The Caudini were a Samnite
Samnium is a Latin exonym for a region of south or south and central Italy in Roman times. The name survives in Italian today, but today's territory comprising it is only a small portion of what it once was. The populations of Samnium were called Samnites by the Romans...

 tribe that lived among the mountains ringing Campania
Campania is a region in southern Italy. The region has a population of around 5.8 million people, making it the second-most-populous region of Italy; its total area of 13,590 km² makes it the most densely populated region in the country...

 and in the valleys of the Isclero
The Isclero is a stream in Campania, southern Italy. Its sources is formed by confluence of the Varco, Cola and Querci torrents; it then flows in the Valle Caudina, where it receives the waters of the Tesa and Faenza, and then continues running in the Moiano ravine and, subsequently, in the...

 and Volturnus
In Roman mythology, Volturnus was a god of the waters, probably derived from a local Samnite cult. His festival, Volturnalia, was held on August 27.The Volturno river in Campania is named in his honour....

 rivers. Their capital was at Caudium
Caudium is an open source web server. It was originally created as a fork of the Roxen Challenger server. The server is written in C and Pike, and Pike is also used to create extensions to the server, although Caudium also supports PHP....

, but it seems certain that the appellation was not confined to the citizens of Caudium and its immediate territory. Livy
Titus Livius — known as Livy in English — was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people. Ab Urbe Condita Libri, "Chapters from the Foundation of the City," covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome well before the traditional foundation in 753 BC...

 speaks in more than one passage of the Caudini as a tribe or people, in the same terms as of the Hirpini
The Hirpini , were an ancient Samnite people of central Italy. While general regarded as having been Samnites, sometimes they are treated as a distinct and independent nation...

 , and Niebuhr supposed them to have been one of the four tribes comprising the Samnite confederacy As the most western of the Samnite groups, they were the Samnite tribe most affected by the neighbouring Greeks of Campania.

The Caudini are nowhere mentioned as a separate tribe in our narratives of the Romans' Samnite Wars
Samnite Wars
The First, Second, and Third Samnite Wars, between the early Roman Republic and the tribes of Samnium, extended over half a century, involving almost all the states of Italy, and ended in Roman domination of the Samnites...

, probably because they were assumed included whenever the Samnites were mentioned. (The territory of the Caudini was the scene of much fighting.) Velleius Paterculus (ii. 1) says that it was with the Caudini that the Romans
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 made their treaty following their defeat at the Battle of the Caudine Forks
Battle of the Caudine Forks
The Battle of Caudine Forks, 321 BC, was a decisive event of the Second Samnite War. Its designation as a battle is a mere historical formality: there was no fighting and there were no casualties. The Romans were trapped in a waterless place by the Samnites before they knew what was happening and...

, where Livy uniformly talks of the Samnites. In 275 BCE, the tribe was subjugated by L. Cornelius Lentulus, whose family henceforth took the name ‘Caudinus’.

The exent of their territory is unclear. The ancient poet Gratius Faliscus (Cyneget. 509) called the great mountain mass of the Taburnus
Monte Taburno, or Taburno Camposauro is a group of mountains in the Apennines, to the west of Benevento, central Italy.The highest peak is the Taburno, at 1,393 m...

 the "Caudinus Taburnus", and this must have been at the center of their territory. It probably joined that of the Hirpini on the one side and of the Pentri
The Pentri were a tribe of the Samnites, and apparently one of the most important of the subdivisions of that nation. Their capital city was Bovianum Undecumanorum The Pentri (Greek: ) were a tribe of the Samnites, and apparently one of the most important of the subdivisions of that nation. Their...

 on the other, while on the west it bordered immediately on Campania. But the name is not recognised by any of the geographers as a general appellation, and appears to have fallen into disuse: the Caudini of Pliny
Pliny the Elder
Gaius Plinius Secundus , better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian...

 (iii. 11. s. 16) are only the citizens of Caudium.

The cities of the Caudini included Caudium
Montesarchio is a comune in the Province of Benevento, Campania, southern Italy. It is located 18 km south-east of Benevento in the Valle Caudina at the foot of Monte Taburno...

 (modern Montesarchio), Caiatia (modern Caiazzo), Trebula
Trebula was the name of three ancient towns in Italy.# Trebula Mutusca, an ancient Sabine town, modern Monteleone Sabino, Province of Rieti, Lazio.# Trebula Suffenas, an ancient Sabine town, location unknown...

, and Cubulteria.
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