did world geo-politics as in the Cold War (1947-1953)
Cold War (1947-1953)
The Cold War is the period within the Cold War from the Truman Doctrine in 1947 to the Korean War in 1953. The Cold War began almost immediately following World War II and lasted through most of the twentieth century....
North AmericaThe small initial market for diesels was created by the New York's Kaufman Act
The Kaufman Electrification Act of 1923, enacted by the New York State Assembly, mandated electrification of all railroads in New York City by January 1, 1926. The bill was sponsored by recently elected Republican Assemblyman Victor R. Kaufman and signed by Governor Al Smith on June 2, 1923...
of 1923, which prohibited operating steam locomotives in New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...
and adjacent towns. Mainline passenger railroads had already been electrified, or their electrification had been planned regardless of Kaufman Act. Electrification of numerous freight yards was uneconomical, and railroads turned to diesels. The first ALCO boxcab
The ALCO boxcabs were diesel-electric switcher locomotives, otherwise known as AGEIR boxcabs as a contraction of the names of the builders. Produced by a partnership of three companies, ALCO built the chassis and running gear, General Electric the generator, motors and controls, and Ingersoll Rand...
was put in operation in 1925 by Central Railroad of New Jersey
Central Railroad of New Jersey
The Central Railroad of New Jersey , commonly known as the Jersey Central Lines or CNJ, was a Class I railroad with origins in the 1830s, lasting until 1976 when it was absorbed into Conrail with the other bankrupt railroads of the Northeastern United States...
at its 138th Street waterfront terminal in The Bronx
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City. It is also known as Bronx County, the last of the 62 counties of New York State to be incorporated...
. The second was delivered in the same year to Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was one of the oldest railroads in the United States and the first common carrier railroad. It came into being mostly because the city of Baltimore wanted to compete with the newly constructed Erie Canal and another canal being proposed by Pennsylvania, which...
's yards on Manhattan. Both worked into the late 1950s and survive in museums to date.
In North America, railroads looked to cut costs in the face of stiff competition from trucks, planes and automobiles. Railroads in America at this time also had an image problem, viewed as archaic, a fact that was re-enforced in the war when retired equipment was pressed into service. This left a lasting impression on millions of servicemen who were delayed for days in often obsolete, uncomfortable cars in obscure locations. Locomotive size also became an issue, as steam engines became so big in the 1940s that the cylinder and boiler dimensions were pushing the limits that the loading gauge
A loading gauge defines the maximum height and width for railway vehicles and their loads to ensure safe passage through bridges, tunnels and other structures...
would allow. Firebox
In a steam engine, the firebox is the area where the fuel is burned, producing heat to boil the water in the boiler. Most are somewhat box-shaped, hence the name.-Railway locomotive firebox :...
es became so big that firing a steam locomotive became an extremely difficult job without the aid of mechanical stokers.
Unlike steam locomotives, diesel locomotives are scalable, with the added benefit of multiple unit (MU) operation (additional locomotives coupled together under the control of a single crew). Use of MU allows longer trains, exploiting economies of scale. Diesels can also operate for greater periods of time before needing servicing, so small division points were closed as operating districts were lengthened .
Diesels slowly gained the advantage. Weighing against the cost of, and inertia against, replacing the large investment that railroads had in existing steam power was the dramatic increase in efficiency of the diesel: The diesel locomotive can be operated by a single person, with no need of a fireman to shovel coal. Also, diesels use much less fuel and no manpower when idling, something locomotives often do. Diesels can be parked running for days unattended, whereas steam engines must be constantly tended to if not completely shut down. Bringing a steam engine boiler up to operating temperature
An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates. The device will operate effectively within a specified temperature range which varies based on the device function and application context, and ranges from the minimum operating temperature to the...
is often regarded as both an art and science, requiring much training and experience. A diesel starts and shuts down just like an automobile. Diesels pro-rate their fuel usage to the length of trains, which a steam engine cannot do. General Motors signed proprietary contracts with the major railroads, who were replacing their worn out wartime equipment, with diesels. With the GM contracts came articles that GM would supply training, facilities and maintenance, while the railroads would scrap their steam engines and remove them from competition. Due to the modern advantages of diesel locomotives, railroads in North America had retired 90% of their steam locomotives by the mid 1950s. Also, major cities and their railyards became unhappy neighbors in post-war America. People were no longer content to endure the mammoth amounts of soot and smoke that coal burning steam engines produced. Early diesels, while dirty by today's standards, were a gigantic improvement in air pollution over steam.
Steam engines lasted well into the late 1950s on major American railroads, and in isolated cases into the middle 1960s on small common carrier roads, primarily for yard duties such as switching. The last steam locomotive fleet in everyday use (i.e. not a restored fleet) was retired in the late 1970s. Now they are only found in historical and sightseeing roles, where the steam engine is once again the star of the show. Retired steam engines, many of which were quite new when made obsolete, often did find a second life in developing nations due to their cheap labor for maintenance and crewing, ready supplies of coal, and lack of environmental concern.
EuropeWith the exception of the United Kingdom, the trend in Europe was to replace steam traction in the main lines with electric traction. Diesels were used as an interim solution during electrification and as a permanent solution for side lines with less traffic and as switchers. Electrification is nowadays widespread in Europe. Even in sparsely populated large countries (Finland, Sweden) electrification has proven to be more economical than diesels.
The reputation of diesel benefited from memories of World War II, when military vehicles – especially tanks – using diesel were less prone to burst into flames when hit than their petrol-engined counterparts.
In the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...
the railway companies had been deploying diesel railcars and shunting locomotives for a while before the war, and the south east had an extensive electric network whose reach had grown throughout the century. Other less successful research went into more efficient and easily maintained steam locomotives. War efforts froze developments and progress restarted in 1947. Large scale change began in 1954 as post war financial squeezes ended.
The British Transport Commission
British Transport Commission
The British Transport Commission was created by Clement Attlee's post-war Labour government as a part of its nationalisation programme, to oversee railways, canals and road freight transport in Great Britain...
produced the rail modernisation plan recognizing the high labour costs of steam and the need to modernise equipment, although catastrophically not the need to modernise working practices. The report made a large number of proposals including large scale dieselisation and updates to freight handling practice, the process being backed by considerable government funding. The last mainline steam traction on British Railways ended in 1968, although the British Rail
British Railways , which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the operator of most of the rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997. It was formed from the nationalisation of the "Big Four" British railway companies and lasted until the gradual privatisation of British Rail, in stages...
owned Vale of Rheidol
Vale of Rheidol Railway
The Vale of Rheidol Railway is a narrow-gauge gauge heritage railway that runs for between Aberystwyth and Devil's Bridge in the county of Ceredigion, Wales...
narrow gauge line remained steam hauled. Steam power has since been reintroduced on a few timetabled services, but this is targeted at the tourist market, not efficiency.
Soviet UnionThe major disadvantage of the steam locomotive - large water consumption and thus small range from loading to loading - was particularly important in the Soviet Union, especially in steppes and deserts of South Siberia, Kazakhstan and Central Asia where water can be scarce. This spurred work on diesel locomotives in late 1930s, when several machines were delivered and tested.
Nevertheless, the diesel had much less power than the steam locomotive, the issue at the time was the difficulty of producing an engine of large enough scale to power a locomotive.
This was solved after the adoption of an American marine diesel from the Liberty
Liberty ships were cargo ships built in the United States during World War II. Though British in conception, they were adapted by the U.S. as they were cheap and quick to build, and came to symbolize U.S. wartime industrial output. Based on vessels ordered by Britain to replace ships torpedoed by...
class freight ship, an unusual 10 cylinder 2000 hp design with opposed pistons. After a minor redesign in the USSR, the engine was essentially acceptable for rail use, and was employed in (circa 1950) the TE3 (ТЭ3 - "teplovoz electricheski 3" - diesel engine with electric transmission version 3) locomotive - 4000 hp in 2 sections. The power of the TE3 was equivalent to that of the largest steam engines at the time and given all of the other numerous advantages of the diesel engine, it was decided to abandon steam locomotives completely.
All types of steam locomotives in the USSR stopped production in 1956.
Latin America and AsiaLatin American countries employed their steam locomotives until the late 1960s and 1970s. Some nations, those with less oil reserves, such as India, China and South Africa used steam until the 1980s and 1990s. China and India have now large electrification programs.
Russia or the Soviet Union electrified, and steam service ended in the 1970s.
Asian nations used steam until the 1970s when those nations modernised.
- Canadian National - first diesel in 1928; last new steam in 1944 (though the Newfoundland RailwayNewfoundland RailwayThe Newfoundland Railway was a railway which operated on the island of Newfoundland from 1898 to 1988. With a total track length of , it was the longest narrow gauge railway system in North America.-Early construction:...
last bought steam in 1949, just prior to becoming part of CN); dieselisation completed in 1960. Last revenue steam run in 1970.
- Canadian Pacific - first diesel in 1937; last new steam in 1949 (and last domestic Montreal Locomotive WorksMontreal Locomotive WorksMontreal Locomotive Works was a Canadian railway locomotive manufacturer which existed under several names from 1883–1985, producing both steam and diesel locomotives. For a number of years it was a subsidiary of the American Locomotive Company...
steam); dieselisation completed in 1960.
- Algoma Central RailwayAlgoma Central RailwayThe Algoma Central Railway is a railway in Northern Ontario that operates between Sault Ste. Marie and Hearst, with a branch line to Michipicoten. The area served by the railway is sparsely populated, with few roads...
- First diesel (second hand) 1944; dieselisation begun in January 1951; dieselisation completed in April 1952; First railway company to fully convert to diesel motive power in Canada.
- China Rail - last mainline steam built in 1988; last mainline steam operated in 2002. The Wuhai-Jilantai branch ran steam into 2003.
- JiTong Railway (provincial) - First diesel in 2000; dieselisation completed in 2005.
- Industrial - Some steam still in use.
- Tiefa Coal Group/Tiefa Mining Company - Last new steam has builder's plate dated 1999, but supposedly completed 2000. Last new commercial steam in the world. Steam still in use.
- Deutsche BundesbahnDeutsche BundesbahnThe Deutsche Bundesbahn or DB was formed as the state railway of the newly established Federal Republic of Germany on September 7, 1949 as a successor of the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft '...
(German Federal Railways) - large-scale steam production ended 1955.
- Deutsche Reichsbahn (East German State Railways) - standard gauge passenger steam use ended 1977, but briefly reinstated in 1981 due to oil shortage. Freight steam use on standard gauge continued to 1994. Narrow-gauge steam operations continue until today.
- Indian Railways
Broad (5 foot 6 inch) gauge - last new passenger steam 1967, last new steam 1970, last steam operation 1997 (unofficial).
- Ferrocarriles Nacionales de MéxicoFerrocarriles Nacionales de MéxicoFerrocarriles Nacionales de México, was Mexico's state owned railroad company from 1938 to 1998, and prior to 1938 a major railroad controlled by the government that linked Mexico City to the major cities of Nuevo Laredo and Ciudad Juárez on the U.S. border...
(National Railways of Mexico) - last new steam 1946, last standard-gauge steam 1968, last 3' gauge steam 1973.
- Mexicano del Pacifico (Mexican Pacific) - Industrial shortline. All-steam at least to 1991, return to steam 1994.
- New Zealand Railways DepartmentNew Zealand Railways DepartmentThe New Zealand Railways Department, NZR or NZGR and often known as the "Railways", was a government department charged with owning and maintaining New Zealand's railway infrastructure and operating the railway system. The Department was created in 1880 and was reformed in 1981 into the New...
- First diesel in 1936; first mainline diesel 1954; last new steam 1956; last North Island steam operation 1967; last South Island steam operation 1971.
- National Coal BoardNational Coal BoardThe National Coal Board was the statutory corporation created to run the nationalised coal mining industry in the United Kingdom. Set up under the Coal Industry Nationalisation Act 1946, it took over the mines on "vesting day", 1 January 1947...
- dieselisation completed in 1982. Last industrial operator in UK to use steam.
- Baltimore & Ohio - dieselisation completed in 1960.
- Central Vermont - dieselisation completed in 1957.
- Chesapeake & OhioChesapeake and Ohio RailwayThe Chesapeake and Ohio Railway was a Class I railroad formed in 1869 in Virginia from several smaller Virginia railroads begun in the 19th century. Led by industrialist Collis P...
- last new steam 1949 (and last domestic BaldwinBaldwin Locomotive WorksThe Baldwin Locomotive Works was an American builder of railroad locomotives. It was located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, originally, and later in nearby Eddystone, Pennsylvania. Although the company was very successful as a producer of steam locomotives, its transition to the production of...
steam); dieselisation completed in 1957.
- Chicago, Burlington & Quincy - first diesel 1934; dieselisation completed in 1960 (but see Colorado & Southern, below).
- Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific - first diesel 1937; dieselisation completed in December 1952.
- Colorado & Southern - dieselization completed in 1962.
- Crab Orchard & Egyptian RailroadCrab Orchard and Egyptian RailroadThe Crab Orchard and Egyptian Railroad is a Class III common carrier shortline railroad that operates between the cities of Marion and Herrin in the Southern Illinois region. It is most historically recognized by the FRA for being the last U.S...
- Steam-using tourist line that added regular revenue freight service in 1977, dieselized 1986. Recognized by the AAR as the last US railroad of any kind to use steam locomotives in regular revenue service.
- Denver & Rio Grande Western (narrow gauge lines)- ended revenue operation in 1968, never dieselising.
- Grand Trunk Western - dieselisation completed in 1960.
- Great Northern - dieselisation completed in 1957.
- Great Western Railway - steam used at least to 1965, possibly 1967.
- Great Western Sugar Company - last steam operation in 1983. Among the last industrial steam users in the US.
- Illinois Central - dieselisation completed in 1959.
- Lehigh & New England - dieselisation completed in 1949.
- Magma Arizona Railroad - dieselisation began and completed in 1968 (only one locomotive). The last US railroad to dieselise (but see Crab Orchard & Egyptian, above).
- Milwaukee Road - last new steam 1944 (see http://people.msoe.edu/~westr/irm.htm); dieselisation completed in 1957.
- MononMonon RailroadThe Monon Railroad , also known as the Chicago, Indianapolis and Louisville Railway from 1897–1956, operated almost entirely within the state of Indiana...
- dieselisation completed in 1949.
- New York Central - last new passenger steam in 1946; last new steam in 1948 (for then-subsidiary Pittsburgh & Lake Erie, last Alco steam); last passenger steam run 1956; last steam run 1957.
- Northern Pacific RailwayNorthern Pacific RailwayThe Northern Pacific Railway was a railway that operated in the west along the Canadian border of the United States. Construction began in 1870 and the main line opened all the way from the Great Lakes to the Pacific when former president Ulysses S. Grant drove in the final "golden spike" in...
- last new steam 1944; first diesel 1938; dieselisation complete 1960.
- Northwestern Steel and WireNorthwestern Steel and WireNorthwestern Steel and Wire was a steel mill and wire factory located in Sterling, Illinois. It began producing steel in 1936 and ceased production in 2001.-Early history:...
- used steam at least to 1980, possibly 1983. Another of the last industrial steam users.
- Seaboard Air LineSeaboard Air Line RailroadThe Seaboard Air Line Railroad , which styled itself "The Route of Courteous Service," was an American railroad whose corporate existence extended from April 14, 1900, until July 1, 1967, when it merged with the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, its longtime rival, to form the Seaboard Coast Line...
- dieselization completed in 1953.
- Soo Line RailroadSoo Line RailroadThe Soo Line Railroad is the primary United States railroad subsidiary of the Canadian Pacific Railway , controlled through the Soo Line Corporation, and one of seven U.S. Class I railroads. Although it is named for the Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault Ste...
- last new steam 1938 (new), 1942 (secondhand); first diesel 1938; dieselisation effective 1955, but some steam locomotives retained for a strategic reserve. Last company-owned steam locomotive used for railfanRailfanA railfan or rail buff , railway enthusiast or railway buff , or trainspotter , is a person interested in a recreational capacity in rail transport...
trip in 1959.
- Southern Pacific RailroadSouthern Pacific RailroadThe Southern Pacific Transportation Company , earlier Southern Pacific Railroad and Southern Pacific Company, and usually simply called the Southern Pacific or Espee, was an American railroad....
- dieselisation completed in 1958.
- Southern RailwaySouthern Railway (US)The Southern Railway is a former United States railroad. It was the product of nearly 150 predecessor lines that were combined, reorganized and recombined beginning in the 1830s, formally becoming the Southern Railway in 1894...
- dieselisation completed in 1953.
- Pennsylvania RailroadPennsylvania RailroadThe Pennsylvania Railroad was an American Class I railroad, founded in 1846. Commonly referred to as the "Pennsy", the PRR was headquartered in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania....
- last new steam in 1946; dieselisation completed in 1957.
- Union Pacific - First diesel in 1934; last new steam in 1944; last passenger steam run 1958; dieselisation completed in 1959, however Steam locomotive UP 844 was never retired, and UP 3985 reentered service in 1981.
- Western Pacific RailroadWestern Pacific RailroadThe Western Pacific Railroad was a Class I railroad in the United States. It was formed in 1903 as an attempt to break the near-monopoly the Southern Pacific Railroad had on rail service into northern California...
- dieselisation completed in 1953 (last steam operated on subsidiary Tidewater Southern).
EuropeIn terms of road transport, diesel gained popularity first with commercial hauliers, throughout the later 20th century, and then with passenger car users, particularly from the 1970s onwards, once diesel engines became more refined and also more readily available in passenger cars. Diesel had by this point long been a popular choice for taxi operators and agricultural users.
In Europe as a whole, Peugeot
Peugeot is a major French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citroën, the second largest carmaker based in Europe.The family business that precedes the current Peugeot company was founded in 1810, and manufactured coffee mills and bicycles. On 20 November 1858, Emile Peugeot applied for the lion...
Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...
in particular developed reputations for high-quality passenger-car diesel engines, whilst VM Motori
VM Motori S.p.A. is a diesel engine manufacturing company in Cento, Italy, in Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region which is also home to Ferrari, Lamborghini, Maserati and Ducati.- History :...
developed some significant motors for four-wheel drive
Four-wheel drive, 4WD, or 4×4 is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously...
- Advanced steam technologyAdvanced steam technologyAdvanced steam technology reflects an approach to the technical development of the steam engine intended for a wider variety of applications than has recently been the case...
- Electric vehicleElectric vehicleAn electric vehicle , also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion...
— and the concept of transport electrification
- Hybrid vehicleHybrid vehicleA hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle. The term most commonly refers to hybrid electric vehicles , which combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors.-Power:...
Energy policy and politics
- Efficient energy useEfficient energy useEfficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal of efforts to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. For example, insulating a home allows a building to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve and maintain a comfortable temperature...
- Energy policyEnergy policyEnergy policy is the manner in which a given entity has decided to address issues of energy development including energy production, distribution and consumption...
- Global warmingGlobal warmingGlobal warming refers to the rising average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected continuation. In the last 100 years, Earth's average surface temperature increased by about with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades...
- Oil Shock
- Pershing MapPershing MapThe Pershing Map was the first blueprint for a national highway system in the United States, with many of the proposed roads later forming a substantial portion of the Interstate Highway System....
- golden gimmickGolden gimmickThe Golden Gimmick refers to a foreign tax credit deal enacted in November 1950 by the US Government under president Harry Truman between King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and the Arabian-American Oil Company , a consortium comprising Standard Oil of California , Standard Oil of New Jersey , Standard...
- Suez CrisisSuez CrisisThe Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, Suez War was an offensive war fought by France, the United Kingdom, and Israel against Egypt beginning on 29 October 1956. Less than a day after Israel invaded Egypt, Britain and France issued a joint ultimatum to Egypt and Israel,...
- Baldwin Locomotive WorksBaldwin Locomotive WorksThe Baldwin Locomotive Works was an American builder of railroad locomotives. It was located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, originally, and later in nearby Eddystone, Pennsylvania. Although the company was very successful as a producer of steam locomotives, its transition to the production of...
- Beeching axeBeeching AxeThe Beeching Axe or the Beeching Cuts are informal names for the British Government's attempt in the 1960s to reduce the cost of running British Railways, the nationalised railway system in the United Kingdom. The name is that of the main author of The Reshaping of British Railways, Dr Richard...
- General Motors streetcar conspiracyGeneral Motors streetcar conspiracyThe General Motors streetcar conspiracy refers to allegations and convictions in relation to a program by General Motors and a number of other companies to purchase and dismantle streetcars and electric trains in many cities across the United States and replace them with bus services; a program...
- Woodham Brothers scrapyard in Barry, South Wales
- spelling differences
- Ball, Don Jr.; The Pennsylvania Railroad 1940s-1950s. 1986.
- Barton, Bradford; Steam in the Andes. Cornwall. 1973
- Dates in Canadian Railway History
- Detailed Diesel Roster from Green Bay & Western Lines.
- Dickinson, Rob; Steam in Asia 2007.
- Durrant, A.; Steam in Africa. Hamlyn. 1981.
- FA-1 Builder's Photo from Green Bay & Western Lines.
- Great Western Railway Locomotives
- Hollingsworth, Brian; The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the World's Steam Passenger Locomotives. 1982.
- Hollingsworth, J.B.; North American Railroads. 1984.
- King, Sammy; Ferrocarril Interoceanico. 2004.
- King, Sammy; Mucho Bueno Sabor --- Mexicano del Pacifico. 2007.
- King, Sammy; Smorgasbord of Steam (Lazy Susan Style) Part 3, Tiefa Coal Group. 2005.
- King, Sammy; Valle de Mexico --- Valley of Memories. 2004.
- Plowden, David; Farewell to Steam. Bonanza 1966.
- Schaefer, Hans; Chinese Railways; last updated Feb 2006.
- Solomon, Brian (2000). The American diesel locomotive. MBI Publishing. ISBN 0760306664.
- Steam in India from Allahabad Rail Fanning.
- Steam Locomotive Information: Great Western "Dinkies". 2001.
- Stover, J.; Routledge Atlas History of American Railroads. Routledge, 1999
- Sydney & Louisburg Railway Historical Society
- Ziel, Ron; Steam in the Sixties. Meredith. 1967.
- Ziel, Ron; Twilight of World Steam. Grosset and Dunlop. 1973