Daniel Mannix
Overview
Daniel Mannix was an Irish
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

-born Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

n Catholic
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

 bishop. Mannix was the Archbishop of Melbourne
Archdiocese of Melbourne
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Melbourne is a Latin rite metropolitan archdiocese, located in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.Erected initially in 1847 as the Diocese of Melbourne, a suffragan diocese of Archdiocese of Sydney, the diocese was elevated in 1874 as an archdiocese of the...

 for 46 years and one of the most influential public figures in 20th century Australia.

Mannix was the son of a tenant farmer near Charleville
Charleville, County Cork
Charleville or Ráth Luirc is a town in north County Cork, Ireland, situated in Ireland's Golden Vale, near the border with County Limerick. It is located on the "Glen" tributary river, which flows into the Maigue River in Co. Limerick...

 in County Cork
County Cork
County Cork is a county in Ireland. It is located in the South-West Region and is also part of the province of Munster. It is named after the city of Cork . Cork County Council is the local authority for the county...

. He was educated at Irish Christian Brothers
Congregation of Christian Brothers
The Congregation of Christian Brothers is a worldwide religious community within the Catholic Church, founded by Blessed Edmund Rice. The Christian Brothers, as they are commonly known, chiefly work for the evangelisation and education of youth, but are involved in many ministries, especially with...

 schools and at St Patrick's College, Maynooth
St Patrick's College, Maynooth
St Patrick's College, Maynooth is the "National Seminary for Ireland" , and a Pontifical University, located in the village of Maynooth, 15 miles from Dublin, Ireland. The college and seminary are often referred to as Maynooth College. The college was officially established as the Royal College...

 seminary, where he was ordained as a priest in 1890.
Mannix was president of St Patrick's College, Maynooth
St Patrick's College, Maynooth
St Patrick's College, Maynooth is the "National Seminary for Ireland" , and a Pontifical University, located in the village of Maynooth, 15 miles from Dublin, Ireland. The college and seminary are often referred to as Maynooth College. The college was officially established as the Royal College...

, the Irish national seminary, from 13 October 1903 to 10 August 1912 when he was succeeded by the Rt Reverend John F.
Encyclopedia
Daniel Mannix was an Irish
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

-born Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

n Catholic
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

 bishop. Mannix was the Archbishop of Melbourne
Archdiocese of Melbourne
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Melbourne is a Latin rite metropolitan archdiocese, located in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.Erected initially in 1847 as the Diocese of Melbourne, a suffragan diocese of Archdiocese of Sydney, the diocese was elevated in 1874 as an archdiocese of the...

 for 46 years and one of the most influential public figures in 20th century Australia.

Mannix was the son of a tenant farmer near Charleville
Charleville, County Cork
Charleville or Ráth Luirc is a town in north County Cork, Ireland, situated in Ireland's Golden Vale, near the border with County Limerick. It is located on the "Glen" tributary river, which flows into the Maigue River in Co. Limerick...

 in County Cork
County Cork
County Cork is a county in Ireland. It is located in the South-West Region and is also part of the province of Munster. It is named after the city of Cork . Cork County Council is the local authority for the county...

. He was educated at Irish Christian Brothers
Congregation of Christian Brothers
The Congregation of Christian Brothers is a worldwide religious community within the Catholic Church, founded by Blessed Edmund Rice. The Christian Brothers, as they are commonly known, chiefly work for the evangelisation and education of youth, but are involved in many ministries, especially with...

 schools and at St Patrick's College, Maynooth
St Patrick's College, Maynooth
St Patrick's College, Maynooth is the "National Seminary for Ireland" , and a Pontifical University, located in the village of Maynooth, 15 miles from Dublin, Ireland. The college and seminary are often referred to as Maynooth College. The college was officially established as the Royal College...

 seminary, where he was ordained as a priest in 1890.

President of St. Patrick's College, Maynooth

Mannix was president of St Patrick's College, Maynooth
St Patrick's College, Maynooth
St Patrick's College, Maynooth is the "National Seminary for Ireland" , and a Pontifical University, located in the village of Maynooth, 15 miles from Dublin, Ireland. The college and seminary are often referred to as Maynooth College. The college was officially established as the Royal College...

, the Irish national seminary, from 13 October 1903 to 10 August 1912 when he was succeeded by the Rt Reverend John F. Hogan. During his presidency he was widely criticised for welcoming King Edward VII on a visit to Maynooth (it was alleged that the reception room was hung with the king's racing colours). Contrasts were drawn between this welcome for the notoriously adulterous king and the Catholic bishops' role in supporting the deposition of Charles Stewart Parnell
Charles Stewart Parnell
Charles Stewart Parnell was an Irish landowner, nationalist political leader, land reform agitator, and the founder and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party...

 as Irish nationalist leader because of his affair with Katherine O'Shea
Katherine O'Shea
Katharine O'Shea, also known as Katie O'Shea, Kitty O'Shea or, following her second marriage, Katharine Parnell was an English woman of aristocratic background, whose family relationship over many years with Charles Stewart Parnell eventually caused his political downfall.-Background:She was born...

.

Mannix was also heavily involved in the controversy surrounding the dismissal of Fr Michael O'Hickey as Professor of Irish after O'Hickey publicly attacked those members of the Senate of the National University of Ireland
National University of Ireland
The National University of Ireland , , is a federal university system of constituent universities, previously called constituent colleges, and recognised colleges set up under the Irish Universities Act, 1908, and significantly amended by the Universities Act, 1997.The constituent universities are...

 who opposed making Irish a compulsory subject for matriculation and insinuated that the senators (who included several bishops) had sinned grievously by so doing and resembled those MPs who were bribed to pass the Act of Union.

Appointment in Melbourne

Mannix was consecrated titular Bishop of Pharsalia and Coadjutor to Archbishop Carr of Melbourne in Maynooth College Chapel on 1 July 1912. Melbourne was one of the great centres of Irish emigration, where the Roman Catholic Church was almost entirely Irish. In Australia at this time, the Irish Catholics were commonly treated with disdain by the English and Scottish majority (who were mostly Anglicans and Presbyterians respectively) and also as potentially disloyal. Mannix was thus regarded with suspicion from the start and his militant advocacy on behalf of a separate Roman Catholic school system, in defiance of the general acceptance of a secular school system, made him immediately a figure of controversy.

In 1914 Australia entered World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 on the side of Great Britain
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

 and when Mannix denounced the war as "just a sordid trade war", he was widely denounced as a traitor. When the Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
The Australian Labor Party is an Australian political party. It has been the governing party of the Commonwealth of Australia since the 2007 federal election. Julia Gillard is the party's federal parliamentary leader and Prime Minister of Australia...

 government of Billy Hughes
Billy Hughes
William Morris "Billy" Hughes, CH, KC, MHR , Australian politician, was the seventh Prime Minister of Australia from 1915 to 1923....

 tried to introduce conscription for the war, Mannix campaigned against it and it was defeated. He spoke out more frequently about the 1917
Australian plebiscite, 1917
The 1917 Australian plebiscite was held on 20 December 1917. It contained one question.* Are you in favour of the proposal of the Commonwealth Government for reinforcing the Australian Imperial Force overseas?-The Plebiscite:...

 referendum, which was also defeated. The extent to which Mannix influenced the outcome of the vote has been debated widely.

When the Labor Party split over conscription, Mannix supported the Catholic-dominated anti-conscription faction, led by Frank Tudor
Frank Tudor
Francis Gwynne "Frank" Tudor was an Australian-born felt hatter and politician. He was the leader of the Australian Labor Party from 1916 till his death.-Early life:...

 (although Tudor was not a Catholic). Among the Catholic politicians whose careers he encouraged were James Scullin
James Scullin
James Henry Scullin , Australian Labor politician and the ninth Prime Minister of Australia. Two days after he was sworn in as Prime Minister, the Wall Street Crash of 1929 occurred, marking the beginning of the Great Depression and subsequent Great Depression in Australia.-Early life:Scullin was...

, Frank Brennan
Frank Brennan (Australian politician)
Francis Brennan was an Australian lawyer and Australian Labor Party politician.Brennan was born at Upper Emu Creek near Bendigo, Victoria and was a younger brother of Tom Brennan, later an assistant minister in the conservative Lyons government. He studied law at the University of Melbourne and...

, Joseph Lyons
Joseph Lyons
Joseph Aloysius Lyons, CH was an Australian politician. He was Labor Premier of Tasmania from 1923 to 1928 and a Minister in the James Scullin government from 1929 until his resignation from the Labor Party in March 1931...

 and, later, Arthur Calwell
Arthur Calwell
Arthur Augustus Calwell Australian politician, was a member of the Australian House of Representatives for 32 years from 1940 to 1972, Immigration Minister in the government of Ben Chifley from 1945 to 1949 and Leader of the Australian Labor Party from 1960 to 1967.-Early life:Calwell was born in...

. In 1917, when Carr died, Mannix became Archbishop of Melbourne.

Mannix opposed the Easter Rising
Easter Rising
The Easter Rising was an insurrection staged in Ireland during Easter Week, 1916. The Rising was mounted by Irish republicans with the aims of ending British rule in Ireland and establishing the Irish Republic at a time when the British Empire was heavily engaged in the First World War...

 in 1916 and always condemned the use of force by Irish nationalists , and he counselled Australians of Irish Catholic extraction to stay out of Irish politics. However he became increasingly radicalised, and in October 1920 he led an Irish republican funeral cortège through the streets of London following the death of hunger striker Terence MacSwiney
Terence MacSwiney
Terence Joseph MacSwiney was an Irish playwright, author and politician. He was elected as Sinn Féin Lord Mayor of Cork during the Irish War of Independence in 1920. He was arrested by the British on charges of sedition and imprisoned in Brixton prison in England...

, the Lord Mayor of Cork City in Mannix's native county.

By the end of the war Mannix was the recognised leader of the Irish community in Australia, idolised by Catholics but detested by others, including those in power federally and in Victoria. For many years he was ostracised and not invited to the official functions his position would have entitled him to attend.

Mannix formed the Irish Relief Fund, which provided financial support for the families of those shot or imprisoned by the British. When he left Australia in 1920, to visit Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

 and the USA, the British government refused him permission to visit Ireland or British cities with large Irish populations, which resulted in an extended stay in Penzance
Penzance
Penzance is a town, civil parish, and port in Cornwall, England, in the United Kingdom. It is the most westerly major town in Cornwall and is approximately 75 miles west of Plymouth and 300 miles west-southwest of London...

. There was also a serious, though unsuccessful, move to prevent him returning to Australia.

Mannix supported trade unionism but opposed militancy and strikes. In the 1920s he became outspoken in opposition to the Industrial Workers of the World
Industrial Workers of the World
The Industrial Workers of the World is an international union. At its peak in 1923, the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. Its membership declined dramatically after a 1924 split brought on by internal conflict...

 (IWW) and the Communist Party of Australia
Communist Party of Australia
The Communist Party of Australia was founded in 1920 and dissolved in 1991; it was succeeded by the Socialist Party of Australia, which then renamed itself, becoming the current Communist Party of Australia. The CPA achieved its greatest political strength in the 1940s and faced an attempted...

. On all matters of personal and sexual morality, he was a traditionalist and an upholder of the authority of the Church.

In Melbourne, Mannix was the leader of the city's largest ethnic minority as well as a religious leader. From his palatial house, Raheen
Raheen (estate)
Raheen is an historic 19th-century Italianate mansion located at 92 Studley Park Road in the Melbourne, Australia, suburb of Kew. It was built in the 1870s, and its name means "little fort" in Gaelic....

, in Kew, Melbourne
Kew, Victoria
Kew is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 6 km east from Melbourne's central business district. Its Local Government Area is the City of Boroondara. At the 2006 Census, Kew had a population of 22,516....

, he would daily walk to and from St. Patrick's Cathedral, personally greeting any of his flock that he encountered. On official engagements he was chauffeured about in a large limousine. In 1920 he led an enormous St Patrick's Day parade with a guard of honour made up of Irish Australian winners of the Victoria Cross
Victoria Cross
The Victoria Cross is the highest military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of the armed forces of various Commonwealth countries, and previous British Empire territories....

.

After the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
The Irish Free State was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by the British government and Irish representatives exactly twelve months beforehand...

 was created in 1922, Mannix became less politically controversial and animosity to him gradually faded for the most part. From the 1930s he came to see Communism as the main threat to the Church and he became increasingly identified with political conservatism. He was a strong supporter of Lyons, who left the Labor Party in 1931 and led the conservative United Australia Party
United Australia Party
The United Australia Party was an Australian political party that was founded in 1931 and dissolved in 1945. It was the political successor to the Nationalist Party of Australia and predecessor to the Liberal Party of Australia...

 in government from 1932 until 1939, although he continued to support Catholics in the Labor Party such as Calwell.

Mannix's best-known protégé in his later years was B.A. Santamaria, a young Italian-Australian lawyer, whom Mannix appointed head of the National Secretariat of Catholic Action in 1937. After 1941, Mannix authorised Santamaria to form the Catholic Social Studies Movement, known simply as The Movement, to organise in the unions and defeat the Communists. The Movement was so successful in its efforts that by 1949 it had taken control of the Victorian branch of the Labor Party. Another associate was the Jesuit priest William Hackett from Ireland, who had been involved in the Irish Republic's struggle for independence from Britain before being posted to Australia.

In 1951 the Liberal Party of Australia
Liberal Party of Australia
The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian political party.Founded a year after the 1943 federal election to replace the United Australia Party, the centre-right Liberal Party typically competes with the centre-left Australian Labor Party for political office...

 government of Robert Menzies
Robert Menzies
Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, , Australian politician, was the 12th and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia....

 held a referendum
Australian referendum, 1951
The 1951 Australian Referendum was held on 22 September 1951 and sought approval for the federal government to ban the Communist Party of Australia. It was not carried.-Background:...

 to give the government the constitutional power to ban the Communist Party. Mannix surprised many of his supporters by opposing this, on the grounds that it would give the Communists a propaganda victory and drive them underground: his may have been a decisive influence in the referendum's narrow defeat. This alliance with the Labor leader, Dr. H.V. Evatt was short-lived, however.

The Labor Party split again in 1954
Australian Labor Party split of 1955
The Australian Labor Party split of 1955 was a splintering of the Australian Labor Party along sectarian and ideological lines in the mid 1950s...

 over attitudes to Communism and the Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

. Santamaria's supporters were expelled and formed the Democratic Labor Party
Democratic Labor Party (historical)
The Democratic Labor Party was an Australian political party that existed from 1955 until 1978.-History:The DLP was formed as a result of a split in the Australian Labor Party that began in 1954. The split was between the party's national leadership, under the then party leader Dr H.V...

 (DLP). Mannix covertly supported the DLP and allowed many priests and religious to work openly for it. This involvement in politics was opposed by the head of the Australian Church, Norman Thomas Gilroy, Cardinal Archbishop of Sydney , and also by the Vatican
Holy See
The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, in which its Bishop is commonly known as the Pope. It is the preeminent episcopal see of the Catholic Church, forming the central government of the Church. As such, diplomatically, and in other spheres the Holy See acts and...

 . Rome appointed Archbishop Justin Simonds
Justin Simonds
Justin Daniel Simonds was an Australian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church, serving as the 5th Archbishop of Hobart from 1937 to 1942 and as the 4th Archbishop of Melbourne from 1963 to 1967.-Biography:...

 as coadjutor to Mannix - Simonds was widely seen as Rome's man in Melbourne.

In the late 1940s and 1950s, Mannix spoke against the White Australia policy
White Australia policy
The White Australia policy comprises various historical policies that intentionally restricted "non-white" immigration to Australia. From origins at Federation in 1901, the polices were progressively dismantled between 1949-1973....

 that was in action at the time. He described the policy as “crude” and said that Australia had much to learn from other races. In his opposition to the policy, Mannix stated in 1949 that “there is no colour bar in Australia”.

In 1960 Calwell became Labor leader and sought Mannix's support to bring about a reconciliation between Labor and the DLP, essential if the Menzies government was to be defeated. Some figures in the DLP supported this idea, but Mannix supported Santamaria in his resistance to such suggestions. The negotiations fell through and Menzies was re-elected in 1961. Mannix and Calwell became permanently estranged.

By the 1960s the distinct identity of the Irish community in Melbourne was fading, and Irish Catholics were increasingly outnumbered by Italians, Maltese and other postwar immigrant Catholic communities.

Mannix, who turned 90 in 1954, remained active and in full authority, but he was no longer a central figure in the city's politics. He died suddenly on 6 November 1963, aged 99, while the Church was preparing to celebrate his 100th birthday four months hence.

He was buried in the crypt of St Patrick's Cathedral, Melbourne.

Legacy

  • Corpus Christi College
    Corpus Christi College, Melbourne
    Corpus Christi College is the regional seminary of the Roman Catholic dioceses in Victoria and Tasmania, Australia. The seminary is administered by a board of Episcopal Trustees comprising the Archbishops of Melbourne and Hobart, the Bishops of Ballarat, Sandhurst and Sale, and the Auxiliary...

    , Australia's oldest surviving seminary, was founded by Mannix on Christmas Day, 1922. Mannix had envisaged a national seminary along the lines of Maynooth
    St Patrick's College, Maynooth
    St Patrick's College, Maynooth is the "National Seminary for Ireland" , and a Pontifical University, located in the village of Maynooth, 15 miles from Dublin, Ireland. The college and seminary are often referred to as Maynooth College. The college was officially established as the Royal College...

    , but had to abandon plans to reform St. Mary's Seminary, Manly, New South Wales
    Manly, New South Wales
    Manly is a suburb of northern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Manly is located 17 kilometres north-east of the Sydney central business district and is the administrative centre of the local government area of Manly Council, in the Northern Beaches region.-History:Manly was named...

    , when the Holy See ruled in favour of regional seminaries for Australia.
  • Newman College
    Newman College (University of Melbourne)
    Newman College is a Roman Catholic, co-educational residential college affiliated with the University of Melbourne. During the university year it houses about 235 undergraduate students and about 55 postgraduate students and tutors...

     and the Australian Catholic Students Association
    Australian Catholic Students Association
    The Australian Catholic Students Association or ACSA is the peak body for Catholic students in Australia. ACSA is made up of interested Catholic students from across Australia and from all kinds of academic institutions. It is officially supported by the Australian Catholic Bishops Conference.The...

     each hold annual public lectures in his name.
  • Monash University's
    Monash University
    Monash University is a public university based in Melbourne, Victoria. It was founded in 1958 and is the second oldest university in the state. Monash is a member of Australia's Group of Eight and the ASAIHL....

     Residential College, Mannix College
    Mannix College (Monash University)
    Mannix College is a Catholic residential College affiliated with Monash University and located at Monash University's Clayton campus. The College is fully catered and provides residence for around 250 undergraduate and postgraduate students of Monash University, Clayton and Caulfield campuses. The...

    , is named after Daniel Mannix.
  • Daniel Mannix was the subject of a 5 part dramatised documentary, "Turbulent Priest", written by Gerry McArdle and transmitted on RTÉ Radio 1
    RTÉ Radio 1
    RTÉ Radio 1 is the principal radio channel of Irish public-service broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann and is the direct descendant of Dublin radio station 2RN, which began broadcasting on a regular basis on 1 January 1926...

    .
  • Nazareth House Camberwell was established in 1929, after Daniel Mannix was taken in by the Sisters of Nazareth in Hammersmith, London when refused entry into Ireland in 1920. A guest room is named after him.
  • Daniel Mannix was a key supporter of the foundation of St Kevin's College, Melbourne in 1918- being a guest speaker at its opening mass of that year. In honour of his influence, a tutor group at the College's year nine campus 'Waterford' is named 'Mannix' in his honour.
  • In Power Without Glory
    Power Without Glory
    Power Without Glory is a 1950 novel written by Australian writer Frank Hardy. It was later adapted into a mini-series by the Australian Broadcasting Commission .- Publication :...

    , Frank Hardy
    Frank Hardy
    Francis Joseph Hardy, or Frank, was an Australian left-wing novelist and writer best known for his controversial novel Power Without Glory. He also was a political activist bringing the plight of Aboriginal Australians to international attention with the publication of his book, The Unlucky...

     presented a loose caricature of Mannix in the character of Archbishop Malone. Malone was played by Michael Pate
    Michael Pate
    Michael Pate was an Australian actor, writer and director.-Early life:He was born Edward John Pate in Drummoyne, Sydney...

     in the book's 1976 miniseries dramatisation.
  • Salesian College, Chadstone Year 9 'Mannix' campus is named after him.
  • Nazareth College's Mannix House is named after him. Mannix house is represented by the colour green from his Irish connections.
  • Xavier College Kew's
    Xavier College
    Xavier College is a Roman Catholic, day and boarding school predominantly for boys, with its main campus located in Kew, an eastern suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia....

     Mannix House (Yellow) is named after him.
  • Dr Mannix Gaelic Athletic Sportsfield is named after him. It is the home sports field for the Charleville Hurling and Football clubs and is one of the premier hurling and football venues in North Cork.

Further reading

  • Niall Brennan, Dr. Mannix, Rigby Ltd., Adelaide 1964
  • Bryan, Cyril. Archbishop Mannix: Champion of Australian Democracy. Melbourne: The Advocate Press, 1918.
  • Brady, E. J. Doctor Mannix, Archbishop of Melbourne. Melbourne: Library of National Biography (Dominion Series), 1934.
  • Murphy, Frank. Daniel Mannix – Archbishop of Melbourne. Melbourne: The Advocate Press, 1948. New and enlarged ed. Melbourne: The Polding Press, 1972.
  • Ebsworth, Rev. Walter A. Archbishop Mannix. Armadale, Victoria: H. H. Stephenson, 1977.
  • Gilchrist, Michael. Daniel Mannix, Priest & Patriot. Blackburn, Victoria: Dove Communications, 1982.
  • Santamaria, B. A. Daniel Mannix – The Quality of Leadership. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1984.
  • Kiernan, Colm
    Colm Kiernan
    Colm Padraic Kiernan was an historian and writer.- Historian :In 1964 Colm Kiernan was appointed foundation Lecturer in History at the University of Wollongong, Australia...

    . Daniel Mannix and Ireland. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1984.

External links

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