Carpenter
Overview
 
A carpenter is a skilled craftsperson
Artisan
An artisan is a skilled manual worker who makes items that may be functional or strictly decorative, including furniture, clothing, jewellery, household items, and tools...

 who works with timber
Timber
Timber may refer to:* Timber, a term common in the United Kingdom and Australia for wood materials * Timber, Oregon, an unincorporated community in the U.S...

 to construct, install and maintain buildings, furniture
Furniture
Furniture is the mass noun for the movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating and sleeping in beds, to hold objects at a convenient height for work using horizontal surfaces above the ground, or to store things...

, and other objects. The work, known as carpentry, may involve manual labor and work outdoors.

Carpentry skill is gained through experience and study. In some countries (such as the United States), there are no formal training requirements other than in trade unions, and the trade can be easy to enter.
Encyclopedia
A carpenter is a skilled craftsperson
Artisan
An artisan is a skilled manual worker who makes items that may be functional or strictly decorative, including furniture, clothing, jewellery, household items, and tools...

 who works with timber
Timber
Timber may refer to:* Timber, a term common in the United Kingdom and Australia for wood materials * Timber, Oregon, an unincorporated community in the U.S...

 to construct, install and maintain buildings, furniture
Furniture
Furniture is the mass noun for the movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating and sleeping in beds, to hold objects at a convenient height for work using horizontal surfaces above the ground, or to store things...

, and other objects. The work, known as carpentry, may involve manual labor and work outdoors.

Carpentry skill is gained through experience and study. In some countries (such as the United States), there are no formal training requirements other than in trade unions, and the trade can be easy to enter. In other countries (such as Germany, Japan and Canada) there are strict standards.

The word "carpenter" is the English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 rendering of the Old French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

 word carpentier (become charpentier) which is derived from the Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 carpentrius [artifex], "(maker) of a carriage
Carriage
A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people, usually horse-drawn; litters and sedan chairs are excluded, since they are wheelless vehicles. The carriage is especially designed for private passenger use and for comfort or elegance, though some are also used to transport goods. It may be light,...

. The Middle English and Scots
Scots language
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster . It is sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic, the Celtic language variety spoken in most of the western Highlands and in the Hebrides.Since there are no universally accepted...

 word (in the sense of "builder") was wright (from the Old English
Old English language
Old English or Anglo-Saxon is an early form of the English language that was spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons and their descendants in parts of what are now England and southeastern Scotland between at least the mid-5th century and the mid-12th century...

 wryhta), which could be used in compound forms such as wheelwright or boatwright. In British
British English
British English, or English , is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere...

 slang
Slang
Slang is the use of informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speaker's language or dialect but are considered more acceptable when used socially. Slang is often to be found in areas of the lexicon that refer to things considered taboo...

, a carpenter is sometimes referred to as a "chippy".

Carpentry in the United States is almost always done by men. With 98.5% of carpenters being male, it was the fourth most male-dominated occupation in the country in 1999.

Types and occupations

A finish carpenter (North America) also called a joiner
Joiner
A joiner differs from a carpenter in that joiners cut and fit joints in wood that do not use nails. Joiners usually work in a workshop since the formation of various joints generally requires non-portable machinery. A carpenter normally works on site...

(traditional name now obselete in North America) is one who does finish carpentry; that is, cabinetry, furniture making, fine woodworking, model building, instrument
Tool
A tool is a device that can be used to produce an item or achieve a task, but that is not consumed in the process. Informally the word is also used to describe a procedure or process with a specific purpose. Tools that are used in particular fields or activities may have different designations such...

 making, parquetry
Parquetry
Parquetry is a geometric mosaic of wood pieces used for decorative effect. The two main uses of parquetry are as veneer patterns on furniture and block patterns for flooring. Parquet patterns are entirely geometrical and angular—squares, triangles, lozenges. The most popular parquet flooring...

, joinery
Joinery
Joinery may refer to:* Woodworking joints or other types of mechanical joints * The work of the joiner, the fabrication and installation of fittings in buildings with materials such as wood and aluminum * In Australia and New Zealand, a joinery is also the generic term for a business which...

, or other carpentry where exact joints and minimal margins of error are important. Some large-scale construction may be of an exactitude and artistry that it is classed as finish carpentry.

A trim carpenter specializes in molding and trim, such as door
Door
A door is a movable structure used to open and close off an entrance, typically consisting of a panel that swings on hinges or that slides or rotates inside of a space....

 and window
Window
A window is a transparent or translucent opening in a wall or door that allows the passage of light and, if not closed or sealed, air and sound. Windows are usually glazed or covered in some other transparent or translucent material like float glass. Windows are held in place by frames, which...

 casings, mantels
Fireplace mantel
Fireplace mantel or mantelpiece, also known as a chimneypiece, originated in medieval times as a hood that projected over a grate to catch the smoke. The term has evolved to include the decorative framework around the fireplace, and can include elaborate designs extending to the ceiling...

, baseboard, and other types of ornamental work. Cabinet installers may also be referred to as trim carpenters.

A cabinetmaker is a carpenter who does fine and detailed work specializing in the making of cabinets made from wood, wardrobe
Wardrobe
A Wardrobe is a cabinet used for storing clothes.Wardrobe may also refer to:* Wardrobe , a full set of multiple clothing items* Wardrobe , part of royal administration in medieval England...

s, dressers
Chest of drawers
A chest of drawers, also called a dresser or a bureau, is a piece of furniture that has multiple parallel, horizontal drawers stacked one above another...

, storage chests
Chest (furniture)
A chest is one of the oldest forms of furniture. It is typically a rectangular structure with four walls and a liftable lid, for storage. The interior space may be subdivided...

, and other furniture designed for storage.

A ship's carpenter specializes in shipbuilding
Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and floating vessels. It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a shipyard. Shipbuilders, also called shipwrights, follow a specialized occupation that traces its roots to before recorded history.Shipbuilding and ship repairs, both...

, maintenance, and repair techniques (see also shipwright
Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and floating vessels. It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a shipyard. Shipbuilders, also called shipwrights, follow a specialized occupation that traces its roots to before recorded history.Shipbuilding and ship repairs, both...

) and carpentry specific to nautical needs; usually the term refers to a carpenter who has a post on a specific ship
Ship
Since the end of the age of sail a ship has been any large buoyant marine vessel. Ships are generally distinguished from boats based on size and cargo or passenger capacity. Ships are used on lakes, seas, and rivers for a variety of activities, such as the transport of people or goods, fishing,...

. Steel warships as well as wooden ones need ship's carpenters, especially for making emergency repairs in the case of battle or storm damage.

A scenic carpenter in filmmaking, television, and the theater builds and dismantles temporary scenery
Theatrical scenery
Theatrical scenery is that which is used as a setting for a theatrical production. Scenery may be just about anything, from a single chair to an elaborately re-created street, no matter how large or how small, whether or not the item was custom-made or is, in fact, the genuine item, appropriated...

 and sets
Set construction
Set construction is the process by which a set designer works in collaboration with the director of a production to create the set for a theatrical, film or television production...

.

A framer
Framer
A framer is a carpenter who assembles the major structural elements of a wood-framed building. Framers build walls out of studs, sills, and headers; build floors from joists and beams; and frame roofs using ridge poles and rafters....

is a carpenter that builds the skeletal structure or framework of buildings. Techniques include platform framing, balloon framing, or timber framing
Timber framing
Timber framing , or half-timbering, also called in North America "post-and-beam" construction, is the method of creating structures using heavy squared off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs . It is commonplace in large barns...

 (which may be post-and-beam or mortise-and-tenon
Mortise and tenon
The mortise and tenon joint has been used for thousands of years by woodworkers around the world to join pieces of wood, mainly when the adjoining pieces connect at an angle of 90°. In its basic form it is both simple and strong. Although there are many joint variations, the basic mortise and tenon...

 framing).

A luthier
Luthier
A luthier is someone who makes or repairs lutes and other string instruments. In the United States, the term is used interchangeably with a term for the specialty of each maker, such as violinmaker, guitar maker, lute maker, etc...

is someone who makes or repairs stringed instruments. The word luthier comes from the French word for lute, "luth".

A formwork carpenter creates the shuttering and falsework
Falsework
Falsework consists of temporary structures used in construction to support spanning or arched structures in order to hold the component in place until its construction is sufficiently advanced to support itself...

 used in concrete
Concrete
Concrete is a composite construction material, composed of cement and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate , water and chemical admixtures.The word concrete comes from the Latin word...

 construction.

In Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, Miya-daiku (Temple carpenter) performs the works of both architect and builder of shrine and temple.

Green carpentry is the specialization in the use of environmentally friendly,energy-efficient and sustainable sources of building materials to use in construction projects.

Training

Tradesmen in countries such as Germany are required to fulfil a formal apprenticeship
Apprenticeship
Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a skill. Apprentices or protégés build their careers from apprenticeships...

 (usually three years) to work as a professional carpenter. Upon graduation from the apprenticeship, he or she is known as a journeyman
Journeyman
A journeyman is someone who completed an apprenticeship and was fully educated in a trade or craft, but not yet a master. To become a master, a journeyman had to submit a master work piece to a guild for evaluation and be admitted to the guild as a master....

 carpenter. Up through the 19th and even the early 20th century, the journeyman traveled to another region of the country to learn the building styles and techniques of that area before (usually) returning home. In modern times, journeymen are not required to travel, and the term refers more to a level of proficiency and skill. Union carpenters in the United States - United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America
The United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America is one of the largest building trades union in the United States. One of the unions that formed the American Federation of Labor in 1886, it left the AFL-CIO in 2001.-Early years:...

 - are required to pass a skills test to be granted official journeyman status, but uncertified professional carpenters may be known as journeymen based on their skill level, years of experience, or simply because they support themselves in the trade, and not due to certification or formal woodworking education.

After working as a journeyman for a period, a carpenter may go to study or test as a master
Master craftsman
A master craftsman or master tradesman was a member of a guild. In the European guild system, only masters were allowed to be members of the guild....

 carpenter. In some countries, such as Germany or Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, this is an arduous and expensive process, requiring extensive knowledge (including economic and legal knowledge) and skill to achieve master certification; these countries generally require master status for anyone employing and teaching apprentices in the craft. In others, it can be a loosely used term to describe a skilled carpenter.

In Canada, each province sets its own standards for apprenticeship. The average length of time is four years and includes a minimum number of hours of both on the job training and technical instruction at a college or other institution. Depending on the number of hours of instruction an apprentice receives, he or she can earn a Certificate of Proficiency, making them a journeyman, or a Certificate of Qualification, which allows them to practice a more limited amount of carpentry. Canadian carpenters also have the option of acquiring an additional Interprovincial Red Seal http://www.red-seal.ca/c.4nt.2nt@-eng.jsp?cid=22#redseal that allows them to practice anywhere in Canada. The Red Seal requires the completion of an apprenticeship and an additional examination.

In the modern British construction
Construction
In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking...

 industry, carpenters are trained through apprenticeship schemes where GCSEs in Mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

, English and Technology
Technology
Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures. The word technology comes ;...

 help, but are not essential. This is deemed as the preferred route as young people can earn and gain field experience whilst training towards a nationally recognized qualification.

Fully trained carpenters and joiner
Joiner
A joiner differs from a carpenter in that joiners cut and fit joints in wood that do not use nails. Joiners usually work in a workshop since the formation of various joints generally requires non-portable machinery. A carpenter normally works on site...

s will often move into related trades such as Shop fitting
Shop fitting
Shop fitting is the trade of fitting out retail and service shops and stores with equipment, fixtures and fittings. The trade applies to all kinds of outlets from a small corner shop to hypermarkets. A shop fitter executes planning, design of shop layout and installs equipment and services...

, frameworking, bench joinery
Joinery
Joinery may refer to:* Woodworking joints or other types of mechanical joints * The work of the joiner, the fabrication and installation of fittings in buildings with materials such as wood and aluminum * In Australia and New Zealand, a joinery is also the generic term for a business which...

, maintenance
Maintenance, Repair and Operations
Maintenance, repair, and operations or maintenance, repair, and overhaul involves fixing any sort of mechanical or electrical device should it become out of order or broken...

 and system installation.

Notable carpenters

Religious figures
  • Jesus of Nazareth
    Jesus
    Jesus of Nazareth , commonly referred to as Jesus Christ or simply as Jesus or Christ, is the central figure of Christianity...

  • Saint Joseph
    Saint Joseph
    Saint Joseph is a figure in the Gospels, the husband of the Virgin Mary and the earthly father of Jesus Christ ....

  • Maya
    Mayasura
    In Hindu mythology, Maya , or Mayāsura was a great ancient king of the Asura, Daitya and Rakshasa races upon earth. He was also the chief architect of the people of the netherworld.-Tripura:...

  • Noah
    Noah
    Noah was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the tenth and last of the antediluvian Patriarchs. The biblical story of Noah is contained in chapters 6–9 of the book of Genesis, where he saves his family and representatives of all animals from the flood by constructing an ark...

  • Viswakarma

Historic figures
  • Hugh Herland
    Hugh Herland
    Hugh Herland was a 14th century medieval English carpenter. He was the chief carpenter to King Richard II.One of his best known pieces is the hammer-beam roof at Westminster Hall, regarded as one of the greatest carpentry achievements of the time...

  • William Hurley
  • Robert Lyminge
    Robert Lyminge
    Robert Lyminge his surname is also spelt Lemyinge & Liminge, was an English carpenter and architect, his earliest record of employment is dated 1607 at the almshouses at Theobalds in Hertfordshire....

  • Matthew Banckes
    Matthew Banckes
    Matthew Banckes was an eminent English master carpenter, who was Master Carpenter in the royal Office of Works from 1683 and Master of the Worshipful Company of Carpenters from 1698...

  • Sympson the Joiner
    Sympson the Joiner
    Sympson the Joiner was a joiner who worked at the Royal Naval Dockyard at Woolwich in London. He is remembered only because Samuel Pepys mentions his name several times in his diary....

  • Harry McNish
    Harry McNish
    Harry McNish was the carpenter on Sir Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914–1917...



Contemporary
  • Adam Carolla
    Adam Carolla
    Adam Carolla is an American radio personality, television host, comedian, and actor. He currently hosts The Adam Carolla Show, a talk show distributed as a podcast on the ACE Broadcasting Network...

  • Norm "New Yankee" Abram
    Norm Abram
    Norman L. Abram, or Norm Abram, is an American carpenter known for his work on the PBS television programs This Old House and The New Yankee Workshop. He is referred to on these shows as a "master carpenter".-Early life and education:Abram was born in Woonsocket, Rhode Island and raised in...

  • Mike Holmes
    Mike Holmes
    Michael James Holmes is a Canadian professional contractor. He is the host of television show Holmes on Homes, where he rescues homeowners from renovations gone wrong; and its successor TV series, Holmes Inspection...

  • Harrison Ford
    Harrison Ford
    Harrison Ford is an American film actor and producer. He is famous for his performances as Han Solo in the original Star Wars trilogy and as the title character of the Indiana Jones film series. Ford is also known for his roles as Rick Deckard in Blade Runner, John Book in Witness and Jack Ryan in...

  • Andy Kane
    Andy Kane
    Andy Kane , nicknamed Handy Andy, is a British television personality best known for his work on the BBC's DIY programme Changing Rooms.-Background:...

  • Roy Underhill
    Roy Underhill
    Roy Underhill was raised in Washington, D.C., and was the first master housewright at the Colonial Williamsburg reconstruction. Since 1979, he has been the host of the PBS series The Woodwright's Shop...

  • Brian Haw
    Brian Haw
    Brian William Haw was an English protester and peace campaigner who lived for almost ten years in a camp in London's Parliament Square from 2001, in a protest against UK and US foreign policy...

  • Jeremy Broun
    Jeremy Broun
    Jeremy Broun is a British furniture designer maker, writer, film maker and musician. Descended from Scottish gentry, one of his ancestors was the piano maker to King George 3 and another rowed the boat to Napoleon's surrender. His mother died in his childbirth and father died when he was seventeen....

  • Theo Wade Brown
    Theo Wade Brown
    Theo Wade Brown British carpenter, designer and engineer.Brown was also a bon viveur, amateur musician and genuine British eccentric...

  • Paulinho da Viola
    Paulinho da Viola
    Paulinho da Viola is a Brazilian sambista, singer/songwriter, guitar, cavaquinho and mandolin player, known for his sophisticated harmonies and soft, gentle singing voice.-Biography:...

  • Alan Peters
    Alan Peters
    Alan Peters OBE was a British furniture designer maker and one of the very few direct links with the Arts and Crafts Movement, having apprenticed to Edward Barnsley. He set up his own workshop in the Sixties...

  • Thomas J. MacDonald
    Thomas J. MacDonald
    Thomas J. MacDonald is a U.S. carpenter and woodworker and host of the PBS television series Rough Cut – Woodworking with Tommy Mac....



See also

  • Building construction
  • Guild
    Guild
    A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of workers. They were organized in a manner something between a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society...

  • Carpenter (theatre)
  • Atlanta Community ToolBank

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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