Cold Bay, Alaska
Overview
 
Cold Bay is a city in Aleutians East Borough, Alaska
Aleutians East Borough, Alaska
- See also :*List of airports in the Aleutians East Borough*National Register of Historic Places listings in Aleutians East Borough, Alaska-External links:*-References:...

, United States.
Cold Bay is one of the main commercial centers of the Alaska Peninsula
Alaska Peninsula
The Alaska Peninsula is a peninsula extending about to the southwest from the mainland of Alaska and ending in the Aleutian Islands. The peninsula separates the Pacific Ocean from Bristol Bay, an arm of the Bering Sea....

, and is home to Cold Bay Airport
Cold Bay Airport
Cold Bay Airport is a public-use airport located in Cold Bay, a city in the Aleutians East Borough of the U.S. state of Alaska. It is owned by the state and is one of the main airports serving the Alaska Peninsula.-Overview:...

.
There is evidence of prehistoric occupation by Aleuts and later Russian encampments. Cold Bay's American history began with the Japanese invasion of the Aleutians in World War II. General Simon Bolivar Buckner
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Simon Bolivar Buckner fought in the United States Army in the Mexican–American War and in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He later served as the 30th Governor of Kentucky....

 ordered the creation of Fort Randall, an airbase on the shores of Cold Bay, in 1942 as a part of a general expansion of American assets in the Aleutians.
Encyclopedia
Cold Bay is a city in Aleutians East Borough, Alaska
Aleutians East Borough, Alaska
- See also :*List of airports in the Aleutians East Borough*National Register of Historic Places listings in Aleutians East Borough, Alaska-External links:*-References:...

, United States.
Cold Bay is one of the main commercial centers of the Alaska Peninsula
Alaska Peninsula
The Alaska Peninsula is a peninsula extending about to the southwest from the mainland of Alaska and ending in the Aleutian Islands. The peninsula separates the Pacific Ocean from Bristol Bay, an arm of the Bering Sea....

, and is home to Cold Bay Airport
Cold Bay Airport
Cold Bay Airport is a public-use airport located in Cold Bay, a city in the Aleutians East Borough of the U.S. state of Alaska. It is owned by the state and is one of the main airports serving the Alaska Peninsula.-Overview:...

.

History

There is evidence of prehistoric occupation by Aleuts and later Russian encampments. Cold Bay's American history began with the Japanese invasion of the Aleutians in World War II. General Simon Bolivar Buckner
Simon Bolivar Buckner
Simon Bolivar Buckner fought in the United States Army in the Mexican–American War and in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He later served as the 30th Governor of Kentucky....

 ordered the creation of Fort Randall, an airbase on the shores of Cold Bay, in 1942 as a part of a general expansion of American assets in the Aleutians. It (along with Otter Point) served as a base for the 11th Air Force to provide protection to the only deep water port in the Aleutians at the time, Dutch Harbor. This protection was proved necessary when during Yamamoto
Yamamoto
Yamamoto is one of the most popular Japanese surnames.In mathematics, Yamamoto may refer to the Lubell–Yamamoto–Meshalkin inequality, named for Koichi Yamamoto et al....

's Midway Campaign a diversionary attack was launched against Dutch Harbor. The initial attack was repulsed by the surprise presence of P-40s stationed here. A second larger attack with its own fighter escort the next day succeeded in causing minor damage. Later, with the victory in the Pacific, the forces grew to 20,000 troops. The quonset hut
Quonset hut
A Quonset hut is a lightweight prefabricated structure of corrugated galvanized steel having a semicircular cross section. The design was based on the Nissen hut developed by the British during World War I...

s used to house this massive encampment still stand around the community today.

In later decades, control of the airfield passed to civil authorities who maintained it as a particularly useful location for fuelling and emergency landing needs on great circle flights from the west coast of the U.S. to eastern Asia. A DEW line station was established nearby and eventually was decommissioned.

During the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Ronald Wilson Reagan was the 40th President of the United States , the 33rd Governor of California and, prior to that, a radio, film and television actor....

 era, privatization of the airline industry caused many of the compelling interests supporting the need for the community to evaporate. Today, Cold Bay functions as a hub for traffic from Anchorage
Anchorage, Alaska
Anchorage is a unified home rule municipality in the southcentral part of the U.S. state of Alaska. It is the northernmost major city in the United States...

 and Seattle to the small communities around it, and continues to serve as an emergency runway for aircraft flying through the North Pacific.

Community life

Cold Bay is a highly transient community, lacking the generational attachment characteristic of the surrounding native villages. Residents, drawn to the area largely by the Wildlife Refuge, Weather Service, or air traffic jobs, rarely stay more than a year in Cold Bay.

The Cold Bay School employs two teachers and serves the community's twelve students. Despite its remote location, the school has been involved in state and national activities, hosting the military's "Operation Arctic Care" outreach health program in 2002, and briefly becoming involved with reporting for CNN Student Bureau that same year.
Cold Bay has one store, Bearfoot Inn Alaska, formerly known as the World Famous Weathered Inn. It supplies groceries to the residents of Cold Bay and other communities within the Aleutians East Borough, although many residents order groceries and supplies from suppliers in Anchorage and Seattle. The Bearfoot Inn also offers lodging with its 8 room hotel and 6 room bunk house. Within the main building there is the Bearfoot Inn Bar which is open 3 to 6 days a week depending on the season. Bearfoot Inn is within walking distance of the airport.

Cold Bay Lodge is the only restaurant in town. The lodge can accommodate up to 40 people, has wireless Internet access, and is less than a mile from the airport.

A major community event is the Silver Salmon Derby, a fishing contest that takes place every fall. Participants vie in both adult and child categories for cash prizes for the largest fish. A raft race and "Polar Bear Jump" are also held. The Derby concludes with a banquet and door prize giveaway in the school gymnasium.

Izembek National Wildlife Refuge

The 498000 acres (2,015.3 km²) Izembek refuge was established in 1960. It encompasses several large lagoons, including the 30 miles (48.3 km) Izembek Lagoon, which serve as a food source and shelter for a large migratory bird population.

Approximately 130,000 Pacific Black Brant
Black Brant
The Black Brant or Pacific Brent Goose, Branta bernicla nigricans, is a sub-species of the Brent Goose that breeds in Alaska and winters in Baja California. There are an estimated 115,000 black brant in the world and about 14,000 are taken each year by hunters. Fox predation of eggs is thought to...

, 62,000 Emperor Geese
Emperor Goose
The Emperor Goose is a species of goose. It breeds around the Bering Sea, mostly in Alaska, USA, but also in Kamchatka, Russia...

, 50,000 Taverner's Canada Geese, 300,000 duck
Duck
Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the Anatidae family of birds, which also includes swans and geese. The ducks are divided among several subfamilies in the Anatidae family; they do not represent a monophyletic group but a form taxon, since swans and geese are not considered...

s, and 80,000 shore birds stop over in the Izembek area during migration and as many as 50,000 Steller's Eider
Steller's Eider
The Steller's Eider is a medium-large sea duck that breeds along the Arctic coasts of eastern Siberia and Alaska. The lined nest is built on tundra close to the sea, and 6-10 eggs are laid....

s find winter grounds there.

Geography

Cold Bay is located at 55°12′33"N 162°42′51"W (55.209038, -162.714298). It is west of Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 70.9 square miles (183.6 km²), of which, 54.4 square miles (140.9 km²) of it is land and 16.6 square miles (43 km²) of it (23.34%) is water.

Cold Bay holds the record for most overcast town in America

Climate

Cold Bay has the typical subpolar oceanic climate (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cfc) of southwest Alaska, though the summers are almost cool enough to qualify as a polar climate (ET).

Transportation

Cold Bay is serviced by Cold Bay Airport
Cold Bay Airport
Cold Bay Airport is a public-use airport located in Cold Bay, a city in the Aleutians East Borough of the U.S. state of Alaska. It is owned by the state and is one of the main airports serving the Alaska Peninsula.-Overview:...

, holding the fifth-largest runway in Alaska, and a second, smaller one.

There is a hovercraft link between Cold Bay and nearby King Cove. A road link to King Cove is being drawn up and planned, with some controversy surrounding the planned route through the Izembek refuge.

Demographics

At the 2000 census, there were 88 people, 36 households and 18 families residing in the city. The population density was 1.6 per square mile (0.6/km²). There were 98 housing units at an average density of 1.8 per square mile (0.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 71.59% White
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, 3.41% Black
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

 or African American
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, 17.05% Native American
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, 4.55% Asian
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, 2.27% Pacific Islander
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 1.14% from two or more races. 2.27% of the population were Hispanic
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

 or Latino
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

 of any race.

There were 36 households of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.4% were married couples living together, 2.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 50.0% were non-families. 36.1% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 3.11.

Age distribution was 23.9% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 39.8% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, . The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 183.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 204.5 males.

The median household income
Median household income
The median household income is commonly used to generate data about geographic areas and divides households into two equal segments with the first half of households earning less than the median household income and the other half earning more...

 was $55,750, and the median family income was $64,375. Males had a median income of $36,250 versus $38,333 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $20,037. There were no families and 27.3% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64.

External links

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