Delaware River
Overview
 
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 coast of the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

.
A Dutch expedition led by Henry Hudson
Henry Hudson
Henry Hudson was an English sea explorer and navigator in the early 17th century. Hudson made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a prospective Northeast Passage to Cathay via a route above the Arctic Circle...

 in 1609 first mapped the river. The river was christened the South River in the New Netherland
New Netherland
New Netherland, or Nieuw-Nederland in Dutch, was the 17th-century colonial province of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands on the East Coast of North America. The claimed territories were the lands from the Delmarva Peninsula to extreme southwestern Cape Cod...

 colony that followed, in contrast to the North River, as the Hudson River
Hudson River
The Hudson is a river that flows from north to south through eastern New York. The highest official source is at Lake Tear of the Clouds, on the slopes of Mount Marcy in the Adirondack Mountains. The river itself officially begins in Henderson Lake in Newcomb, New York...

 was then known. The name Delaware, for Sir Thomas West
Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr
Thomas West, 3rd and 12th Baron De La Warr was the Englishman after whom the bay, the river, and, consequently, an American Indian people and U.S. state, all later called "Delaware", were named....

 3rd Baron De La Warr
Earl De La Warr
Earl De La Warr is a title created in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1761.In the United States, Thomas West, 3rd baron is often named in history books simply as Lord Delaware. He served as governor of the Jamestown Colony, and the Delaware Bay was named after him...

, was used by the English and became standard following the English conquest of New Netherland in 1664.

The river meets tide-water at Trenton, New Jersey
Trenton, New Jersey
Trenton is the capital of the U.S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County. As of the 2010 United States Census, Trenton had a population of 84,913...

.
Unanswered Questions
Discussions
Encyclopedia
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 coast of the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

.
A Dutch expedition led by Henry Hudson
Henry Hudson
Henry Hudson was an English sea explorer and navigator in the early 17th century. Hudson made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a prospective Northeast Passage to Cathay via a route above the Arctic Circle...

 in 1609 first mapped the river. The river was christened the South River in the New Netherland
New Netherland
New Netherland, or Nieuw-Nederland in Dutch, was the 17th-century colonial province of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands on the East Coast of North America. The claimed territories were the lands from the Delmarva Peninsula to extreme southwestern Cape Cod...

 colony that followed, in contrast to the North River, as the Hudson River
Hudson River
The Hudson is a river that flows from north to south through eastern New York. The highest official source is at Lake Tear of the Clouds, on the slopes of Mount Marcy in the Adirondack Mountains. The river itself officially begins in Henderson Lake in Newcomb, New York...

 was then known. The name Delaware, for Sir Thomas West
Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr
Thomas West, 3rd and 12th Baron De La Warr was the Englishman after whom the bay, the river, and, consequently, an American Indian people and U.S. state, all later called "Delaware", were named....

 3rd Baron De La Warr
Earl De La Warr
Earl De La Warr is a title created in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1761.In the United States, Thomas West, 3rd baron is often named in history books simply as Lord Delaware. He served as governor of the Jamestown Colony, and the Delaware Bay was named after him...

, was used by the English and became standard following the English conquest of New Netherland in 1664.

The river meets tide-water at Trenton, New Jersey
Trenton, New Jersey
Trenton is the capital of the U.S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County. As of the 2010 United States Census, Trenton had a population of 84,913...

. The mean tides below Philadelphia are about 6 feet (1.8 m). Its total length, from the head of the longest branch to Cape May
Cape May
Cape May is a peninsula and island ; the southern tip of the island is the southernmost point of the state of New Jersey, United States. It runs southwards from the New Jersey mainland, separating Delaware Bay from the Atlantic Ocean...

 and Cape Henlopen
Cape Henlopen
Cape Henlopen is the southern cape of the Delaware Bay along the Atlantic coast of the United States. It lies in the state of Delaware, near the town of Lewes, Delaware...

, is 419 miles (674.3 km), while above the head of Delaware Bay
Delaware Bay
Delaware Bay is a major estuary outlet of the Delaware River on the Northeast seaboard of the United States whose fresh water mixes for many miles with the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. It is in area. The bay is bordered by the State of New Jersey and the State of Delaware...

 its length is 388 miles (624.4 km). The length of the main stem of the river alone, to the head of Delaware Bay, is 301 miles (484.4 km). The mean freshwater discharge of the Delaware River into the estuary is 11,550 cubic feet (330 m³) per second.

The Delaware River constitutes, in part, the boundary between Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The state borders Delaware and Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, New York and Ontario, Canada, to the north, and New Jersey to...

 and New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

, the entire boundary between New Jersey
New Jersey
New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. , its population was 8,791,894. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania and on the southwest by Delaware...

 and Pennsylvania, and most of the boundary between Delaware
Delaware
Delaware is a U.S. state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. It is bordered to the south and west by Maryland, and to the north by Pennsylvania...

 and New Jersey. The Delaware-New Jersey border is actually at the easternmost river shoreline within the Twelve-Mile Circle of New Castle, rather than mid-river or mid-channel borders, causing small portions of land lying west of the shoreline, but on the New Jersey side of the river, to fall under the jurisdiction of Delaware. The rest of the borders follow a mid-channel approach.

The Delaware River is one of nineteen "Great Waters" recognized by the America's Great Waters Coalition.

Commerce

The magnitude of the commerce of Philadelphia has made the improvements of the river below that port of great importance. Small improvements were attempted by Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The state borders Delaware and Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, New York and Ontario, Canada, to the north, and New Jersey to...

 as early as 1771. Commerce was once important on the upper river, primarily prior to railway competition (1857).
  • The Delaware Division of the Pennsylvania Canal
    Pennsylvania Canal (Delaware Division)
    The Delaware Division of the Pennsylvania Canal, more commonly called the Delaware Canal, runs from the Lehigh River at Easton south to Bristol...

    , running parallel with the river from Easton to Bristol, opened in 1830.
  • The Delaware and Raritan Canal
    Delaware and Raritan Canal
    The Delaware and Raritan Canal is a canal in central New Jersey, United States, built in the 1830s that served to connect the Delaware River to the Raritan River. It was intended as an efficient and reliable means of transportation of freight between Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and New York City,...

    , which runs along the New Jersey side of the Delaware River from ulls Island, New Jersey] to Trenton
    Trenton, New Jersey
    Trenton is the capital of the U.S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County. As of the 2010 United States Census, Trenton had a population of 84,913...

    , unites the waters of the Delaware and Raritan rivers
    Raritan River
    The Raritan River is a major river of central New Jersey in the United States. Its watershed drains much of the mountainous area of the central part of the state, emptying into the Raritan Bay on the Atlantic Ocean.-Description:...

     as it empties the waters of the Delaware River via the canal outlet in New Brunswick
    New Brunswick, New Jersey
    New Brunswick is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, USA. It is the county seat and the home of Rutgers University. The city is located on the Northeast Corridor rail line, southwest of Manhattan, on the southern bank of the Raritan River. At the 2010 United States Census, the population of...

    . This canal water conduit is still used as a water supply source by the State of New Jersey
    New Jersey
    New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. , its population was 8,791,894. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania and on the southwest by Delaware...

    .
  • The Morris Canal
    Morris Canal
    The Morris Canal was an anthracite-carrying canal that incorporated a series of water-driven inclined planes in its course across northern New Jersey in the United States. It was in use for about a century — from the late 1820s to the 1920s....

     (now abandoned and almost completely filled in) and the Delaware and Hudson Canal
    Delaware and Hudson Canal
    The Delaware and Hudson Canal was the first venture of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, which later developed the Delaware and Hudson Railway...

     connected the Delaware and Hudson rivers
    Hudson River
    The Hudson is a river that flows from north to south through eastern New York. The highest official source is at Lake Tear of the Clouds, on the slopes of Mount Marcy in the Adirondack Mountains. The river itself officially begins in Henderson Lake in Newcomb, New York...

    .
  • The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal
    Chesapeake and Delaware Canal
    The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is a 14-mile long, 450-foot wide and 40-foot deep ship canal that cuts across the states of Maryland and Delaware, in the United States. It connects the waters of the Delaware River with those of the Chesapeake Bay and the Port of Baltimore...

     joins the waters of the Delaware with those of the Chesapeake Bay
    Chesapeake Bay
    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States. It lies off the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by Maryland and Virginia. The Chesapeake Bay's drainage basin covers in the District of Columbia and parts of six states: New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and West...

    .


In the "project of 1885" the U.S. government undertook systematically the formation of a 26 feet (7.9 m) channel 600 feet (182.9 m) wide from Philadelphia to deep water in Delaware Bay
Delaware Bay
Delaware Bay is a major estuary outlet of the Delaware River on the Northeast seaboard of the United States whose fresh water mixes for many miles with the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. It is in area. The bay is bordered by the State of New Jersey and the State of Delaware...

. The River and Harbor Act of 1899 provided for a 30 feet (9.1 m) channel 600 feet (182.9 m) wide from Philadelphia to the deep water of the bay.

Course

The West or Mohawk branch
West Branch Delaware River
The West Branch Delaware River, approximately 90 mi  long in the U.S. states of New York and Pennsylvania, is one of the two branches, along with the East Branch, that join to form the Delaware River...

 rises in Schoharie County, New York
Schoharie County, New York
As of the census of 2000, there were 31,582 people, 11,991 households and 8,177 families residing in the county. The population density was 51 people per square mile . There were 15,915 housing units at an average density of 26 per square mile...

, about 1886 feet (574.9 m) above sea level, near Mount Jefferson
Mount Jefferson (New York)
Mount Jefferson is a mountain located in Schoharie County of New York....

, and flows tortuously through the plateau in a deep trough, impounded at one point to create the Cannonsville Reservoir
Cannonsville Reservoir
The Cannonsville Reservoir is a reservoir in Delaware County, New York, that was formed by impounding over half of the West Branch of the Delaware River. It is the westernmost of New York City's reservoirs, being at the western portion of the Delaware Watershed. Placed in service in 1964, it is the...

, and then becoming the state boundary of New York and Pennsylvania at the 42nd parallel
42nd parallel north
The 42nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 42 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean....

, until it emerges from the Catskills
Catskill Mountains
The Catskill Mountains, an area in New York State northwest of New York City and southwest of Albany, are a mature dissected plateau, an uplifted region that was subsequently eroded into sharp relief. They are an eastward continuation, and the highest representation, of the Allegheny Plateau...

.

Similarly, the East Branch
East Branch Delaware River
The East Branch Delaware River, approximately 75 miles long in the U.S. state of New York, is one of two branches, along with the West Branch, that join to form the Delaware River. It flows through a mountainous area on the southwestern edge of the Catskill Park. For a long stretch it serves...

 begins from a small pond south of Grand Gorge
Grand Gorge, New York
Grand Gorge is a hamlet in Roxbury, Delaware County, New York, United States. Although it is unincorporated, it has a post office, with the ZIP code of 12434...

 in the town of Roxbury
Roxbury, New York
Roxbury is a town in Delaware County, New York, United States. The population was 2,509 at the 2000 census.The Town of Roxbury is at the eastern end of the county.- History :...

 in Delaware County
Delaware County, New York
Delaware County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. As of 2010 the population was 47,980. The county seat is Delhi. It is named after the Delaware River, which was named in honor of Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, appointed governor of Virginia in 1609.-History:When counties...

, flowing southwest toward its impoundment by New York City to create the Pepacton Reservoir
Pepacton Reservoir
The Pepacton Reservoir, also known as the Downsville Reservoir or the Downsville Dam, is a reservoir in Delaware County, New York that was formed by impounding over ¼ of the East Branch of the Delaware River...

, the largest reservoir in the New York City water supply system. Its tributaries are the Beaver Kill River and the Willowemoc Creek which enter into the river ten miles (16 km) before the West Branch meets the East Branch. The confluence
Confluence
Confluence, in geography, describes the meeting of two or more bodies of water.Confluence may also refer to:* Confluence , a property of term rewriting systems...

 of the two branches is just south of Hancock
Hancock (village), New York
Hancock is a village in Delaware County, New York, United States. The population was 1,189 at the 2000 census.The Village of Hancock is in the west part of the Town of Hancock at the junction of NY Routes 17 and 97....

.

Both the East Branch and West Branch of the Delaware River parallel each other, both flowing in a southwesterly direction.

From Hancock, the river flows between The Poconos
The Poconos
The Pocono Mountains is a region located in northeastern Pennsylvania, United States. The Poconos, located chiefly in Monroe and Pike counties , are an upland of the larger Allegheny Plateau...

 and the lowered shale beds north of the Catskills. The river flows down a broad Appalachian
Appalachian Mountains
The Appalachian Mountains #Whether the stressed vowel is or ,#Whether the "ch" is pronounced as a fricative or an affricate , and#Whether the final vowel is the monophthong or the diphthong .), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians...

 valley, passing Hawk's Nest overlook
Hawk's Nest, New York
Hawk's Nest is a scenic location outside Port Jervis, New York. Its name is derived from the birds of prey that nest in the area. The location is also known for its winding roads and scenic overlooks in the Delaware River valley....

 on the Upper Delaware Scenic Byway. At Port Jervis, New York
Port Jervis, New York
Port Jervis is a city on the Delaware River in western Orange County, New York, with a population of 8,860 at the 2000 census. The communities of Deerpark, Huguenot, Sparrowbush, and Greenville are adjacent to Port Jervis, and the towns of Montague, New Jersey and Matamoras, Pennsylvania face the...

, it enters the Port Jervis trough. At this point, the Walpack Ridge deflects the Delaware into the Minisink Valley, where it follows the southwest strike
Strike and dip
Strike and dip refer to the orientation or attitude of a geologic feature. The strike line of a bed, fault, or other planar feature is a line representing the intersection of that feature with a horizontal plane. On a geologic map, this is represented with a short straight line segment oriented...

 of the eroded Marcellus Formation
Marcellus Formation
The Marcellus Formation is a unit of marine sedimentary rock found in eastern North America...

 beds
Bed (geology)
In geology a bed is the smallest division of a geologic formation or stratigraphic rock series marked by well-defined divisional planes separating it from layers above and below. A bed is the smallest lithostratigraphic unit, usually ranging in thickness from a centimeter to several meters and...

 along the Pennsylvania–New Jersey state line for 25 miles (40.2 km) to the end of the ridge at Walpack Bend in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area
Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area
Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, administered by the National Park Service, preserves almost of land along the Delaware River's New Jersey and Pennsylvania shores, stretching from the Delaware Water Gap northward almost to the New York state line...

.

The Minisink is a buried valley
Buried valley
A buried valley is an ancient river or stream valley that since has been filled with glacial or unconsolidated sediment. This sediment is made up of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. These types of sediment can often store and transmit large amounts of ground water....

 where the Delaware flows in a bed of glacial
Glacier
A glacier is a large persistent body of ice that forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over many years, often centuries. At least 0.1 km² in area and 50 m thick, but often much larger, a glacier slowly deforms and flows due to stresses induced by its weight...

 till
Till
thumb|right|Closeup of glacial till. Note that the larger grains in the till are completely surrounded by the matrix of finer material , and this characteristic, known as matrix support, is diagnostic of till....

 that buried the eroded bedrock during the last glacial period. It then skirts the Kittatinny ridge
Kittatinny Mountains
The Kittatinny Mountains are a long ridge traversing across northwestern New Jersey running in a northeast-southwest axis. It is the first major ridge in the far northeastern extension of the Ridge and Valley province of the Appalachian Mountains...

, which it crosses at the Delaware Water Gap
Delaware Water Gap
The Delaware Water Gap is on the border of New Jersey and Pennsylvania where the Delaware River cuts through a large ridge of the Appalachian Mountains...

, between nearly vertical walls of sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains.Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Like sand, sandstone may be any colour, but the most common colours are tan, brown, yellow,...

, quartzite
Quartzite
Quartzite is a hard metamorphic rock which was originally sandstone. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. Pure quartzite is usually white to gray, though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink...

, and conglomerate
Conglomerate (geology)
A conglomerate is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finer-grained matrix that have become cemented together. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias, which consist of angular clasts...

, and then passes through a quiet and charming country of farm and forest, diversified with plateaus and escarpments, until it crosses the Appalachian plain and enters the hills again at Easton, Pennsylvania
Easton, Pennsylvania
Easton is a city in Northampton County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 26,800 as of the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Northampton County....

. From this point it is flanked at intervals by fine hills, and in places by cliffs, of which the finest are the Nockamixon Rocks, 3 miles (5 km) long and above 200 feet (61 m) high.

At Trenton
Trenton, New Jersey
Trenton is the capital of the U.S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County. As of the 2010 United States Census, Trenton had a population of 84,913...

 there is a fall of 8 feet (2.4 m). Below Trenton the river flows between Philadelphia and New Jersey
New Jersey
New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. , its population was 8,791,894. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania and on the southwest by Delaware...

 before becoming a broad, sluggish inlet of the sea, with many marshes along its side, widening steadily into its great estuary, Delaware Bay.

Tributaries

The main tributaries
Tributary
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean...

 in New York are the Mongaup and Neversink
Neversink River
The Neversink River is a tributary of the Delaware River in southeastern New York in the United States...

 rivers and Callicoon Creek. From Pennsylvania, the major tributaries are the Lackawaxen
Lackawaxen River
The Lackawaxen River is a tributary of the Delaware River in northeastern Pennsylvania in the United States. The river flows through a largely rural area in the northern Pocono Mountains, draining an area of approximately ....

, Lehigh
Lehigh River
The Lehigh River, a tributary of the Delaware River, is a river located in eastern Pennsylvania, in the United States. Part of the Lehigh, along with a number of its tributaries, is designated a Pennsylvania Scenic River by the state's Department of Conservation and Natural Resources...

, and Schuylkill
Schuylkill River
The Schuylkill River is a river in Pennsylvania. It is a designated Pennsylvania Scenic River.The river is about long. Its watershed of about lies entirely within the state of Pennsylvania. The source of its eastern branch is in the Appalachian Mountains at Tuscarora Springs, near Tamaqua in...

 rivers. From New Jersey, the Big Flatbrook, Pequest
Pequest River
The Pequest River is a tributary of the Delaware River in the Skylands Region in northwestern New Jersey in the United States.The Pequest, Native American for "open land", drains an area of across Sussex and Warren counties, consisting of ten municipalities....

, Musconetcong
Musconetcong River
The Musconetcong River is a tributary of the Delaware River in northwestern New Jersey in the United States. It flows through the rural mountainous country of northwestern New Jersey. Part of it is a National Wild and Scenic River....

, and Maurice
Maurice River
The Maurice River is a river that empties into the Delaware Bay in southern New Jersey in the United States.The Maurice River, pronounced "Morris", is approximately long and is the second longest and largest tributary to Delaware Bay. Its watershed includes an extensive southern portion of the...

 rivers, plus Oldmans
Oldmans Creek
Oldmans Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in southwestern New Jersey in the United States.Oldmans Creek defines part of the western boundary between Gloucester and Salem counties. It starts just southwest of Glassboro, approximately one mile from the head of Raccoon Creek...

, Raccoon
Raccoon Creek (New Jersey)
Raccoon Creek, also called the Raccoon River, is a tributary of the Delaware River in southern New Jersey in the United States.-Location:...

 and Rancocas
Rancocas Creek
Rancocas Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in southwestern New Jersey in the United States. The creek's main stem is long, with a North Branch of and a South Branch flowing...

 creeks, flow into the Delaware.

  • Appoquinimink River
    Appoquinimink River
    The Appoquinimink River is a river flowing to Delaware Bay in northern Delaware in the United States. The river is long and drains an area of on the Atlantic Coastal Plain.The Appoquinimink flows for its entire length in southern New Castle County...

  • Alloway Creek
    Alloway Creek
    Alloway Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in Salem County, southwestern New Jersey in the U.S.The headwaters of the creek are to the southeast of Daretown, in Upper Pittsgrove Township. It flows roughly parallel and to the south of Commissioners Pike, meeting Cool Run before turning west...

  • Assiscunk Creek
    Assiscunk Creek
    Assiscunk Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in southwestern New Jersey in the United States.The name Assiscunk came from the Lenape language meaning "muddy creek"...

  • Assunpink Creek
    Assunpink Creek
    Assunpink Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in western New Jersey in the United States.Assunpink Creek is born in rural Monmouth County, about a mile north of Clarksburg. Flowing westwards, it soon enters the Assunpink Wildlife Management Area, where it has been dammed to form Rising Sun...

  • Big Timber Creek
    Big Timber Creek
    Big Timber Creek is a stream in southwestern New Jersey, United States, and is also known by the name 'Tetamekanchz Kyl' by the Lenape tribes. It drains a watershed of . A tributary of the Delaware River, it enters the Delaware between the boroughs of Brooklawn and Westville, just south Gloucester...

  • Blacks Creek
  • Brodhead Creek
    Brodhead Creek
    Brodhead Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in the Poconos of eastern Pennsylvania in the United States. It is formed by the union of Middle and Levitt branches in Barrett Township in Monroe County. The native name was "Analomink". The present name was given for Daniel Brodhead, a...

  • Bushkill Creek
    Bushkill Creek
    Bushkill Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States.A portion of Bushkill Creek passes through Jacobsburg Environmental Education Center. The confluence with the Delaware River is in Easton.-References:*Gertler, Edward. Keystone Canoeing, Seneca...

  • Chester Creek
    Chester Creek
    thumb|upright=1.45|Chester Creek near [[Upland, Pennsylvania]]Chester Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in Delaware County, Pennsylvania in the United States.-East Branch:...

  • Christina River
    Christina River
    The Christina River is a tributary of the Delaware River, approximately 35 miles long, in northern Delaware in the United States, also flowing through small areas of southeastern Pennsylvania and northeastern Maryland. Near its mouth the river flows past downtown Wilmington, Delaware,...

  • Cooper River (New Jersey)
    Cooper River (New Jersey)
    The Cooper River is a tributary of the Delaware River in southwestern New Jersey in the United States.The confluence of the Cooper River with the Delaware River is in Camden...

  • Crafts Creek
  • Crosswicks Creek
    Crosswicks Creek
    Crosswicks Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in Burlington County, in western New Jersey in the United States.Crosswicks Creek watershed encompasses parts of Burlington, Mercer, Monmouth and Ocean Counties...

  • Crum Creek
    Crum Creek
    Crum Creek is a creek in Delaware County and Chester County, Pennsylvania, flowing approximately , generally in a southward direction and draining into the Delaware River in Eddystone, Pennsylvania. It begins in a swamp near Newtown Square, Pennsylvania along which several mills were established...

  • Darby Creek
    Darby Creek (Pennsylvania)
    thumb|Darby Creek where it crosses [[Pennsylvania Route 320|Route 320]] in [[Marple Township, Pennsylvania|Marple Township]]Darby Creek is a creek in Delaware County, Pennsylvania...

  • Equinunk Creek
    Equinunk Creek
    Equinunk Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, in the United States.Equinunk Creek joins the Delaware River at Equinunk.-References:...

  • Flat Brook
    Flat Brook
    Flat Brook is an tributary of the Delaware River in Sussex County, New Jersey in the United States.Upstream of the inflow of Little Flat Brook, the brook is known as Big Flat Brook.-References:...

  • Frankford Creek
    Frankford Creek
    Frankford Creek is a minor tributary of the Delaware River in southeast Pennsylvania. The stream originates as Tookany Creek at Hill Crest in Cheltenham Township and meanders eastward, then southeastward, throughout Cheltenham Township, until a sharp bend near the Philadelphia border at Lawncrest,...

  • Lehigh River
    Lehigh River
    The Lehigh River, a tributary of the Delaware River, is a river located in eastern Pennsylvania, in the United States. Part of the Lehigh, along with a number of its tributaries, is designated a Pennsylvania Scenic River by the state's Department of Conservation and Natural Resources...

  • Lockatong Creek
    Lockatong Creek
    Lockatong Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in Hunterdon County, New Jersey in the United States.-References:*Gertler, Edward. Garden State Canoeing, Seneca Press, 2002. ISBN 0-9605908-8-9-External links:*...

  • Mantua Creek
    Mantua Creek
    Mantua Creek is a stream in Mantua Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey with headwaters near Glassboro, which flows northwest for 18.6 miles to the Delaware River at Paulsboro across from present-day Philadelphia International Airport...

  • Marsh Creek
    Marsh Creek
    Marsh Creek may refer to:*Marsh Creek , a tributary of the San Joaquin River*Marsh Creek , a tributary of the Monocacy River in Pennsylvania*Marsh Creek , a tributary of Pine Creek in Pennsylvania...

  • Martins Creek
    Martins Creek (Delaware River)
    Martins Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States.-East Fork:The East Fork rises to the south of Kittatinny Mountain in Upper Mount Bethel Township, Northampton County. It is impounded to form Minsi Lake, the center of a county park. The largest white...


  • Maurice River
    Maurice River
    The Maurice River is a river that empties into the Delaware Bay in southern New Jersey in the United States.The Maurice River, pronounced "Morris", is approximately long and is the second longest and largest tributary to Delaware Bay. Its watershed includes an extensive southern portion of the...

  • Musconetcong River
    Musconetcong River
    The Musconetcong River is a tributary of the Delaware River in northwestern New Jersey in the United States. It flows through the rural mountainous country of northwestern New Jersey. Part of it is a National Wild and Scenic River....

  • Neshaminy Creek
    Neshaminy Creek
    Neshaminy Creek is a stream that runs southeast through Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Neshaminy Creek proper rises south of the borough of Chalfont, where North Branch Neshaminy Creek and West Branch Neshaminy Creek meet. Neshaminy Creek flows lastly between Bristol Township and Bensalem Township...

  • Neversink River
    Neversink River
    The Neversink River is a tributary of the Delaware River in southeastern New York in the United States...

  • Newton Creek (New Jersey)
  • Oldmans Creek
    Oldmans Creek
    Oldmans Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in southwestern New Jersey in the United States.Oldmans Creek defines part of the western boundary between Gloucester and Salem counties. It starts just southwest of Glassboro, approximately one mile from the head of Raccoon Creek...

  • Oquaga Creek
  • Paulins Kill
    Paulins Kill
    The Paulins Kill is a tributary of the Delaware River in northwestern New Jersey in the United States...

  • Pennypack Creek
    Pennypack Creek
    Pennypack Creek is a creek in southeastern Pennsylvania in the United States. It runs southeast through eastern Montgomery County, lower Bucks County, and the northeast section of Philadelphia, before emptying into the Delaware River.-Name:...

  • Pequest River
    Pequest River
    The Pequest River is a tributary of the Delaware River in the Skylands Region in northwestern New Jersey in the United States.The Pequest, Native American for "open land", drains an area of across Sussex and Warren counties, consisting of ten municipalities....

  • Pompess Creek
  • Pohatcong Creek
    Pohatcong Creek
    Pohatcong Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in northwestern New Jersey in the United States.It rises in the mountains of eastern Warren County, west of Hackettstown. It flows southwest, in a valley along the northwestern side of the Pohatcong Mountain ridge, which separates its watershed...

  • Poquessing Creek
    Poquessing Creek
    Poquessing Creek is a creek, a right tributary of the Delaware River, that forms part of the boundary between Bucks County and the northeast section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It has been part of the boundary between Bucks and Philadelphia counties since 1682.The creek arises in Trevose and...

  • Raccoon Creek (New Jersey)
    Raccoon Creek (New Jersey)
    Raccoon Creek, also called the Raccoon River, is a tributary of the Delaware River in southern New Jersey in the United States.-Location:...

  • Rancocas Creek
    Rancocas Creek
    Rancocas Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in southwestern New Jersey in the United States. The creek's main stem is long, with a North Branch of and a South Branch flowing...

  • Ridley Creek
    Ridley Creek
    Ridley Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in southeast Pennsylvania in the United States. The entire drainage basin is in the suburban Philadelphia area, but the upper creek and extensive park lands on the creek retain a rural character, while the mouth of the creek has long been heavily...

  • Salem River
    Salem River
    The Salem River is a tributary of the Delaware River in southwestern New Jersey in the United States.The course and watershed of the Salem River are entirely within Salem County. The river rises in Upper Pittsgrove Township and flows initially westwardly, through Pilesgrove Township and the...

  • Schuylkill River
    Schuylkill River
    The Schuylkill River is a river in Pennsylvania. It is a designated Pennsylvania Scenic River.The river is about long. Its watershed of about lies entirely within the state of Pennsylvania. The source of its eastern branch is in the Appalachian Mountains at Tuscarora Springs, near Tamaqua in...

  • Shohola Creek
    Shohola Creek
    Shohola Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in the Poconos of eastern Pennsylvania in the United States.Shohola Creek drops off the Pocono Plateau and joins the Delaware River approximately upstream of Port Jervis, New York.-References:*Gertler, Edward. Keystone Canoeing, Seneca Press,...

  • Tohickon Creek
    Tohickon Creek
    Tohickon Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River. Located entirely in Bucks County, in southeastern Pennsylvania, it rises in Springfield Township and has its confluence with the Delaware at Point Pleasant. It is dammed to form the popular Lake Nockamixon....

  • Wickecheoke Creek
    Wickecheoke Creek
    Wickecheoke Creek is a tributary of the Delaware River in Hunterdon County, New Jersey in the United States.It originates in Raritan Township on the Hunterdon Plateau and flows through Croton and Locktown before cascading off the Plateau where it passes under the Green Sergeant's Covered Bridge,...

  • Woodbury Creek


Flooding

The Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area
Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area
Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, administered by the National Park Service, preserves almost of land along the Delaware River's New Jersey and Pennsylvania shores, stretching from the Delaware Water Gap northward almost to the New York state line...

 came about because of a plan to build a dam on the Delaware River at Tocks Island
Tocks Island
Tocks Island, located upstream from Delaware Water Gap in the Delaware River was the controversial site of a dam, proposed in the 1950s, which would have created a 37-mile long lake between Pennsylvania and New Jersey, with depths of up to 140 feet...

, just north of the Delaware Water Gap
Delaware Water Gap
The Delaware Water Gap is on the border of New Jersey and Pennsylvania where the Delaware River cuts through a large ridge of the Appalachian Mountains...

 to control water levels for flood control and hydroelectric power generation. The dam would have created a 37 miles (59.5 km) lake in the center of present park for use as a reservoir. Starting in 1960, the present day area of the Recreation Area was acquired for the Army Corps of Engineers
United States Army Corps of Engineers
The United States Army Corps of Engineers is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 38,000 civilian and military personnel, making it the world's largest public engineering, design and construction management agency...

 through eminent domain
Eminent domain
Eminent domain , compulsory purchase , resumption/compulsory acquisition , or expropriation is an action of the state to seize a citizen's private property, expropriate property, or seize a citizen's rights in property with due monetary compensation, but without the owner's consent...

. Between 3,000 and 5,000 dwellings were demolished, including historical sites, and about 15,000 people were displaced by the project.

Because of massive environmental opposition, dwindling funds, and an unacceptable geological assessment of the dam's safety, the government transferred the property to the National Park Service
National Park Service
The National Park Service is the U.S. federal agency that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations...

 in 1978. The National Park Service found itself as the caretaker of the previously endangered territory, and with the help of the federal government and surrounding communities, developed recreational facilities and worked to preserve the remaining historical structures.

However, the lack of a flood control dam on the river left it vulnerable to flooding, and it has experienced a number of serious flooding events as the result of snow melt or rain run-off from heavy rainstorms. Record flooding occurred in August 1955, in the aftermath of the passing of the remnants of two separate hurricanes over the area within less than a week: first Hurricane Connie
Hurricane Connie
Hurricane Connie was the first in a series of hurricanes to strike North Carolina during the 1955 Atlantic hurricane season. Connie struck as a Category 1, causing major flooding and inflicting extensive damage to the Outer Banks and inland to Raleigh....

 and then Hurricane Diane
Hurricane Diane
Hurricane Diane was one of three hurricanes to hit North Carolina during the 1955 Atlantic hurricane season, striking an area that had been hit by Hurricane Connie five days earlier...

, which was, and still is, the wettest tropical cyclone to have hit the northeastern United States. The river gauge at Riegelsville, Pennsylvania
Riegelsville, Pennsylvania
Riegelsville is a borough in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 868 at the 2010 census.-History:Benjamin Riegel founded Riegelsville. The original, and now historic, that he built in 1838 still stands. This historic stone inn has offered food and lodging to Bucks County...

 recorded an all time record crest of 38.85 feet (11.8 m) on August 19, 1955.

More recently, moderate to severe flooding has occurred along the river. The same gauge at Riegelsville recorded a peak of 30.95 feet (9.4 m) on September 23, 2004, 34.07 feet (10.4 m) on April 4, 2005, and 33.62 feet (10.2 m) on June 28, 2006, all considerably higher than the flood stage of 22 feet (6.7 m).

Since the upper Delaware basin has few population centers along its banks, flooding in this area mainly affects natural unpopulated flood plains. Residents in the middle part of the Delaware basin experience flooding, including three major floods in the three years (2004–2006) that have severely damaged their homes and land. The lower part of the Delaware basin from Philadelphia southward to the Delaware Bay is tidal and much wider than portions further north, and is not prone to river related flooding (although tidal surges can cause minor flooding in this area).

The Delaware River Basin Commission
Delaware River Basin Commission
The Delaware River Basin Commission is a United States government agency created in 1961 by an interstate compact, signed into law by President John F...

, along with local governments, is working to try to address the issue of flooding along the river. As the past few years have seen a rise in catastrophic floods, most residents of the river basin feel that something must be done. The local governments have worked in association with FEMA to address many of these problems, however, due to insufficient federal funds, progress is slow.

New York City Water Supply

After New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 had made 15 reservoirs to supply water to the city's growing population, the city tried to gain permission to make five reservoirs along the Delaware River's tributaries. However, they were denied the permission to impound the Delaware's tributaries to make new reservoirs. So in 1928, New York City decided to draw water from the Delaware River to feed the population boom that had started during the beginning of the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

. However, villages and towns across the river in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The state borders Delaware and Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, New York and Ontario, Canada, to the north, and New Jersey to...

 were already using the Delaware for their water supply. The two sides eventually took their case to the U.S. Supreme Court, and in 1931, New York City was finally allowed to draw 440 million USgals (1,665,581.3 m³) of water a day from the Delaware and its upstream tributaries.

Crossings

The Delaware River is a major barrier to travel between New Jersey
New Jersey
New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. , its population was 8,791,894. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania and on the southwest by Delaware...

 and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The state borders Delaware and Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, New York and Ontario, Canada, to the north, and New Jersey to...

. Most of the larger bridges are tolled only westbound, and are owned by the Delaware River and Bay Authority
Delaware River and Bay Authority
The Delaware River and Bay Authority or DRBA is a bi-state government agency of the U.S. states of New Jersey and Delaware established by interstate compact in 1961....

, Delaware River Port Authority
Delaware River Port Authority
The Delaware River Port Authority is a bi-state instrumentality created by a Congressionally approved interstate compact between the governments of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the State of New Jersey...

, Burlington County Bridge Commission
Burlington County Bridge Commission
The Burlington County Bridge Commission is a public agency responsible for the operation and maintenance of several bridges in Burlington County, New Jersey across the Delaware River. It now manages eight bridges, including the Tacony-Palmyra Bridge, the Burlington-Bristol Bridge, and the...

 or Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission
Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission
The Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission is a bistate, public agency charged with providing safe, dependable and efficient river crossings between Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The DRJTBC was established under legislation enacted in the two states in 1934. The federal Compact for the...

.

Washington's crossing of the Delaware

Perhaps the most famous “Delaware Crossing” involved the improvised boat crossing undertaken by George Washington
George Washington
George Washington was the dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. He led the American victory over Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army from 1775 to 1783, and presided over the writing of...

’s army during the American Revolution
American Revolution
The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America...

 on Christmas Day, 1776. This led to a successful surprise attack on the Hessian troops occupying Trenton, New Jersey
Trenton, New Jersey
Trenton is the capital of the U.S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County. As of the 2010 United States Census, Trenton had a population of 84,913...

.

Major oil spills

A number of oil spill
Oil spill
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term is mostly used to describe marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters...

s have taken place in the Delaware over the years.
  • 01-31-1975 — 11000000 gallons (41,639.5 m³) of crude oil spilled from the Corinthos tanker
  • 09-28-1985 — 435000 gallons (1,646.7 m³) of crude oil spilled from the Grand Eagle tanker after running aground on Marcus Hook Bar
  • 06-24-1989 — 306000 gallons (1,158.3 m³) of crude oil spilled from the Presidente Rivera tanker after running aground on Claymont Shoal
  • 11-26-2004 — 265000 gallons (1,003.1 m³) of crude oil spilled from the Athos 1 tanker; the tanker's hull had been punctured by a submerged, discarded anchor

See also

  • Foul Rift
    Foul Rift
    Foul Rift is an approximately quarter-mile long stretch of Class II rapids in the Delaware River, locate about a mile south of Belvidere, New Jersey. The rapids are caused by a descent in the elevation of the riverbed, and are considered by locals to be the most dangerous on the Delaware River,...

    , rapids just south of Belvidere, New Jersey
    Belvidere, New Jersey
    Belvidere is a Town in Warren County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the town population was 2,681. It is the county seat of Warren County....

  • Geography of Pennsylvania
    Geography of Pennsylvania
    The Geography of Pennsylvania varies from sea level marine estuary to mountainous plateau, is significant for its natural resources and ports, and is notable for its role in the history of the United States.- Major features :...

  • List of Delaware rivers
  • List of New Jersey rivers
  • List of New York rivers
  • List of Pennsylvania rivers
  • Partnership for the Delaware Estuary
    Partnership for the Delaware Estuary
    The Partnership for the Delaware Estuary is a regional nonprofit organization established in 1996 to take a leadership role in protecting and enhancing the Delaware Estuary, where fresh water from the Delaware River mixes with salt water from the Atlantic Ocean...

  • Tocks Island
    Tocks Island
    Tocks Island, located upstream from Delaware Water Gap in the Delaware River was the controversial site of a dam, proposed in the 1950s, which would have created a 37-mile long lake between Pennsylvania and New Jersey, with depths of up to 140 feet...

  • Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River
    Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River
    The Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River is located near Narrowsburg, New York, and Lackawaxen, Pennsylvania, on the Delaware River. It includes parts of five counties along this section of the river: Delaware, Orange, and Sullivan in New York, and Pike and Wayne in Pennsylvania.The site...

  • Washington Crossing (disambiguation)

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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