Montevideo
Overview
Montevideo is the largest city, the capital, and the chief port of Uruguay
Uruguay
Uruguay ,officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay,sometimes the Eastern Republic of Uruguay; ) is a country in the southeastern part of South America. It is home to some 3.5 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the capital Montevideo and its metropolitan area...

. The settlement was established in 1726 by Bruno Mauricio de Zabala
Bruno Mauricio de Zabala
Bruno Mauricio de Zabala was a Spanish soldier and colonial administrator. He was born in the slum of Zabala in the province of Biscay...

, as a strategic move amidst a Spanish-Portuguese dispute over the platine region
La Plata Basin
The Río de la Plata Basin , sometimes called the Platine basin or Platine region, is the name given to the hydrographical area that covers parts of Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay...

, and as a counter to the Portuguese colony at Colonia del Sacramento
Colonia del Sacramento
Colonia del Sacramento is a city in southwestern Uruguay, by the Río de la Plata, facing Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is the oldest town in Uruguay and capital of the departamento of Colonia. It has a population of around 22,000.It is renowned for its historic quarter, a World Heritage Site...

. According to the census of 2004, Montevideo has a population of 1,325,968 (about half of Uruguay's population). It has an area of 530 sqkm and extends 20 kilometres (12.4 mi) from west to east.
Encyclopedia
Montevideo is the largest city, the capital, and the chief port of Uruguay
Uruguay
Uruguay ,officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay,sometimes the Eastern Republic of Uruguay; ) is a country in the southeastern part of South America. It is home to some 3.5 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the capital Montevideo and its metropolitan area...

. The settlement was established in 1726 by Bruno Mauricio de Zabala
Bruno Mauricio de Zabala
Bruno Mauricio de Zabala was a Spanish soldier and colonial administrator. He was born in the slum of Zabala in the province of Biscay...

, as a strategic move amidst a Spanish-Portuguese dispute over the platine region
La Plata Basin
The Río de la Plata Basin , sometimes called the Platine basin or Platine region, is the name given to the hydrographical area that covers parts of Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay...

, and as a counter to the Portuguese colony at Colonia del Sacramento
Colonia del Sacramento
Colonia del Sacramento is a city in southwestern Uruguay, by the Río de la Plata, facing Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is the oldest town in Uruguay and capital of the departamento of Colonia. It has a population of around 22,000.It is renowned for its historic quarter, a World Heritage Site...

. According to the census of 2004, Montevideo has a population of 1,325,968 (about half of Uruguay's population). It has an area of 530 sqkm and extends 20 kilometres (12.4 mi) from west to east. The southernmost cosmopolitan capital city in the Americas and third most southern in the world, it is situated in the southern coast of the country, on the northeastern bank of the Río de la Plata
Río de la Plata
The Río de la Plata —sometimes rendered River Plate in British English and the Commonwealth, and occasionally rendered [La] Plata River in other English-speaking countries—is the river and estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay River and the Paraná River on the border between Argentina and...

 (Spanish: "Silver River") — which is often referred to in English-speaking countries as the River Plate. The city was under brief British rule in 1807
British invasions of the Río de la Plata
The British invasions of the Río de la Plata were a series of unsuccessful British attempts to seize control of the Spanish colonies located around the La Plata Basin in South America . The invasions took place between 1806 and 1807, as part of the Napoleonic Wars, when Spain was an ally of...

 and was involved in the first major naval battle in the Second World War: the Battle of the River Plate
Battle of the River Plate
The Battle of the River Plate was the first naval battle in the Second World War. The German pocket battleship had been commerce raiding since the start of the war in September 1939...

. It is also the place where the Montevideo convention
Montevideo Convention
The Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States was a treaty signed at Montevideo, Uruguay, on December 26, 1933, during the Seventh International Conference of American States. The Convention codified the declarative theory of statehood as accepted as part of customary international...

 was signed, in 1933, by nineteen nations of the Americas. The city hosted all 1st FIFA World Cup
1930 FIFA World Cup
The 1930 FIFA World Cup was the inaugural FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It took place in Uruguay from 13 July to 30 July 1930...

 matches in 1930. Montevideo has a rich architectural and cultural heritage, the latter including tango
Tango (dance)
Tango dance originated in the area of the Rio de la Plata , and spread to the rest of the world soon after....

 and candombe
Candombe
Candombe is a musical genre that has its roots in the African Bantu, and is proper of Uruguay, Argentina and Brazil .Uruguayan Candombe is the most practiced and spread internationally and has been recognized by UNESCO as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity...

. According to Mercer Human Resource Consulting, in 2007 Montevideo provided the highest quality of life
Quality of life
The term quality of life is used to evaluate the general well-being of individuals and societies. The term is used in a wide range of contexts, including the fields of international development, healthcare, and politics. Quality of life should not be confused with the concept of standard of...

 in Latin America.

Described as a "vibrant, eclectic place with a rich cultural life", it is the hub of commerce and higher education in Uruguay: its first university, the Universidad de la República, was founded in 1849. The architecture of Montevideo reflects its history, ranging from colonial to Art Deco
Art Deco
Art deco , or deco, is an eclectic artistic and design style that began in Paris in the 1920s and flourished internationally throughout the 1930s, into the World War II era. The style influenced all areas of design, including architecture and interior design, industrial design, fashion and...

, and influenced by Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French and British immigrants.

Etymology

There exist various explanations about the word Montevideo. All agree that "Monte" refers to the Cerro de Montevideo
Fortaleza del Cerro
Fortaleza del Cerro, also known as Fortaleza General Artigas, is a fortress situated in Montevideo, Uruguay overlooking the Bay of Montevideo. It belongs to the barrio of Casabó, at the west of Villa del Cerro...

, the hill situated across the Bay of Montevideo
Bay of Montevideo
The Bay of Montevideo refers to the bay around the city of Montevideo, Uruguay in the Rio de la Plata.It was previously named by Pedro de Mendoza as "Bahía de la Candelaria".- Description :...

, but there is disagreement about the etymological origin of the term "video".

  • Monte Vidi – This hypothesis comes from the "Diario de Navegación" (Navigational Calendar) of boatswain Francisco de Albo, member of the expedition of Ferdinand Magellan
    Ferdinand Magellan
    Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer. He was born in Sabrosa, in northern Portugal, and served King Charles I of Spain in search of a westward route to the "Spice Islands" ....

    , who wrote, "Tuesday of the said (month of January 1520) we were on the straits of Cape Santa María (now Punta del Este
    Punta del Este
    Punta del Este is a resort town on the Atlantic Coast in the Maldonado Department of southeastern Uruguay. It is located on the intersection of Route 10 with Route 39, directly southeast of the department capital Maldonado and about east of Montevideo...

    ), from where the coast runs East to West, and the terrain is sandy, and at the right of the cape there is a mountain like a hat to which we gave the name "Montevidi"." This is the oldest Spanish document which mentions the promontory with a name similar to the one that designates the city, but which doesn't contain any mention of the alleged cry "Monte vide eu".
  • Monte vide eu ("I saw a mount") – is the most widespread belief, but is rejected by the majority of experts, who consider it unlikely because it involves a mix of different dialects. The name would come from a Portuguese expression which means "I saw a mount", wrongly pronounced by an anonymous sailor belonging to the expedition of Fernando de Magallanes on catching sight of the Cerro de Montevideo.
  • "Monte-VI-D-E-O". (Monte VI De Este a Oeste) – according to Rolando Laguarda Trías, professor of History, the Spaniards annotated the geographic location on a map or Portolan chart
    Portolan chart
    Portolan charts are navigational maps based on realistic descriptions of harbours and coasts. They were first made in the 14th century in Italy, Portugal and Spain...

    , so that the mount/hill is the VI (6th) mount observable on the coast, navigating Río de la Plata from East to West. With the passing of time, these words were unified to "Montevideo". No conclusive evidence has been found to confirm this academic hypothesis, nor can it be asserted with certainty which were the other five mounts observable before the Cerro.
  • Monte Ovidio (Monte Santo Ovidio), a less widespread hypothesis of a religious origin., stems from an interpolation in the aforementioned Diario de Navegación of Fernando de Albo, where it is asserted "corruptly now called Santo Vidio" when they refer to the hat-like mount which they named Monte Vidi (that is, the Cerro de Montevideo). Ovidio (Saint Ovidius
    Saint Ovidius
    Saint Ovidius , also Saint Auditus, is a Portuguese saint. According to hagiographies of the 16th century, Ovidius was a Roman citizen of Sicilian origin. Tradition states that he was sent to Braga by Pope Clement I, where he served as the city's third bishop around 95...

    ) was the third bishop of the Portuguese city of Braga
    Braga
    Braga , a city in the Braga Municipality in northwestern Portugal, is the capital of the Braga District, the oldest archdiocese and the third major city of the country. Braga is the oldest Portuguese city and one of the oldest Christian cities in the World...

    , where he was always revered; a monument to him was erected there in 1505. Given the relationship that the Portuguese had with the discovery and foundation of Montevideo, and despite the fact that this hypothesis, like the previous ones, lacks conclusive documentation, there have been those who linked the name of Santo Ovidio or Vidio (appearing on some maps of the time) with the subsequent derivation of the name "Montevideo" given to the region since the early years of the 16th century.

History

Early history

Between 1680 and 1683, Portugal founded the city of Colonia do Sacramento in the region across the bay from Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo. It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent...

. This city met with no resistance from the Spanish until 1723, when they began to place fortifications on the elevations around Montevideo Bay. On 22 November 1723, Field Marshal Manuel de Freytas Fonsecs of Portugal built the Montevieu fort.

A Spanish expedition was sent from Buenos Aires, organized by the Spanish governor of that city, Bruno Mauricio de Zabala. On 22 January 1724, the Spanish forced the Portuguese to abandon the location and started populating the city, initially with six families moving in from Buenos Aires and soon thereafter by families arriving from the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
The Canary Islands , also known as the Canaries , is a Spanish archipelago located just off the northwest coast of mainland Africa, 100 km west of the border between Morocco and the Western Sahara. The Canaries are a Spanish autonomous community and an outermost region of the European Union...

 who were called by the locals "guanches", "guanchos" or "canarios". There was also one significant early Italian resident by the name of Jorge Burgues.

A census of the city's inhabitants was performed in 1724 and then a plan was drawn delineating the city and designating it as San Felipe y Santiago de Montevideo, later shortened to Montevideo. The census counted fifty families of Galician
Galician people
The Galicians are an ethnic group, a nationality whose historical homeland is Galicia in north-western Spain. Most Galicians are bilingual, speaking both their historic language, Galician, and Castilian Spanish.-Political and administrative divisions:...

 and Canary Islands origin, more than 1000 indigenous, mostly Guaraní and a number of Africans of Bantú
Bantu
Bantu is used as a general label for 300-600 ethnic groups in Africa of speakers of Bantu languages, distributed from Cameroon east across Central Africa and Eastern Africa to Southern Africa...

 origin as slaves.

A few years after its foundation, Montevideo became the main city of the region north of the Río de la Plata and east of the Uruguay River
Uruguay River
The Uruguay River is a river in South America. It flows from north to south and makes boundary with Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, separating some of the Argentine provinces of the Mesopotamia from the other two countries...

, competing with Buenos Aires for dominance in maritime commerce. The importance of Montevideo as the main port of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata brought it in confrontations with the city of Buenos Aires in various occasions, including several times when it was taken over to be used as a base to defend the eastern province of the Viceroyalty from Portuguese incursions.

In 1776, Spain made Montevideo its main naval base (Real Apostadero de Marina) for the South Atlantic, with authority over the Argentine coast, Fernando Po
Bioko
Bioko is an island 32 km off the west coast of Africa, specifically Cameroon, in the Gulf of Guinea. It is the northernmost part of Equatorial Guinea with a population of 124,000 and an area of . It is volcanic with its highest peak the Pico Basile at .-Geography:Bioko has a total area of...

, and the Falklands
Falkland Islands
The Falkland Islands are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, located about from the coast of mainland South America. The archipelago consists of East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 lesser islands. The capital, Stanley, is on East Falkland...

.

Until the end of the 18th century, Montevideo remained a fortified area, today known as Ciudad Vieja
Ciudad Vieja
Ciudad Vieja is a municipality in the Guatemalan department of Sacatepéquez. According to the 2002 Guatemalan Census, the municipality has a total of 25,696 people.Ciudad Vieja was the second colonial capital of the country.- History :...

.

19th century

On 3 February 1807, British troops under the command of General Samuel Auchmuty and Admiral Charles Stirling
Charles Stirling
Sir Charles Stirling was a vice-admiral in the Royal Navy.-Early life and career:Charles Stirling was born in London on 28 April 1760 and baptised at St. Albans on 15 May. The son of Admiral Sir Walter Stirling, he was born into a family with a long and proud naval tradition. Stirling joined the...

 occupied the city during the Battle of Montevideo (1807)
Battle of Montevideo (1807)
The Battle of Montevideo was a battle between the British and Spanish Empires during the Napoleonic Wars, in which British forces captured the city of Montevideo. It formed part of the British invasions of the River Plate.-The Prelude:...

, but it was recaptured by the Spanish in the same year on 2 September when John Whitelocke
John Whitelocke
-Military career:Whitelocke entered the army in 1778 and served in Jamaica and in San Domingo. In 1805 he was made a lieutenant-general and inspector-general of recruiting, and in 1807 he was appointed to command an expedition to seize Buenos Aires from the Spanish Empire, which was in disarray due...

 was forced to surrender to troops formed by forces of the Banda Oriental
Banda Oriental
The Banda Oriental del Uruguay was the South American territory east of the Uruguay River and north of the Río de la Plata, coinciding approximately with the modern nation of Uruguay, the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul and some parts of Santa Catarina...

—roughly the same area as modern Uruguay—and of Buenos Aires. After this conflict, the governor of Montevideo Francisco Javier de Elío
Francisco Javier de Elío
Francisco Javier de Elío , was a Spanish military, governor of Montevideo and the last Viceroy of the Río de la Plata. He was also instrumental in the Absolutist repression after the restoration of Ferdinand VII as King of Spain...

 opposed the new viceroy Santiago de Liniers
Santiago de Liniers
Jacques de Liniers was a French officer in the Spanish military service, and a viceroy of the Spanish colonies of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. He is more widely known by the Spanish form of his name, Santiago de Liniers...

, and created a government Junta when the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
The Peninsular War was a war between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war began when French and Spanish armies crossed Spain and invaded Portugal in 1807. Then, in 1808, France turned on its...

 started in Spain, in defiance of Liniers. Elío disestablished the Junta when Liniers was replaced by Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros
Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros
Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros de la Torre was a Spanish naval officer born in Cartagena. He took part in the Battle of Cape St Vincent and the Battle of Trafalgar, and in the Spanish resistance against Napoleon's invasion in 1808. He was later appointed Viceroy of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la...

.

During the May Revolution
May Revolution
The May Revolution was a week-long series of events that took place from May 18 to 25, 1810, in Buenos Aires, capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish colony that included roughly the territories of present-day Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay...

 of 1810 and the subsequent uprising of the provinces of Rio de la Plata, the Spanish colonial government moved to Montevideo. During that year and the next, Uruguayan revolutionary José Gervasio Artigas
José Gervasio Artigas
José Gervasio Artigas is a national hero of Uruguay, sometimes called "the father of Uruguayan nationhood".-Early life:Artigas was born in Montevideo on June 19, 1764...

 united with others from Buenos Aires against Spain. In 1811, the forces deployed by the Junta Grande
Junta Grande
Junta Grande is the most common name for the executive government of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata , that followed the incorporation of provincial representatives into the Primera Junta .- Origin :...

 of Buenos Aires and the gaucho
Gaucho
Gaucho is a term commonly used to describe residents of the South American pampas, chacos, or Patagonian grasslands, found principally in parts of Argentina, Uruguay, Southern Chile, and Southern Brazil...

 forces led by Artigas started a siege of Montevideo, which had refused to obey the directives of the new authorities of the May Revolution. The siege was lifted at the end of that year, when the military situation started deteriorating in the Upper Peru
Upper Peru
Upper Peru was the region in the Viceroyalty of Peru, and after 1776, the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, comprising the governorships of Potosí, La Paz, Cochabamba, Los Chiquitos, Moxos and Charcas...

 region.

The Spanish governor was expelled in 1814. In 1816, Portugal invaded the recently liberated territory and in 1821, it was annexed to the Banda Oriental of Brazil. Juan Antonio Lavalleja
Juan Antonio Lavalleja
Juan Antonio Lavalleja was an Uruguayan revolutionary and political figure. Today's Lavalleja Department is named after him.-Pre-Independence role:...

 and his band called the Treinta y Tres Orientales ("Thirty-Three Orientals
Thirty-Three Orientals
The Treinta y Tres Orientales was a militant revolutionary group led by Juan Antonio Lavalleja against the Empire of Brazil. Their actions culminated in the foundation of modern Uruguay...

") re-established the independence of the region in 1825. Uruguay was consolidated as an independent state in 1828, with Montevideo as the nation's capital. In 1829, the demolition of the city's fortifications began and plans were made for an extension beyond the Ciudad Vieja, referred to as the "Ciudad Nueva" ("new city"). Urban expansion, however, moved very slowly because of the events that followed.
Uruguay's 1830s were dominated by the confrontation between Manuel Oribe
Manuel Oribe
Manuel Ceferino Oribe y Viana was the fourth president of Uruguay.-Biography:Manuel Oribe was the son of Captain Francisco Oribe and María Francisca Viana, a descendant of the first governor of Montevideo, José Joaquín de Viana...

 and Fructuoso Rivera
Fructuoso Rivera
José Fructuoso Rivera y Toscana was an Uruguayan general and patriot who assisted in the efforts to force Brazilians out of the Banda Oriental.-Founder of Colorado Party and President of Uruguay:...

, the two revolutionary leaders who had fought against the Empire of Brazil under the command of Lavalleja, each of whom had become the cacique
Cacique
Cacique is a title derived from the Taíno word for the pre-Columbian chiefs or leaders of tribes in the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles...

of their respective faction. Politics were divided between Oribe's Blancos ("whites"), represented by the National Party
National Party (Uruguay)
The National Party , also known as the White Party , is a major right-wing conservative political party in Uruguay, currently the major opposition party to the ruling Frente Amplio government....

, and Rivera's Colorados ("reds"), represented by the Colorado Party
Colorado Party (Uruguay)
The Colorado Party is a political party in Uruguay.- Aims :It unites Conservative, Moderate and Social democratic groups. It was the dominant party of government almost without exception during the stabilisation of the Uruguayan republic....

, with each party's name taken from the colour of its emblems. In 1838, Oribe was forced to resign the presidency; he established a rebel army and began a long civil war, the Guerra Grande, which lasted until 1851.

The city of Montevideo suffered a siege of eight years between 1843 and 1851, during which it was supplied by sea with English and French support. Oribe, with the support of the then conservative Governor of Buenos Aires Province
Governor of Buenos Aires Province
The governor of the Buenos Aires province is a citizen of the Buenos Aires Province of Argentina, holding the office of governor for the corresponding period. The governor is elected alongside a vice-governor. It must not be confused with the Mayor of Buenos Aires, as the city of Buenos Aires is a...

 Juan Manuel de Rosas
Juan Manuel de Rosas
Juan Manuel de Rosas , was an argentine militar and politician, who was elected governor of the province of Buenos Aires in 1829 to 1835, and then of the Argentine Confederation from 1835 until 1852...

, besieged the Colorados in Montevideo, where the latter were supported by the French Legion, the Italian Legion, the Basque Legion and battalions from Brazil. Finally, in 1851, with the additional support of Argentine rebels who opposed Rosas, the Colorados defeated Oribe. The fighting, however, resumed in 1855, when the Blancos came to power, which they maintained until 1865. Thereafter, the Colorado Party regained power, which they retained until past the middle of the 20th century.

After the end of hostilities, a period of growth and expansion started for the city. In 1853 a stagecoach
Stagecoach
A stagecoach is a type of covered wagon for passengers and goods, strongly sprung and drawn by four horses, usually four-in-hand. Widely used before the introduction of railway transport, it made regular trips between stages or stations, which were places of rest provided for stagecoach travelers...

 bus line was established joining Montevideo with the newly formed settlement of Unión
Unión, Montevideo
Unión is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Mercado Modelo and Villa Española to the northwest, Maroñas to the northeast, Malvín Norte to the east, Buceo and Parque Batlle to the south and La Blanqueada and Larrañaga to the southwest.Its history started in 1845, during General...

 and the first natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

 street light
Street light
A street light, lamppost, street lamp, light standard, or lamp standard is a raised source of light on the edge of a road or walkway, which is turned on or lit at a certain time every night. Modern lamps may also have light-sensitive photocells to turn them on at dusk, off at dawn, or activate...

s were inaugurated. From 1854 to 1861 the first public sanitation facilities were constructed. In 1856 the Teatro Solís was inaugurated, 15 years after the beginning of its construction. At the end of 1861 the areas of Aguada
Aguada, Montevideo
Aguada, Montevideo is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Centro and Cordón on the south, Villa Muñoz to the east, Reducto and Bella Vista to the north and the port of Montevideo on the west...

 and Cordón
Cordón
Cordón is a central barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay, located directly East of the Centro. Its main avenue is 18 de Julio Avenue. It is delimited by Miguelete Str. and La Paz Str. to the North, Dr. Barrios Amorin Str. to the West, Canelones Str. to the South and Dr...

 were incorporated to the growing New City (Ciudad Nueva). In 1866, an underwater telegraph line connected the city with Buenos Aires. The statue of Peace, La Paz, was erected on a column in Plaza Cagancha and the building of the Postal Service as well as the bridge of Paso Molino were inaugurated in 1867.

In 1868, the horse-drawn tram
Horsecar
A horsecar or horse-drawn tram is an animal-powered streetcar or tram.These early forms of public transport developed out of industrial haulage routes that had long been in existence, and from the omnibus routes that first ran on public streets in the 1820s, using the newly improved iron or steel...

 company Compañía de Tranvías al Paso del Molino y Cerro created the first lines connecting Montevideo with Unión, the beach resort of Capurro
Capurro
Capurro is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay, and part of the Capurro / Bella Vista composite barrio, with Artigas Boulevard separating the two...

 and the industrialized and economically independent Villa del Cerro
Villa del Cerro
Villa del Cerro is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Pajas Blancas to the west, La Paloma to the north, the Pantanoso River to the northeast, the Bay of Montevideo to the east and the coastline after the bay to the south, where the beach of the Cerro is located.- External links :* *...

, at the time called Cosmopolis. In the same year, the Mercado del Puerto was inaugurated. In 1869, the first railway line of the company Ferrocarril Central del Uruguay was inaugurated connecting Bella Vista
Bella Vista, Montevideo
Bella Vista is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay and part of the Capurro / Bella Vista composite barrio, with Artigas Boulevard separating the two...

 with the town of Las Piedras
Las Piedras
Las Piedras may refer to:*Las Piedras, Puerto Rico*Las Piedras, Uruguay*Las Piedras, Venezuela...

. During the same year and the next, the neighbourhoods Colón
Colón Sudeste
Colón Sudeste - Abayubá is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Lezica - Melilla and Colón Centro y Noroeste to the west, Canelones Department to the northwest and north, Manga - Toledo Chico to the east, and Peñarol - Lavalleja to the south.Pueblo Abayubá is a town belonging to the...

, Nuevo París
Nuevo París
- External links :*...

 and La Comercial
La Comercial
La Comercial is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Villa Muñoz to the west, La Figurita and Jacinto Vera to the north, Larrañaga and Tres Cruces to the east and Tres Cruces and Cordón to the south.- External links :...

 were founded. The famous to our days Sunday market of Tristán Narvaja Street was established in Cordón
Cordón
Cordón is a central barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay, located directly East of the Centro. Its main avenue is 18 de Julio Avenue. It is delimited by Miguelete Str. and La Paz Str. to the North, Dr. Barrios Amorin Str. to the West, Canelones Str. to the South and Dr...

 in 1870. Public water supply was etsablished in 1871. In 1878, Bulevar Circunvalación was constructed, a boulevard starting from Punta Carretas
Punta Carretas
Punta Carretas is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Parque Rodó and Pocitos to the north, while from east south and west, it is delimited by the coastline...

, going up to the north end of the city and then turning east to end at the beach of Capurro. It was renamed to Artigas Boulevard
Artigas Boulevard
Artigas Boulevard is an avenue in Montevideo named after Uruguayan hero José Artigas. It starts from the Rambla of Montevideo at Punta Carretas, goes north for about 6.5 kilometers, turns 100º west, and runs for another 4 kilometers up to the Rambla at Capurro - Bella Vista.It meets with...

 (its actual name) in 1885.

The first telephone lines were installed in 1882 and electric street lights took the place of the gas operated ones in 1886. The Hipódromo de Maroñas started operating in 1888, and the neighbourhoods of Reus del Sur, Reus del Norte
Reus al Norte
Reus al Norte is a historic barrio in Villa Muñoz, Montevideo, Uruguay. It was planned and constructed by Emillio Reus as a habitational alternative during the urban expansion of Montevideo in the end of the 19th century. Its design achieved an ideal relation between public and private space...

 and Conciliación
Conciliación
Conciliación is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay....

 were inaugurated in 1889. The new building of the School of Arts and Trades, as well as Zabala Square in Ciudad Vieja were inaugurated in 1890, followed by the Italian Hospital in 1891. In the same year, the village of Peñarol was founded in 1891. Other neighbourhoods that were founded were Belgrano and Belvedere
Belvedere, Montevideo
Belvedere is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Nuevo París to the northwest, Sayago to the northeast, Paso de las Duranas to the east, Prado to the southeast, La Teja and Tres Ombúes to the south. An area known as Paso Molino, which starts in the Prado and extends into Belvedere, is a...

 in 1892, Jacinto Vera
Jacinto Vera
Jacinto Vera is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with La Figurita to the west, Brazo Oriental and Bolívar to the north, Larrañaga to the east and La Comercial to the south. It is home to the ex-Military School, now the Army Command...

 in 1895 and Trouville in 1897. In 1894 the new port was constructed, and in 1897, the Central Railway Station of Montevideo
Estación Central General Artigas
Estación Central General Artigas is the former central railway station of Montevideo, Uruguay, situated in Aguada.Designed by the Italian engineer and architect Luigi Andreoni, it was opened to the public on the 15th of July 1897 and was closed on the 1st of March 2003.-External links:*...

 was inaugurated.

20th century

In the early 20th century, many Europeans (particularly Spaniards and Italians but also thousands from Central Europe) immigrated to the city. In 1908, 30% of the city's population of 300,000 was foreign-born. In that decade the city expanded quickly: new neighbourhoods were created and many separate settlements were annexed to the city, among which were the Villa del Cerro
Villa del Cerro
Villa del Cerro is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Pajas Blancas to the west, La Paloma to the north, the Pantanoso River to the northeast, the Bay of Montevideo to the east and the coastline after the bay to the south, where the beach of the Cerro is located.- External links :* *...

, Pocitos
Pocitos
Pocitos is an upscale beach barrio in Uruguay's capital city, Montevideo.This area is located along the banks of the Rio de la Plata. The barrio is known for its beach, Playa Pocitos, and the Rambla, or boulevard, that lies alongside it...

, the Prado
Prado, Montevideo
Prado is a barrio and a major public park in Montevideo, Uruguay. Together with Nueva Savona, they form the Prado - Nueva Savona composite barrio....

 and Villa Colón
Colón Sudeste
Colón Sudeste - Abayubá is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Lezica - Melilla and Colón Centro y Noroeste to the west, Canelones Department to the northwest and north, Manga - Toledo Chico to the east, and Peñarol - Lavalleja to the south.Pueblo Abayubá is a town belonging to the...

. The Rodó Park
Parque Rodó
Parque Rodó is both a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay and a park which lies mostly outside the limits of the barrio itself and belongs to Punta Carretas...

 and the Estadio Gran Parque Central
Estadio Gran Parque Central
The Estadio Gran Parque Central, usually just Parque Central, is the stadium of Club Nacional de Football. It is located in Montevideo, Uruguay, near Nacional headquarters , in the La Blanqueada neighbourhood...

 were also established, which served as poles of urban development.

During the early 20th century, Uruguay saw huge social changes with repercussions primarily in urban areas. Among these changes were the right of divorce (1907) and women's right to vote
Women's suffrage
Women's suffrage or woman suffrage is the right of women to vote and to run for office. The expression is also used for the economic and political reform movement aimed at extending these rights to women and without any restrictions or qualifications such as property ownership, payment of tax, or...

.

The 1910s saw the construction of Montevideo's Rambla
Rambla of Montevideo
The Rambla of Montevideo is the avenue that goes all along the coastline of Montevideo, Uruguay. Since all the southern departments of Uruguay are against either the Río de la Plata or the Atlantic Ocean, they all have ramblas as well....

; strikes by tram workers, bakers and port workers; the inauguration of electric trams; the creation of the Municipal Intendencias; and the inauguration of the new port.

In 1913, the city limits were extended around the entire gulf. The previously independent localities of the Villa del Cerro
Villa del Cerro
Villa del Cerro is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Pajas Blancas to the west, La Paloma to the north, the Pantanoso River to the northeast, the Bay of Montevideo to the east and the coastline after the bay to the south, where the beach of the Cerro is located.- External links :* *...

 and La Teja
La Teja
La Teja is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Tres Ombúes to the north west, Belvedere to the north, the Prado / Nueva Savona barrio to the north east, Capurro to the south east and borders the Bay of Montevideo to the south...

 were annexed to Montevideo, becoming two of its neighborhoods.

During the 1920s, the equestrian statue of Artigas was installed in Plaza Independencia
Plaza Independencia
Plaza Independencia is the name of Montevideo's most important plaza. It splits Ciudad Vieja from downtown Montevideo, with the Gateway of The Citadel on one side and the beginning of 18 de Julio avenue on the other....

; the Palacio Legislativo was built; the Spanish Plus Ultra flying boat arrived (the first airplane to fly from Spain to Latin America, 1926); prominent politician and former president José Batlle y Ordóñez
José Batlle y Ordóñez
José Pablo Torcuato Batlle y Ordóñez was the president of Uruguay in 1899 and from 1903 until 1907 and for a further term from 1911 to 1915. He was the son of former president, Lorenzo Batlle y Grau. His children César, Rafael and Lorenzo Batlle Pacheco were actively engaged in politics...

 died (1929); and ground was broken (1929) for the Estadio Centenario
Estadio Centenario
Estadio Centenario is a stadium in Parque Batlle, Montevideo, Uruguay, used primarily for football. The stadium was built between 1929 and 1930 to host the 1930 FIFA World Cup, as well as to commemorate the centennial of Uruguay's first constitution...

 (completed 1930).

During World War II, a famous incident involving the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee took place in Punta del Este
Punta del Este
Punta del Este is a resort town on the Atlantic Coast in the Maldonado Department of southeastern Uruguay. It is located on the intersection of Route 10 with Route 39, directly southeast of the department capital Maldonado and about east of Montevideo...

, 200 kilometres (124.3 mi) from Montevideo. After the Battle of the River Plate
Battle of the River Plate
The Battle of the River Plate was the first naval battle in the Second World War. The German pocket battleship had been commerce raiding since the start of the war in September 1939...

 with the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

 and Royal New Zealand Navy
Royal New Zealand Navy
The Royal New Zealand Navy is the maritime arm of the New Zealand Defence Force...

 on 13 December 1939, the Graf Spee retreated to Montevideo's port, which was considered neutral at the time. To avoid risking the crew in what he thought would be a losing battle, Captain Hans Langsdorff
Hans Langsdorff
Hans Wilhelm Langsdorff was a German naval officer, most famous for his command of the Panzerschiff Admiral Graf Spee during the Battle of the River Plate. He held the rank of Kapitän zur See....

 scuttled the ship on 17 December. Langsdorff committed suicide two days later. The eagle figurehead of the Graf Spee was salvaged on 10 February 2006; to protect the feelings of those still sensitive to Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

, the swastika
Swastika
The swastika is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles, in either right-facing form in counter clock motion or its mirrored left-facing form in clock motion. Earliest archaeological evidence of swastika-shaped ornaments dates back to the Indus Valley Civilization of Ancient...

 on the figurehead was covered as it was pulled from the water.
Uruguay began to stagnate economically in the mid-1950s; Montevideo began a decline, later exacerbated widespread social and political violence beginning in 1968 (including the emergence of the guerrilla Movimiento de Liberación Nacional-Tupamaros) and by the Civic-military dictatorship of Uruguay (1973-1985)
Civic-military dictatorship of Uruguay (1973-1985)
The Civic-military dictatorship of Uruguay lasted from June 27, 1973 following the 1973 coup d'état until February 28, 1985.This dictatorship was the corollary of an escalation of violence and authoritarism in a traditionally peaceful country, and should be analyzed in the light of the Cold War...

. There were major problems with supply; the immigration cycle was reversed.

From the 1960s to the end of the dictatorship in 1985, around one hundred people died or disappeared
Forced disappearance
In international human rights law, a forced disappearance occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the...

 because of the political violence. From 1974 another hundred Uruguayans disappeared also in Argentina. In 1980, the dictatorship proposed a new constitution. The project was submitted to referendum
Referendum
A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy. It is a form of...

 and rejected in the first polls since 1971, with 58% of the votes against and 42% in favour. The result weakened the military and triggered its fall, allowing the return of democracy
Democracy
Democracy is generally defined as a form of government in which all adult citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Ideally, this includes equal participation in the proposal, development and passage of legislation into law...

.

In the 1980s, Pope John Paul II visited the city twice. In April 1987, while head of state of Vatican
Vatican City
Vatican City , or Vatican City State, in Italian officially Stato della Città del Vaticano , which translates literally as State of the City of the Vatican, is a landlocked sovereign city-state whose territory consists of a walled enclave within the city of Rome, Italy. It has an area of...

, he signed a mediation agreement for the conflict of the Beagle Channel
Beagle Channel
thumb|right|300px|Aereal view of Beagle Channel. The Chilean [[Navarino Island]] is seen in the top-right while the Argentine part of [[Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego]] is seen at the bottom-left....

. He also held a large mass in Tres Cruces, declaring the cross located behind the altar as a monument. In 1988, he returned to the country, visiting Montevideo, Florida
Florida, Uruguay
Florida is the capital of Florida Department of Uruguay. It is located on Route 5, around north of Montevideo. The stream Arroyo Santa Lucía Chico flows along the east and south limits of the city...

, Salto
Salto, Uruguay
Salto is the capital city of the Salto Department in northwestern Uruguay and the second largest city of the country. It is located on Route 3, about northwest of Montevideo, and on the east bank of Río Uruguay, across the city Concordia of Argentina...

 and Melo.

21st century

In 2002, Uruguay suffered one of the worst banking crises in its history, which affected all sectors of Montevideo. Recently, economic improvement and stronger commercial links with neighbouring countries has contributed to economic development.

In April 2006, Montevideo was named by Mercer Human Resources Consulting as the Latin American city with the best quality of life, in 76th place overall among 350 cities worldwide.

Geography

Montevideo is situated on the north shore of the Río de la Plata, the arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the south coast of Uruguay from the north coast of Argentina; Buenos Aires lies 230 kilometres (142.9 mi) west on the Argentine side. The Santa Lucía River
Santa Lucía River
-Course:The headwaters of the Santa Lucía River are in the Lavalleja department. For a large part of its course it forms the limit between the departments of Florida and San José on one bank and Canelones and Montevideo on the other...

 forms a natural border between Montevideo and San José Department
San José Department
San José Department is a department of Uruguay. Its capital is San José de Mayo.-Population and Demographics:As of the census of 2004, there were 103,104 people and 33,063 households in the department. The average household size was 3.0...

 to its west. To the city's north and east is Canelones Department
Canelones Department
The Canelones Department , with an area of and 485,240 inhabitants, is located to the south of Uruguay. Its capital is Canelones.-Geography and climate:...

, with the stream of Carrasco forming the eastern natural border. The coastline forming the city's southern border is interspersed with rocky protrusions and sandy beaches. The Bay of Montevideo forms a natural harbour, the nation's largest and one of the largest in the Southern Cone
Southern Cone
Southern Cone is a geographic region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of the Tropic of Capricorn. Although geographically this includes part of Southern and Southeast of Brazil, in terms of political geography the Southern cone has traditionally comprised Argentina,...

, and the finest natural port in the region, functioning as a crucial component of the Uruguayan economy and foreign trade. Various streams criss-cross the town and empty into the Bay of Montevideo. The coastline and rivers are heavily polluted and of high salinity.

The city has an average elevation of 43 metres (141.1 ft). Its highest elevations are two hills: the Cerro de Montevideo and the Cerro de la Victoria, with the highest point, the peak of Cerro de Montevideo, crowned by a fortress, the Fortaleza del Cerro
Fortaleza del Cerro
Fortaleza del Cerro, also known as Fortaleza General Artigas, is a fortress situated in Montevideo, Uruguay overlooking the Bay of Montevideo. It belongs to the barrio of Casabó, at the west of Villa del Cerro...

 at a height of 134 metres (439.6 ft). Closest cities by road are Las Piedras
Las Piedras
Las Piedras may refer to:*Las Piedras, Puerto Rico*Las Piedras, Uruguay*Las Piedras, Venezuela...

 to the north and the so called Ciudad de la Costa
Ciudad de la Costa
Ciudad de la Costa is a city in Canelones Department of Uruguay, on the banks of the Río de la Plata between the streams Arroyo Carrasco and Arroyo Pando. It is considered an extension of the metropolitan area of Montevideo which it borders to the west, while to the east it borders Costa de Oro. It...

 (a conglomeration of coastal towns) to the east, both in the range of 20 to 25 kilometres (15.5 mi) from the city center. The approximate distances to the neighbouring department capitals by road are, 90 kilometres (55.9 mi) to San Jose de Mayo
San José de Mayo
San José de Mayo is the capital city of the San José Department in southern Uruguay. It is located at the centre of the department, on the intersection of Route 3 with Route 11, from the centre of Montevideo. The railroad track connecting Montevideo with Colonia and with the northwest of the...

 (San Jose Department) and 46 kilometres (28.6 mi) to Canelones (Canelones Department).

Climate

Montevideo enjoys a mild humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 (Cfa, according to the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

) and it borders on an oceanic climate
Oceanic climate
An oceanic climate, also called marine west coast climate, maritime climate, Cascadian climate and British climate for Köppen climate classification Cfb and subtropical highland for Köppen Cfb or Cwb, is a type of climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of some of the...

 (Cfb). The city has cool winters, warm summers and volatile springs; there are numerous thunderstorms but no tropical cyclones. Due to its location in the southern hemisphere, its seasons are opposite to those of the Northern hemisphere; summer runs from December to March, followed by autumn in April and May; winter lasts from June to September, and spring is in October and November. Rainfall is regular and evenly spread throughout the year, reaching around a 800 millimetres (31.5 in).

Winters are generally wet, windy and overcast, while summers are hot and humid with relatively little wind. In winter there are bursts of icy and relatively dry winds and continental polar air masses, giving an unpleasant chilly feeling to the everyday life of the city. In the summer, a moderate wind often blows from the sea in the evenings which has a pleasant cooling effect on the city, in contrast to the unbearable summer heat of Buenos Aires.

Montevideo has an annual average temperature of 16 °C (60.8 °F). The lowest recorded temperature is −5.6 °C while the highest is 42.8 °C (109 °F). Sleet
Rain and snow mixed
Rain and snow mixed is precipitation composed of rain and partially melted snow. This precipitation can occur where the temperature in the lower part of the atmosphere is slightly above the freezing point...

 is a frequent winter occurrence. Snowfall is extremely rare: flurries have been recorded only four times but with no accumulation, the last one on 13 July 1930 during the inaugural match of the World Cup
1930 FIFA World Cup
The 1930 FIFA World Cup was the inaugural FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It took place in Uruguay from 13 July to 30 July 1930...

, although many meteorologists believe it was hail (the other three snowfalls were in 1850, 1853 & 1917); the alleged 1980 Carrasco
Carrasco
-Places:* Carrasco Province , a province of Cochabamba Department, Bolivia* Carrasco National Park, a national park in Cochabamba Department, Bolivia* Carrasco Bonito, a Brazilian municipality in the state of Tocantins...

 snowfall was actually a hailstorm
Hailstorm
Hailstorm may refer to:* Hail, a type of precipitation* Hailstorm , a fictional character* Hailstorm , 2010* Hailstorm , a 1994 album by Barathrum-See also:* Halestorm, an American rock band...

.

Intendencia de Montevideo

The Municipality of Montevideo was first created by a legal act of 18 December 1908. The municipality's first mayor (1909–1911) was Daniel Muñoz. Municipalities were abolished by the Uruguayan Constitution of 1918, effectively restored during the 1933 military coup of Gabriel Terra
Gabriel Terra
Dr. Gabriel Terra Leivas was the President of Uruguay from 1931 to 1938.- Background :Born in Montevideo to a wealthy family, he graduated from the University of Uruguay in 1895, and subsequently joined the faculty....

, and formally restored by the 1934 Constitution. The 1952 Constitution again decided to abolish the municipalities; it came into effect in February 1955. Municipalities were replaced by departmental councils, which was consisted of a collegiate executive board with 7 members from Montevideo and 5 from the interior region. However, municipalities were revived under the 1967 Constitution and have operated continuously since that time.

Since 1990, Montevideo has been partially decentralized into 18 areas; administration and services for each area is provided by its Zonal Community Center (Centro Comunal Zonal, CCZ), which is subordinate to the Municipality of Montevideo. The boundaries of the municipal districts of Montevideo were created on 12 July 1993, and successively amended on 19 October 1993, 6 June 1994 and 10 November 1994.

The city government of Montevideo performs several functions, including maintaining communications with the public, promoting culture, organizing society, caring for the environment and regulating traffic. Its headquarters is the Palacio Municipal
Palacio Municipal (Montevideo)
Palacio Municipal is the seat of the local government agency of the Municipality of Montevideo, Uruguay. Located on the main avenue of the city, 18 de Julio Avenue, in barrio Centro, it was designed by Uruguayan architect Mauricio Cravotto....

 on 18 de Julio Avenue in the Centro area of Montevideo.

Another body, the Junta Departamental, or the Parliament of Montevideo, governs the Department of Montevideo
Montevideo Department
Montevideo is a department of Uruguay.It is by far the smallest one in area, and the most populated as well. It contains the city of Montevideo, capital of Uruguay. While most of the department is covered by the capital city, there are still smaller towns within its limits, e.g...

. The Junta, composed of 31 unsalaried elected members, is responsible for such things as the freedom of the citizens, the regulation of cultural activities, the naming of streets and public places, and the placement of monuments; it also responds to proposals of the Intendant in various circumstances. Its seat is the architecturally remarkable Casa de Francisco Gómez in Ciudad Vieja.

Intendants of Montevideo

  1. Daniel Muñoz (1909–1911)
  2. Ramón V. Benzano (1911–1914)
  3. Juan M. Aubriot (1914–1914)
  4. Santiago Rivas (1914–1915)
  5. Francisco Accinelli (1915–1919)
  6. Alberto Dagnino (1933–1937)
  7. Luis Alberto Zanzi (1937–1938)
  8. Horacio Acosta y Lara (1938–1942)
  9. Benigno Paiva (1942–1942)
  10. Pedro Onetti (1942–1943)
  11. Juan Pedro Fabini (1943–1947)
  12. Andrés Martínez Trueba
    Andrés Martínez Trueba
    -Background:Martínez Trueba was born in Montevideo and grew up in the Peñarol area, graduating from university with a degree in pharmaceutical chemistry.-Earlier career:...

     (1947–1948)
  13. Álvaro Correa Moreno (1950–1951)
  14. Germán Barbato (1951–1954)
  15. Armando Malet (1954–1955)
  16. Board members of the Concejo Departamental (1955–1967)
  17. Glauco Segovia (1967–1967)
  18. Carlos Bartolomé Herrera (1967–1969)
  19. Oscar Víctor Rachetti (1969–1971)
  20. E. Mario Peyrot (1971–1972)
  21. Oscar Víctor Rachetti (1972–1983)
  22. Juan Carlos Payssé (1983–1985)
  23. Aquiles R. Lanza (1985–1985)
  24. Julio Iglesias Álvarez (1985–1986)
  25. Eduardo Fabini Jiménez (1989–1990)
  26. Tabaré Vázquez
    Tabaré Vázquez
    Tabaré Ramón Vázquez Rosas is a former President of Uruguay. A physician by training, he is a member of the leftist Frente Amplo coalition . Vázquez was elected president on October 31, 2004, took office on March 1, 2005, and relinquished the office on March 1, 2010...

     (1990–1994)
  27. Tabaré González (1994–1995)
  28. Mariano Arana (1995–2000 / 2000–2005)
  29. Adolfo Pérez Piera (2005)
  30. Ricardo Ehrlich
    Ricardo Ehrlich
    Ricardo Ehrlich is a Uruguayan engineer anda political figure.Since 2005 he has been Mayor of Montevideo...

     (2005–2010)
  31. Hyara Rodríguez (2010)
  32. Ana Olivera
    Ana Olivera
    Ana Olivera , is an Uruguayan professor and politician belonging to the Communist Party of Uruguay, which has been integrated with Frente Amplio. She has served as Deputy Minister of Social Development during the government of Tabaré Vázquez...

     (2010–present)


Administrative divisions and barrios

As of 2010, the city of Montevideo has been divided into 8 political municipalities (Municipios), referred to with the letters from A to G, including CH, each presided over by a mayor elected by the citizens registered in the constituency. This division, according to the Municipality of Montevideo, "aims to advance political and administrative decentralization in the department of Montevideo, with the aim of deepening the democratic participation of citizens in governance." The head of each Municipio is called an alcalde or (if female) alcaldesa.

Of much greater importance is the division of the city into 62 barrios: neighbourhoods or wards. Many of the city's barrios—such as Sayago
Sayago, Montevideo
Sayago is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay.Bordering Colón and next to El Prado, Sayago is limited by the streets Millán, Av. Raffo, General Máximo Santos and Eugenio Garzón.- External links :*...

, Ituzaingó
Ituzaingó
Ituzaingó is a word of Guaraní origin meaning approximately "waterfall, cascade". It may refer to:* The Battle of Ituzaingó * The Club Atlético Ituzaingó, an Argentine football club* Ituzaingó, Buenos Aires a city in Argentina...

 and Pocitos
Pocitos
Pocitos is an upscale beach barrio in Uruguay's capital city, Montevideo.This area is located along the banks of the Rio de la Plata. The barrio is known for its beach, Playa Pocitos, and the Rambla, or boulevard, that lies alongside it...

—were previously geographically separate settlements, later absorbed by the growth of the city. Others grew up around certain industrial sites, including the salt-curing
Salting (food)
Salting is the preservation of food with dry edible salt. It is related to pickling . It is one of the oldest methods of preserving food, and two historically significant salt-cured foods are dried and salted cod and salt-cured meat.Salting is used because most bacteria, fungi and other potentially...

 works of Villa del Cerro
Villa del Cerro
Villa del Cerro is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Pajas Blancas to the west, La Paloma to the north, the Pantanoso River to the northeast, the Bay of Montevideo to the east and the coastline after the bay to the south, where the beach of the Cerro is located.- External links :* *...

 and the tanneries in Nuevo París
Nuevo París
- External links :*...

. Each barrio has its own identity, geographic location and socio-cultural activities. A neighbourhood of great significance is Ciudad Vieja, that was surrounded by a protective wall until 1829. This area contains most important buildings of the colonial era and early decades of independence.
  1. Ciudad Vieja
    Ciudad Vieja, Montevideo
    Ciudad Vieja is the name of the oldest part of the city of Montevideo, capital city of Uruguay. Nowadays, Ciudad Vieja is a barrio of this city. In the last couple of years it has gone through a major transformation that has made it the main nightlife centre in town...

  2. Centro
  3. Barrio Sur
    Barrio Sur
    Barrio Sur is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It is directly South of the Centro and is delimited by Canelones Str. on the North, Andes Str. on the West, the coastal avenue on the South and Dr. Barrios Amorin Str. on the East...

  4. Aguada
    Aguada, Montevideo
    Aguada, Montevideo is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Centro and Cordón on the south, Villa Muñoz to the east, Reducto and Bella Vista to the north and the port of Montevideo on the west...

  5. Villa Muñoz
    Villa Muñoz
    Villa Muñóz is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Aguada and Reducto to the west, La Figurita to the north, La Comercial to the east and Cordón to the south. It is home to the Reus al Norte, a picturesque and historic housing area...

    , Goes, Retiro
  6. Cordón
    Cordón
    Cordón is a central barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay, located directly East of the Centro. Its main avenue is 18 de Julio Avenue. It is delimited by Miguelete Str. and La Paz Str. to the North, Dr. Barrios Amorin Str. to the West, Canelones Str. to the South and Dr...

  7. Palermo
    Palermo, Montevideo
    Palermo, Montevideo is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Barrio Sur to the west, Cordón to the north and Parque Rodó to the east, while to the south it borders the coastline, with Rambla República de Argentina running along it...

  8. Parque Rodó
    Parque Rodó
    Parque Rodó is both a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay and a park which lies mostly outside the limits of the barrio itself and belongs to Punta Carretas...

  9. Tres Cruces
    Tres Cruces
    Tres Cruces is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Cordón to the south and to the west, with La Comercial and Larrañaga to the north and with La Blanqueada and Parque Batlle to the east...

  10. La Comercial
    La Comercial
    La Comercial is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Villa Muñoz to the west, La Figurita and Jacinto Vera to the north, Larrañaga and Tres Cruces to the east and Tres Cruces and Cordón to the south.- External links :...

  11. Larrañaga
    Larrañaga
    Larrañaga is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Jacinto Vera to the west, Bolívar to the north, Mercado Modelo to the northeast, Unión to the east, La Blanqueada to the southeast and Tres Cruces and La Comercial to the southwest...

  12. La Blanqueada
    La Blanqueada
    La Blanqueada is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Tres Cruces to the west, Larrañaga to the northwest, Unión to the northeast and Parque Batlle to the south. It is home to the Military Hospital....

  13. Parque Batlle - Villa Dolores
    Parque Batlle
    Parque Batlle is a barrio and a major public central park in Montevideo, Uruguay. It is named in honour of José Batlle y Ordóñez, President of Uruguay from 1911–1915...

  14. Pocitos
    Pocitos
    Pocitos is an upscale beach barrio in Uruguay's capital city, Montevideo.This area is located along the banks of the Rio de la Plata. The barrio is known for its beach, Playa Pocitos, and the Rambla, or boulevard, that lies alongside it...

  15. Punta Carretas
    Punta Carretas
    Punta Carretas is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Parque Rodó and Pocitos to the north, while from east south and west, it is delimited by the coastline...

  16. Unión
    Unión, Montevideo
    Unión is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Mercado Modelo and Villa Española to the northwest, Maroñas to the northeast, Malvín Norte to the east, Buceo and Parque Batlle to the south and La Blanqueada and Larrañaga to the southwest.Its history started in 1845, during General...

  17. Buceo
    Buceo
    Buceo is a barrio in Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders To the Pocitos and Villa Dolores to the west, Parque Batlle, Unión and Malvín Norte to the north, Malvín to the east and the coastline to the south. The coastal avenue along Buceo takes on the names Rambla Armenia and Rambla República de Chile...

  18. Malvín
    Malvín
    Malvín is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Buceo to the west, Malvín Norte and Las Canteras to the north, Punta Gorda to the east and the coastline to the south. The coastal avenue along Malvín is called Rambla O'Higgins and across it is Playa Malvín, the beach of Malvín.- External...

  19. Malvín Norte
    Malvín Norte
    Malvín Norte is a barrio located in north eastern part of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Unión to the west, Maroñas to the north, Las Canteras to the east, Malvín and Buceo to the south. It is home to the Faculty of Sciences of the University of the Republic of Uruguay.- External...

  20. Las Canteras
    Las Canteras
    Las Canteras is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Malvín Norte to the west, Maroñas / Parque Guaraní to the northwest, Bañados de Carrasco to the north and northeast, Carrasco Norte to the east, Punta Gorda to the southeast and Malvín to the south....

  21. Punta Gorda
    Punta Gorda, Montevideo
    Punta Gorda is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Malvín to the west, Las Canteras to the northwest, Carrasco Norte and Carrasco to the northeast and the coastline to the south. It takes its name from the promontory of Punta Gorda, on top of which, a square and park, Plaza de la Armada ...




  1. Carrasco
    Carrasco, Montevideo
    Carrasco is a barrio in Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Punta Gorda to the west, Carrasco Norte to the north, Canelones Department to the east and the coastline to the south...


  2. Carrasco Norte
    Carrasco Norte
    Carrasco Norte is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Las Canteras to the west, Bañados de Carrasco to the north, the Canelones Department to the north and to the east, Carrasco to the south and Punta Gorda to the southwest....


  3. Bañados de Carrasco
    Bañados de Carrasco
    Bañados de Carrasco is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Las Canteras to the southwest, Flor de Maroñas and Jardines del Hipódromo to the west, Punta de Rieles - Bella Italia to the northwest, Villa García - Manga Rural to the north, the Canelones Department to the east, and Carrasco...


  4. Flor de Maroñas
    Flor de Maroñas
    Flor de Maroñas is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Villa Española to the southwest, Ituzaingó to the west, Jardines del Hipódromo to the north and northwest, Bañados de Carrasco to the east and northeast, Maroñas / Parque Guaraní to the south.- External links :**...


  5. Maroñas - Parque Guaraní
    Maroñas
    Maroñas - Parque Guaraní is a barrio of Montevideo. It shares borders with Unión to the southwest, Villa Española to the west, Flor de Maroñas to the north, Las Canteras to the east and Malvín Norte to the south. It is a suburban area which has only one main street called Camino Maldonado...


  6. Villa Española
    Villa Española
    Villa Española is a football and boxing club, best known for its football side, and it is located in Montevideo in Uruguay. It played last season in the Uruguayan 2nd Division. After winning a decisive match against Tanque Sisley, Villa Española was going to play the 2008/2009 season in the...


  7. Ituzaingó
    Ituzaingó, Montevideo
    Ituzaingó is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Castro Castellanos to the southwest, Las Acacias to the northwest, Jardines del Hipódromo to the northeast, Flor de Maroñas to the southeast and Villa Española to the south.- External links :*...


  8. Castro (or Pérez) Castellanos
    Castro Castellanos
    Castro Castellanos is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Cerrito to the west, Las Acacias to the northwest, Ituzaingó to the northeast, Villa Española to the east, Mercado Modelo to the southeast and Bolívar to the southwest. It is home to the barracks of the "Blandengues de Artigas"....


  9. Mercado Modelo
    Mercado Modelo
    Mercado Modelo is a central municipal fruit and vegetable wholesale market in of Montevideo, Uruguay. The area around the installations, which occupy several blocks of the Mercado Modelo / Bolívar barrio, has also taken on the name of the market, hence the composite name of the entire barrio...

     - Bolívar
    Bolívar, Montevideo
    Bolívar is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay and part of the Mercado Modelo / Bolívar composite barrio. It shares borders with Brazo Oriental to the northwest, Cerrito to the north, Castro Castellanos to the northeast, Mercado Modelo to the southeast, Jacinto Vera to the south.It is home to the...


  10. Brazo Oriental
    Brazo Oriental
    Brazo Oriental is a barrio of Montevideo, the capital of Uruguay. Brazo Oriental is a residential zone located approximately from Montevideo's centre...


  11. Jacinto Vera
    Jacinto Vera
    Jacinto Vera is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with La Figurita to the west, Brazo Oriental and Bolívar to the north, Larrañaga to the east and La Comercial to the south. It is home to the ex-Military School, now the Army Command...


  12. La Figurita
    La Figurita
    La Figurita is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Reducto and Atahualpa to the west, Brazo Oriental to the north, Jacinto Vera to the east, La Comercial and Villa Muñoz to the south. It is home to the Hospital Español....


  13. Reducto
    Reducto
    Reducto is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Bella Vista to the west, Prado and Atahualpa to the north, La Figurita and Villa Muñoz to the east and Aguada to the south...


  14. Capurro
    Capurro
    Capurro is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay, and part of the Capurro / Bella Vista composite barrio, with Artigas Boulevard separating the two...

     - Bella Vista
    Bella Vista, Montevideo
    Bella Vista is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay and part of the Capurro / Bella Vista composite barrio, with Artigas Boulevard separating the two...

    , Arroyo Seco
  15. Prado - Nueva Savona
    Prado, Montevideo
    Prado is a barrio and a major public park in Montevideo, Uruguay. Together with Nueva Savona, they form the Prado - Nueva Savona composite barrio....


  16. Atahualpa
    Atahualpa, Montevideo
    Atahualpa is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Prado to the west, Aires Puros to the north, Brazo Oriental to the east and Reducto to the south.- External links :* * *...


  17. Aires Puros
    Aires Puros
    Aires Puros is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Lavalleja and Paso de las Duranas to the northwest, Casavalle to the northeast, Cerrito and Brazo Oriental to the southeast, Atahualpa and Prado to the southeast. Its northwest border is the Miguelete river with Millan Avenue crossing it...


  18. Paso de las Duranas
    Paso de las Duranas
    Paso de las Duranas is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Belvedere and Sayago to the northwest, Lavalleja to the northeast, Aires Puros to the southeast and Prado to the south...


  19. Belvedere
    Belvedere, Montevideo
    Belvedere is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Nuevo París to the northwest, Sayago to the northeast, Paso de las Duranas to the east, Prado to the southeast, La Teja and Tres Ombúes to the south. An area known as Paso Molino, which starts in the Prado and extends into Belvedere, is a...


  20. La Teja
    La Teja
    La Teja is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Tres Ombúes to the north west, Belvedere to the north, the Prado / Nueva Savona barrio to the north east, Capurro to the south east and borders the Bay of Montevideo to the south...


  21. Tres Ombúes - Pueblo Victoria
    Tres Ombúes
    Tres Ombúes - Pueblo Victoria is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay....





  1. Villa del Cerro
    Villa del Cerro
    Villa del Cerro is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Pajas Blancas to the west, La Paloma to the north, the Pantanoso River to the northeast, the Bay of Montevideo to the east and the coastline after the bay to the south, where the beach of the Cerro is located.- External links :* *...


  2. Casabó - Pajas Blancas
    Casabó
    Casabó - Pajas Blancas is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Paso de la Arena to the north and northwest, with La Paloma - Tomkinson to the northeast, with Villa del Cerro to the east and is delimited by the Río de la Plata to the south.-Casabó:Casabó is the western extension...

    , Rincón del Cerro
  3. La Paloma - Tomkinson
    La Paloma, Montevideo
    La Paloma - Tomkinson is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Villa del Cerro to the south, Casabó to the south and west, Paso de la Arena to the north, Nuevo París and Tres Ombúes - Pueblo Victoria to the east. La Paloma is a northern extension of the Villa del Cerro, while...


  4. Paso de la Arena - Los Bulevares
    Paso de la Arena
    Paso de la Arena, also known by the composite name Paso de la Arena - Los Bulevares - Rincón del Cerro - Santiago Vázquez is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay...

     - Santiago Vázquez
    Santiago Vázquez, Montevideo
    Santiago Vázquez is a town at the western limits of Montevideo Department in Uruguay. It is part of the barrio of Montevideo called Paso de la Arena, but its populations is counted separately from that of the city....


  5. Nuevo París
    Nuevo París
    - External links :*...


  6. Conciliación
    Conciliación
    Conciliación is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay....


  7. Sayago
    Sayago, Montevideo
    Sayago is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay.Bordering Colón and next to El Prado, Sayago is limited by the streets Millán, Av. Raffo, General Máximo Santos and Eugenio Garzón.- External links :*...


  8. Peñarol - Lavalleja
    Peñarol, Montevideo
    Peñarol - Lavalleja, also known as Peñarol - Lavalleja, is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay.- External links :* * * *...


  9. Colón Centro y Noroeste
    Colón Centro y Noroeste
    Colón Centro y Noroeste is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Lezica / Melilla to the west and northwest, Colón Sudeste / Abayubá to the east and northeast, Peñarol / Lavalleja to the southeast, Conciliación and Sayago to the south.- External links :* *...


  10. Lezica - Melilla
    Lezica
    Lezica - Melilla is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Paso de la Arena - Los Bulevares and Conciliación to the south, San José Department to the west with Santa Lucía River forming the natural border between them, Canelones Department to the north, Colón Sudeste - Abayubá and Colón...


  11. Colón Sudeste - Abayubá
    Colón Sudeste
    Colón Sudeste - Abayubá is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Lezica - Melilla and Colón Centro y Noroeste to the west, Canelones Department to the northwest and north, Manga - Toledo Chico to the east, and Peñarol - Lavalleja to the south.Pueblo Abayubá is a town belonging to the...


  12. Manga - Toledo Chico
    Manga, Toledo Chico
    Manga - Toledo Chico is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Colón Sudeste - Abayubá and Peñarol - Lavalleja to the west, Canelones Department to the north and east, Villa García - Manga Rural to the southeast, Manga and Casavalle to the south.-External links:**...


  13. Casavalle
    Casavalle
    Casavalle is a village in the Department of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Manga, Toledo Chico and Manga to the north, Piedras Blancas to the east, Las Acacias, Cerrito de la Victoria and Aires Puros to the south and Peñarol - Lavalleja to the west....

    , Barrio Borro
  14. Cerrito de la Victoria
    Cerrito, Montevideo
    Cerrito, or Cerrito de la Victoria, is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Aires Puros to the west, Las Acacias to the north, Castro Castellanos to the east, Bolívar and Brazo Oriental to the south. It is located on a hill on which is the very remarkable church named Santuario Nacional...


  15. Las Acacias
    Las Acacias
    Las Acacias is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay....


  16. Jardines del Hipódromo
    Jardines Del Hipódromo
    Jardines del Hipódromo is a multi-use stadium in Montevideo, Uruguay. It is currently used primarily for football matches and home to Uruguayan Primera División side Danubio F.C.. The stadium holds 18,000 spectators. The stadium is allegedly haunted....


  17. Piedras Blancas
    Piedras Blancas, Montevideo
    Piedras Blancas is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay....


  18. Manga
    Manga, Montevideo
    Manga is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Manga - Toledo Chico to the north and northwest, Villa García - Manga Rural to the east, Piedras Blancas to the south and Casavalle to the southwest....


  19. Punta de Rieles - Bella Italia
  20. Villa García - Manga Rural
    Villa García
    Villa García - Manga Rural is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay.- External links :***...




Demographics

In 1860, Montevideo had 57,913 inhabitants including a number of people of African origin
Afro-Uruguayan
Afro-Uruguayan refers to Uruguayans of Black African ancestry. Almost a third is found in Montevideo.-History:It is often asserted in the academic literature on Uruguay that the presence and role of Africans in the development of this nation are overlooked. However, Afro-Uruguayans greatly...

 who had been brought as slaves and had gained their freedom around the middle of the century. By 1880, the population had quadrupled, mainly because of the great European immigration. In 1908, its population had grown massively to 309,331 inhabitants. In the course of the 20th century the city continued to receive large numbers of European immigrants, especially Spanish and Italian
Italian settlement in Uruguay
An Italian Uruguayan is an Uruguayan citizen of full or partial Italian ancestry. Almost half of the population is of Italian origin or has some degree of Italian descent...

, followed by French
French Uruguayan
A French Uruguayan is an Uruguayan citizen of full or partial French ancestry. French Uruguayan form the third largest ancestry group after Spanish Uruguayans and Italian Uruguayans. Until 1853, France constituted the main source of immigrants to Uruguay...

, Germans or Dutch, English or Irish, Polish, Greek
Greeks in Uruguay
The Greek community in Uruguay numbers between 5,000 and 8,000 people. Most of them live in the Montevideo area. The Greek commubity center and the Greek Orthodox Church of St. Nikolaos are located on 19 de Abril Avenue in Prado...

, Hungarians, Russians, Croats, Lebanese
Lebanese Uruguayan
There are about 53,000 to 70,000 Lebanese Uruguayans, or Uruguayans of Lebanese origin. The Lebanese are the most numerous community in Uruguay after the Spanish and Italians. Relations between Uruguay and Lebanon have always been close.-History:...

, Armenians
Armenians in Uruguay
Armenians in Uruguay number around 19,000. The Armenian community in Uruguay is one of the oldest in South America. Most live in the capital Montevideo.-History:...

, and Jews of various origins. The last wave of immigrants occurred between 1945 and 1955.

According to the census survey carried out between 15 June and 31 July 2004, Montevideo had a population of 1,325,968 persons, as against Uruguay's population of 3,241,003. The female population was 707,697 (53.4%) while the male population accounted for 618,271 (46.6%). The population had declined since the previous census carried out in 1996, with an average annual growth rate of −1.5 per thousand. Continual decline has been documented since the census period of 1975–1985, which showed a rate of −5.6 per thousand. The decrease is due in large part to lowered fertility, partly offset by mortality, and to a smaller degree in migration. The birth rate declined by 19% from 1996 (17 per thousand) to 2004 (13.8 per thousand). Similarly, the total fertility rate (TFR) declined from 2.24 in 1996 to 1.79 in 2004. However, mortality continued to fall with life expectancy at birth for both sexes increasing by 1.73 years.

Economy

As the capital of Uruguay, Montevideo is the economic and political centre of the country. Most of the largest and wealthiest businesses in Uruguay have their headquarters in the city. Since the 1990s the city has undergone rapid economic development and modernization, including two of Uruguay's most important buildings—the World Trade Center Montevideo
World Trade Center Montevideo
The World Trade Center Montevideo is a building complex located in Montevideo, Uruguay. It was officially opened in 1998, and renovated between 2002 and 2009.The official slogan is "Work in the best place to live".-Location:...

 (1998), and Telecommunications Tower
Telecommunications Tower
Torre de las Telecomunicaciones or Torre Antel is a 158 meter tall building with 37 floors in Montevideo, Uruguay. It is the headquarters of Uruguay's government-owned telecommunications company, ANTEL, and is the tallest building in the country. It was designed by architect Carlos Ott. It is...

 (2000), the headquarters of Uruguay's government-owned telecommunications company ANTEL
ANTEL
ANTEL is Uruguay's government-owned telecommunications company, founded in 1974. The company has a monopoly of landline telephony and data services in the country...

, increasing the city's integration into the global marketplace.

The Port of Montevideo
Port of Montevideo
The Port of Montevideo , in the northern part of the Old City of Montevideo, Uruguay, is one of the major ports of South America and plays a very important role in the economy of Uruguay.-History:...

, in the northern part of Ciudad Vieja, is one of the major ports of South America and plays a very important role in the city's economy. The port has been growing rapidly and consistently at an average annual rate of 14 percent due to an increase in foreign trade. The city has received a US$20 million loan from the Inter-American Development Bank
Inter-American Development Bank
The Inter-American Development Bank is the largest source of development financing for Latin America and the Caribbean...

 to modernize the port, increase its size and efficiency, and enable lower maritime and river transportation costs.

The most important state-owned companies headquartered in Montevideo are: AFE (railways), ANCAP
ANCAP (Uruguay)
ANCAP is a state-owned company in Uruguay. It is involved in the production of petroleum products, Portland cement and alcoholic beverages. It operates the Uruguay's single oil refinery at La Teja with capacity of per day...

 (Energy), Administracion Nacional de Puertos (Ports), ANTEL
ANTEL
ANTEL is Uruguay's government-owned telecommunications company, founded in 1974. The company has a monopoly of landline telephony and data services in the country...

, ANCEL
Ancel
Antel is a brand under which Uruguayan government-owned telecommunications company Antel provides mobile phone services since 1 September 1994....

 and ANTELDATA (telecommunications), BHU (savings and loan), BROU
Banco de la República Oriental del Uruguay
Banco de la República Oriental del Uruguay is a state-owned bank in Uruguay that plays a dominant role in lending and deposit in the Uruguayan market. It is also responsible for the collection of exportation taxes....

 (bank), BSE (insurance), OSE (water & sewage), UTE
UTE
UTE is Uruguay's government-owned power company. It was founded in 1912.In 1912, a law that created this public company as the unique distributor of electricity was approved. Then, in 1931, the monopoly of communications was also granted to this company until the founding of ANTEL in 1974....

 (electricity). These companies operate under public law, using a legal entity defined in the Uruguayan Constitution called Ente Autonomo ("autonomous entity"). The government also owns part of other companies operating under private law, such as the national airline carrier PLUNA
PLUNA
PLUNALíneas Aéreas Uruguayas S.A. is the flag carrier of Uruguay, headquartered in Carrasco, Montevideo. It operates scheduled services within South America, as well as unscheduled cargo and charter services, with its main hub being Carrasco International Airport near Montevideo.- Foundation :The...

 and others owned wholly or partially by the CND (National Development Corporation).

Banking has traditionally been one of the strongest service export sectors in Uruguay: the country was once dubbed "the Switzerland of America", mainly for its banking sector and stability, although that stability has been threatened in the 21st century by the recent global economic climate. The largest bank in Uruguay is Banco Republica (BROU), based in Montevideo. Almost 20 private banks, most of them branches of international banks, operate in the country (Banco Santander, ABN AMRO
ABN AMRO
ABN AMRO Bank N.V. is a Dutch state-owned bank with headquarters in Amsterdam. It was re-established, in its current form, in 2009 following the acquisition and break up of ABN AMRO Group by a banking consortium consisting of Royal Bank of Scotland Group, Santander and Fortis...

, Citibank
Citibank
Citibank, a major international bank, is the consumer banking arm of financial services giant Citigroup. Citibank was founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York, later First National City Bank of New York...

, Lloyds TSB
Lloyds TSB
Lloyds TSB Bank Plc is a retail bank in the United Kingdom. It was established in 1995 by the merger of Lloyds Bank, established in Birmingham, England in 1765 and traditionally considered one of the Big Four clearing banks, with the TSB Group which traces its origins to 1810...

, among others). There are also a myriad of brokers and financial-services bureaus, among them Ficus Capital, Galfin Sociedad de Bolsa, Europa Sociedad de Bolsa, Darío Cukier, GBU, Hordeñana & Asociados Sociedad de Bolsa, etc.

Tourism

Tourism accounts for much of Uruguay's economy. Tourism in Montevideo is centered in the Ciudad Vieja area, which includes the city's oldest buildings, several museums, art galleries, and nightclubs, with Sarandí Street and the Mercado del Puerto being the most frequented venues of the old city. On the edge of Ciudad Vieja, Plaza Independencia
Plaza Independencia
Plaza Independencia is the name of Montevideo's most important plaza. It splits Ciudad Vieja from downtown Montevideo, with the Gateway of The Citadel on one side and the beginning of 18 de Julio avenue on the other....

 is surrounded by many sights, including the Solís Theatre
Solís Theatre
Solis Theatre is Uruguay's oldest theatre. It was built in 1856 and is currently owned by the government of Montevideo. It is located in Plaza Independencia ....

 and the Palacio Salvo
Palacio Salvo
Palacio Salvo is a building in Montevideo, Uruguay, located at the intersection of 18 de Julio Avenue and Plaza Independencia. It was designed by the architect Mario Palanti, an Italian immigrant living in Buenos Aires, who used a similar design for his Palacio Barolo in Buenos Aires, Argentina...

; the plaza also constitutes one end of 18 de Julio Avenue
18 de Julio Avenue
Avenida 18 de Julio, or 18 de Julio Avenue, is the most important avenue in Montevideo, Uruguay. It is named after the date the first Constitution of Uruguay was written: July 18, 1830....

, the city's most important tourist destination outside of Ciudad Vieja. Apart from being a shopping street, the avenue is noted for its Art Deco
Art Deco
Art deco , or deco, is an eclectic artistic and design style that began in Paris in the 1920s and flourished internationally throughout the 1930s, into the World War II era. The style influenced all areas of design, including architecture and interior design, industrial design, fashion and...

 buildings, three important public squares, the Gaucho Museum, the Palacio Municipal
Palacio Municipal (Montevideo)
Palacio Municipal is the seat of the local government agency of the Municipality of Montevideo, Uruguay. Located on the main avenue of the city, 18 de Julio Avenue, in barrio Centro, it was designed by Uruguayan architect Mauricio Cravotto....

 and many other sights. The avenue leads to the Obelisk of Montevideo
Obelisk of Montevideo
The Obelisk of Montevideo, officially listed as the Obelisco a los Constituyentes de 1830, is a monument, work of the sculptor José Luis Zorrilla de San Martín . It is a three sided obelisk made of granite, 40 meters tall with 3 bronze statues on its sides, representing "Law", "Liberty" and "Force"...

; beyond that is Parque Batlle
Parque Batlle
Parque Batlle is a barrio and a major public central park in Montevideo, Uruguay. It is named in honour of José Batlle y Ordóñez, President of Uruguay from 1911–1915...

, which along with the Parque Prado
Parque Prado
Parque Prado is the largest of Montevideo's six principal public parks. Established in 1873, it covers an area of 106 hectares and is located in the barrio of Prado. Located in the northern part of the city, the Miguelete Creek flows through the neighbourhood and park of the same name.The...

 is another important tourist destination. Along the coast, the Fortaleza del Cerro
Fortaleza del Cerro
Fortaleza del Cerro, also known as Fortaleza General Artigas, is a fortress situated in Montevideo, Uruguay overlooking the Bay of Montevideo. It belongs to the barrio of Casabó, at the west of Villa del Cerro...

, the Rambla (the coastal avenue), 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) of sandy beaches, and Punta Gorda
Punta Gorda
Punta Gorda may refer to:*Punta Gorda, Belize*Punta Gorda, Florida*Punta Gorda Light, Humboldt County, California, USA*Punta Gorda, Montevideo, in Uruguay....

 attract many tourists, as do the Barrio Sur
Barrio Sur
Barrio Sur is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It is directly South of the Centro and is delimited by Canelones Str. on the North, Andes Str. on the West, the coastal avenue on the South and Dr. Barrios Amorin Str. on the East...

 and Palermo
Palermo
Palermo is a city in Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Province of Palermo. The city is noted for its history, culture, architecture and gastronomy, playing an important role throughout much of its existence; it is over 2,700 years old...

 barrios.

The Ministry of Tourism offers a two-and-a-half-hour city tour and the Montevideo Tourist Guide Association offers guided tours in English, Italian, Portuguese and German. Apart from these, many private companies offer organized city tours.

Most tourists to the city come from Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Europe, with the number of visitors from elsewhere in Latin America and from the United States growing every year, thanks to increasing international airline arrivals at Carrasco International Airport
Carrasco International Airport
Carrasco/General Cesáreo L. Berisso International Airport , commonly known simply by Aeropuerto Internacional de Carrasco in reference to the neighborhood where it is located, is the main airport serving Montevideo, Uruguay, located in the adjoining municipality of Ciudad de la Costa...

 and luxury cruises into the port of Montevideo.

Hotels

Montevideo has over 50 hotels, mostly located within the downtown area or along the beachfront of the Rambla de Montevideo. Many of the hotels are in the modern, western style, such as the Sheraton Montevideo
Sheraton Montevideo
Sheraton Montevideo is a hotel in Punta Carretas, Montevideo, Uruguay, operated by Sheraton. It is reported to be the most luxurious hotel in the city. The Sheraton, a prominent building on the landscape near the sea. has 207 guest rooms and 10 suites and is lavishly furnished with imported...

, the Radisson Montevideo Victoria Plaza Hotel
Radisson Montevideo Victoria Plaza Hotel
Radisson Montevideo Victoria Plaza Hotel is a hotel located on the central Plaza Independencia in the Old City of Montevideo, Uruguay, operated by Radisson. It is one of the top hotels in the city. The Radisson Montevideo has 232 rooms and contains a casino and is served by the Restaurante Arcadia,...

 located on the central Plaza Independencia, and the Plaza Fuerte Hotel on the waterfront. The Sheraton has 207 guest rooms and 10 suites and is luxuriously furnished with imported furniture. The Radisson Montevideo has 232 rooms and contains a casino and is served by the Restaurante Arcadia. Other hotels are located in colonial buildings, such as the Hotel Palacio and boutique hotels, especially away from the downtown area, retain a colonial feel. One such hotel is Belmont House
Belmont House (Montevideo)
Belmont House is a boutique hotel, located on the Avenida Rivera in Carrasco, Montevideo, Uruguay. It is set amidst gardens and has 24 rooms and suites and is served by the Restaurant Allegro...

 (established 1995), located on the Avenida Rivera in Carrasco. It is set amidst gardens and has 24 rooms and suites and is served by the Restaurant Allegro.

Retail

Montevideo is the heartland of retailing in Uruguay. The city has become the principal centre of business and real estate, including many expensive buildings and modern towers for residences and offices, surrounded by extensive green spaces. In 1985, the first shopping centre in Rio de la Plata, Montevideo Shopping
Montevideo Shopping
Montevideo Shopping Center is the first shopping mall that opened in Montevideo. It is located in the neighborhood Buceo, on the border with Pocitos, right in front of the World Trade Center Montevideo....

 was built. In 1994, with building of three more shopping complexes such as the Shopping Tres Cruces, Portones Shopping, and Punta Carretas Shopping, the business map of the city changed dramatically. The creation of shopping complexes brought a major change in the habits of the people of Montevideo. Global firms such as McDonald's
McDonald's
McDonald's Corporation is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving around 64 million customers daily in 119 countries. Headquartered in the United States, the company began in 1940 as a barbecue restaurant operated by the eponymous Richard and Maurice McDonald; in 1948...

 and Burger King
Burger King
Burger King, often abbreviated as BK, is a global chain of hamburger fast food restaurants headquartered in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. The company began in 1953 as Insta-Burger King, a Jacksonville, Florida-based restaurant chain...

 etc. are firmly established in Montevideo.

Apart from the big shopping complexes, the main retailing venues of the city are: most of 18 de Julio Avenue in the Centro and Cordón
Cordón
Cordón is a central barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay, located directly East of the Centro. Its main avenue is 18 de Julio Avenue. It is delimited by Miguelete Str. and La Paz Str. to the North, Dr. Barrios Amorin Str. to the West, Canelones Str. to the South and Dr...

 barrios, a length of Agraciada Avenue in the Paso de Molino area of Belvedere
Belvedere, Montevideo
Belvedere is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Nuevo París to the northwest, Sayago to the northeast, Paso de las Duranas to the east, Prado to the southeast, La Teja and Tres Ombúes to the south. An area known as Paso Molino, which starts in the Prado and extends into Belvedere, is a...

, a length of Arenal Grande St. and the surrounding streets in Villa Muñoz
Villa Muñoz
Villa Muñóz is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Aguada and Reducto to the west, La Figurita to the north, La Comercial to the east and Cordón to the south. It is home to the Reus al Norte, a picturesque and historic housing area...

 and a length of 8 de Octubre Avenue in Unión
Unión, Montevideo
Unión is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Mercado Modelo and Villa Española to the northwest, Maroñas to the northeast, Malvín Norte to the east, Buceo and Parque Batlle to the south and La Blanqueada and Larrañaga to the southwest.Its history started in 1845, during General...

.

Landmarks and architecture

The architecture of Montevideo ranges from Neoclassical
Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome...

 buildings such as the Montevideo Metropolitan Cathedral
Montevideo Metropolitan Cathedral
The Montevideo Metropolitan Cathedral is the main Roman Catholic church of Montevideo. It is located right in front of the Cabildo across Constitution Square, in Ciudad Vieja. The origin of the church dates from 1740, when a church constructed of brick was built on the site. In 1790, the...

 to the Postmodern
Postmodernism
Postmodernism is a philosophical movement evolved in reaction to modernism, the tendency in contemporary culture to accept only objective truth and to be inherently suspicious towards a global cultural narrative or meta-narrative. Postmodernist thought is an intentional departure from the...

 style of the World Trade Center Montevideo
World Trade Center Montevideo
The World Trade Center Montevideo is a building complex located in Montevideo, Uruguay. It was officially opened in 1998, and renovated between 2002 and 2009.The official slogan is "Work in the best place to live".-Location:...

 or the 158 metres (518.4 ft) ANTEL Telecommunication Tower, the tallest skyscraper in the country. The Along with the Telecommunications Tower, the Palacio Salvo
Palacio Salvo
Palacio Salvo is a building in Montevideo, Uruguay, located at the intersection of 18 de Julio Avenue and Plaza Independencia. It was designed by the architect Mario Palanti, an Italian immigrant living in Buenos Aires, who used a similar design for his Palacio Barolo in Buenos Aires, Argentina...

 dominates the skyline of the Bay of Montevideo. The building façades in the Old Town reflect the city's extensive European immigration, displaying the influence of old European architecture. Notable government buildings include the Legislative Palace, the City Hall, Estévez Palace
Estévez Palace
The Estévez Palace, or Palacio Estévez, is the oldest working place of the President of Uruguay...

 and the Executive Tower
Executive Tower
Executive Tower the name of the working place of the President of Uruguay. The original project was started in 1965 as a future Palace of Justice, but the 1973 coup d'état interrupted it....

. The most notable sports stadium is the Estadio Centenario
Estadio Centenario
Estadio Centenario is a stadium in Parque Batlle, Montevideo, Uruguay, used primarily for football. The stadium was built between 1929 and 1930 to host the 1930 FIFA World Cup, as well as to commemorate the centennial of Uruguay's first constitution...

 within Parque Batlle
Parque Batlle
Parque Batlle is a barrio and a major public central park in Montevideo, Uruguay. It is named in honour of José Batlle y Ordóñez, President of Uruguay from 1911–1915...

. Parque Batlle, Parque Rodó
Parque Rodó
Parque Rodó is both a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay and a park which lies mostly outside the limits of the barrio itself and belongs to Punta Carretas...

 and Parque Prado
Prado, Montevideo
Prado is a barrio and a major public park in Montevideo, Uruguay. Together with Nueva Savona, they form the Prado - Nueva Savona composite barrio....

 are Montevideo's three great parks.

The Pocitos
Pocitos
Pocitos is an upscale beach barrio in Uruguay's capital city, Montevideo.This area is located along the banks of the Rio de la Plata. The barrio is known for its beach, Playa Pocitos, and the Rambla, or boulevard, that lies alongside it...

 district, near the beach of the same name, has many homes built by Bello and Reboratti between 1920 and 1940, with a mixture of styles. Other landmarks in Pocitos are the "Edificio Panamericano
Edificio Panamericano
The Panamericano Building is a housing construction located in the area Buceo of Montevideo, Uruguay. It is located on the coast, across the Port of Buceo and on the border with the neighbourhood of Pocitos....

" designed by Raul Sichero, and the "Positano" and "El Pilar" designed by Adolfo Sommer Smith and Luis García Pardo in the 1950s and 1960s. However, the construction boom of the 1970s and 1980s transformed the face of this neighbourhood, with a cluster of modern apartment buildings for upper and upper middle class residents.

Palacio Legislativo

The Palacio Legislativo in Aguada, the north of the city centre, is currently the seat of the Uruguayan Parliament
General Assembly of Uruguay
The General Assembly of Uruguay has two chambers.*the Chamber of Deputies has 99 members, elected for a five year term by proportional representation....

. Construction started in 1904 and was sponsored by the government of President José Batlle y Ordóñez
José Batlle y Ordóñez
José Pablo Torcuato Batlle y Ordóñez was the president of Uruguay in 1899 and from 1903 until 1907 and for a further term from 1911 to 1915. He was the son of former president, Lorenzo Batlle y Grau. His children César, Rafael and Lorenzo Batlle Pacheco were actively engaged in politics...

. It was designed by Italian architects
Architecture of Italy
Architecture of Italy, often called Italian architecture refers to all forms of this art in Italy. Italy has a very broad and diverse architectural style, which cannot be simply classified by period, but also by region, due to Italy's division into several city-states until 1861. However, this has...

 Vittorio Meano
Vittorio Meano
Vittorio Meano was an Italian architect born in Susa, Italy, near Turin.-Background and early career:He studied architecture in Albertina Academy in Turin....

 and Gaetano Moretti, who planned the building's interior. Among the notable contributors to the project was sculptor José Belloni
José Belloni
José Belloni was a Uruguayan sculptor of the Realist school.- Biography :José Belloni was born in Montevideo, in 1882. His family returned to Europe in 1890, however, and the Bellonis settled in Lugano, Switzerland...

, who contributed numerous relief
Relief
Relief is a sculptural technique. The term relief is from the Latin verb levo, to raise. To create a sculpture in relief is thus to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane...

s and allegorical sculpture
Allegorical sculpture
Allegorical sculpture refers to sculptures that symbolize and particularly personify abstract ideas as in allegory.Common in the western world, for example, are statues of 'Justice', a female figure traditionally holding scales in one hand, as a symbol of her weighing issues and arguments, and a...

s.

World Trade Center Montevideo

World Trade Center Montevideo
World Trade Center Montevideo
The World Trade Center Montevideo is a building complex located in Montevideo, Uruguay. It was officially opened in 1998, and renovated between 2002 and 2009.The official slogan is "Work in the best place to live".-Location:...

 officially opened in 1998, although work is still ongoing as of 2010. The complex is composed of three towers, two three-story buildings called World Trade Center Plaza and World Trade Center Avenue and a large central square called Towers Square. World Trade Center 1 was the first building to inaugurated, in 1998. It has 22 floors and 17,100 square metres of space. That same year the avenue and the auditorium were raised. World Trade Center 2 was inaugurated in 2002, a twin tower of World Trade Center 1. Finally, in 2009, World Trade Center 3 and the World Trade Center Plaza and the Towers Square were inaugurated. It is located between the avenues Luis Alberto de Herrera and 26 de Marzo and has 19 floors and 27000 sqm of space. The 6300 sqm World Trade Center Plaza is designed to be a centre of gastronomy opposite Towers Square and Bonavita St. Among the establishments on the plaza are Burger King
Burger King
Burger King, often abbreviated as BK, is a global chain of hamburger fast food restaurants headquartered in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. The company began in 1953 as Insta-Burger King, a Jacksonville, Florida-based restaurant chain...

, Walrus, Bamboo, Asia de Cuba, Gardenia Mvd, and La Claraboya Cafe.

The Towers Square, is an area of remarkable aesthetic design, intended to be a platform for the development of business activities, art exhibitions, dance and music performances and social place. This square connects the different buildings and towers which comprise the WTC Complex and it is the main access to the complex. The square contains various works of art, notably a sculpture by renowned Uruguayan sculptor Pablo Atchugarry
Pablo Atchugarry
Pablo Atchugarry is a Uruguayan sculptor. He is noted for his marble work, which are public pieces in several towns in Lombardy, Italy. Atchugarry has held more than 80 solo and collective exhibitions worldwide.-Biography:...

. World Trade Center 4, with 40 floors and 53500 sqm of space is under construction as of 2010.

Telecommunications Tower

Torre de las Telecomunicaciones (Telecommunications Tower) or Torre Antel (Antel Tower) is the 158 m, 37 floor headquarters
Headquarters
Headquarters denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated. In the United States, the corporate headquarters represents the entity at the center or the top of a corporation taking full responsibility managing all business activities...

 of Uruguay's government-owned telecommunications company, ANTEL
ANTEL
ANTEL is Uruguay's government-owned telecommunications company, founded in 1974. The company has a monopoly of landline telephony and data services in the country...

, and is the tallest building in the country. It was designed by architect Carlos Ott
Carlos Ott
Carlos Ott is a Uruguayan architect who resides in Canada. He became famous when he won the first prize in 1983 for the construction of the Opéra de la Bastille in Paris, which was inaugurated on July 14, 1989...

. It is situated by the side of the Bay of Montevideo. The tower was completed by American Bridge and other design/build consortium team members on 15 March 2000.

When its construction was announced, many politicians complained about its cost (US$40 million, plus US$25 million for the construction of the other 5 buildings of the Telecommunications Complex). Problems during its construction turned the original US$65 million price into US$102 million. Today, the tower is seen by many political opponents as a frivolous waste of money and a monument to Julio María Sanguinetti's vanity.

Ciudad Vieja

Ciudad Vieja was the earliest part of the city to be developed and today it constitutes a prominent barrio
Barrio
Barrio is a Spanish word meaning district or neighborhood.-Usage:In its formal usage in English, barrios are generally considered cohesive places, sharing, for example, a church and traditions such as feast days...

of southwest Montevideo. It contains many colonial buildings and national heritage sites, but also many banks, administrative offices, museums, art galleries, cultural institutions, restaurants and night-clubs, making it vibrant with life. Its northern coast is the main port of Uruguay, one of the few deep-draft ports in the Southern Cone of South America.

Montevideo's most important plaza
Plaza
Plaza is a Spanish word related to "field" which describes an open urban public space, such as a city square. All through Spanish America, the plaza mayor of each center of administration held three closely related institutions: the cathedral, the cabildo or administrative center, which might be...

 is Plaza Independencia
Plaza Independencia
Plaza Independencia is the name of Montevideo's most important plaza. It splits Ciudad Vieja from downtown Montevideo, with the Gateway of The Citadel on one side and the beginning of 18 de Julio avenue on the other....

, located between Ciudad Vieja and downtown Montevideo. It starts with the Gateway of The Citadel at one end and ends at the beginning of 18 de Julio Avenue
18 de Julio Avenue
Avenida 18 de Julio, or 18 de Julio Avenue, is the most important avenue in Montevideo, Uruguay. It is named after the date the first Constitution of Uruguay was written: July 18, 1830....

. It is the remaining part of the wall that surrounded the oldest part of the city. Several notable buildings are located here.
The Solís Theatre
Solís Theatre
Solis Theatre is Uruguay's oldest theatre. It was built in 1856 and is currently owned by the government of Montevideo. It is located in Plaza Independencia ....

 is Uruguay's oldest theatre. It was built in 1856 and is currently owned by the government of Montevideo. In 1998, the government of Montevideo started a major reconstruction of the theatre, which included two US$110,000 columns designed by Phillipe Starck. The reconstruction was completed in 2004, and the theatre reopened in August of that year. The plaza is also the site of the offices of the President of Uruguay
President of Uruguay
The President of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay is the head of state of Uruguay. His or her rights are determined in the Constitution of Uruguay. Conforms with the Secretariat of the Presidency, the Council of Ministers and the Director of the Office of Planning and Budget, the executive branch...

 (both the Estévez Palace
Estévez Palace
The Estévez Palace, or Palacio Estévez, is the oldest working place of the President of Uruguay...

 and the Executive Tower
Executive Tower
Executive Tower the name of the working place of the President of Uruguay. The original project was started in 1965 as a future Palace of Justice, but the 1973 coup d'état interrupted it....

). The Artigas Mausoleum
Artigas Mausoleum
The Artigas Mausoleum is a monument to Uruguayan hero José Artigas, located in Plaza Independencia, in the neighbourhood of Ciudad Vieja, Montevideo. It was built in the 1930s and Artigas' remains are kept in an underground room underneath the statue. The moument is guarded by a traditional guard...

 is located at the centre of the plaza. Statues include that of José Gervasio Artigas
José Gervasio Artigas
José Gervasio Artigas is a national hero of Uruguay, sometimes called "the father of Uruguayan nationhood".-Early life:Artigas was born in Montevideo on June 19, 1764...

, hero of Uruguay's independence movement; an honour guard keeps vigil at the Mausoleum.

Palacio Salvo
Palacio Salvo
Palacio Salvo is a building in Montevideo, Uruguay, located at the intersection of 18 de Julio Avenue and Plaza Independencia. It was designed by the architect Mario Palanti, an Italian immigrant living in Buenos Aires, who used a similar design for his Palacio Barolo in Buenos Aires, Argentina...

, at the intersection of 18 de Julio Avenue and Plaza Independencia, was designed by the architect Mario Palanti
Mario Palanti
Mario Palanti was an Italian architect who designed important buildings in the capital cities of both Argentina and Uruguay. Born in 1885 in Milan, Italy, he studied architecture in the Brera Academy and in the Politecnico di Milano university...

 and completed in 1925. Palanti, an Italian immigrant living in Buenos Aires, used a similar design for his Palacio Barolo
Palacio Barolo
Palacio Barolo is a landmark office building, located at 1370 Avenida de Mayo, Buenos Aires, Argentina.Italian architect Mario Palanti was commissioned to design the building by the empresario Luis Barolo, an Italian immigrant who had arrived in Argentina in 1890 and had made a fortune in knitted...

 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Palacio Salvo stands 100 metres (328.1 ft) high, including its antenna. It is built on the former site of the Confitería La Giralda, renowned for being where Gerardo Matos Rodríguez
Gerardo Matos Rodríguez
Gerardo Hernan Matos Rodríguez Montevideo, Uruguay, also known as Becho, was a Uruguayan musician, composer and journalist.-Background and early career:...

 wrote his tango "La Cumparsita
La Cumparsita
"La cumparsita" is a musical piece written by Gerardo Matos Rodríguez, an Uruguayan musician, in 1916. It is among the most famous and recognizable tango songs of all time....

" (1917.) Palacio Salvo was originally intended to function as a hotel but is now a mixture of offices and private residences.

Also of major note in Ciudad Vieja is the Plaza de la Constitución (or Plaza Matriz). During the first decades of Uruguayan independence this square was the main hub of city life. On the square are the Cabildo—the seat of colonial government—and the Montevideo Metropolitan Cathedral
Montevideo Metropolitan Cathedral
The Montevideo Metropolitan Cathedral is the main Roman Catholic church of Montevideo. It is located right in front of the Cabildo across Constitution Square, in Ciudad Vieja. The origin of the church dates from 1740, when a church constructed of brick was built on the site. In 1790, the...

. The cathedral is the burial place of Fructuoso Rivera
Fructuoso Rivera
José Fructuoso Rivera y Toscana was an Uruguayan general and patriot who assisted in the efforts to force Brazilians out of the Banda Oriental.-Founder of Colorado Party and President of Uruguay:...

, Juan Antonio Lavalleja
Juan Antonio Lavalleja
Juan Antonio Lavalleja was an Uruguayan revolutionary and political figure. Today's Lavalleja Department is named after him.-Pre-Independence role:...

 and Venancio Flores
Venancio Flores
Venancio Flores Barrios was a Uruguayan political leader and general. Flores was President of Uruguay from 1854 to 1855 and from 1865 to 1868.-Background and early career:...

. Another notable square is Plaza Zabala
Plaza Zabala
Plaza Zabala is a plaza in the Ciudad Vieja of Montevideo, Uruguay. In late 1878, during the dictatorship of Colonel Lorenzo Latorre, it was decided to demolish the old fort and build a public square in its place. But for 12 years this site remained a wasteland...

 with the equestrian statue of Bruno Mauricio de Zabala
Bruno Mauricio de Zabala
Bruno Mauricio de Zabala was a Spanish soldier and colonial administrator. He was born in the slum of Zabala in the province of Biscay...

. On its south side, Palacio Taranco
Palacio Taranco
Palacio Taranco, located in front of the Plaza Zabala, in the heart of the Old City of Montevideo, Uruguay, is a palace erected in the early 20th century during a period in which the architectural style was influenced by French architecture...

, once residence of the Ortiz Taranco brothers, is now the Museum of Decorative Arts. A few blocks northwest of Plaza Zabala is the Mercado del Puerto, another major tourist destination.

Parque Batlle

Parque Batlle (formerly: Parque de los Aliados, translation: "Park of the Allies") is a major public central park, located south of Avenida Italia and north of Avenue Rivera. Along with Parque Prado
Prado, Montevideo
Prado is a barrio and a major public park in Montevideo, Uruguay. Together with Nueva Savona, they form the Prado - Nueva Savona composite barrio....

 and Parque Rodó
Parque Rodó
Parque Rodó is both a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay and a park which lies mostly outside the limits of the barrio itself and belongs to Punta Carretas...

 it is one of three large parks that dominate Montevideo. The park and surrounding area constitute one of the 62 neighbourhoods (barrios) of the city. The barrio of Parque Batlle is one of seven coastal barrios, the others being Buceo
Buceo
Buceo is a barrio in Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders To the Pocitos and Villa Dolores to the west, Parque Batlle, Unión and Malvín Norte to the north, Malvín to the east and the coastline to the south. The coastal avenue along Buceo takes on the names Rambla Armenia and Rambla República de Chile...

, Carrasco, Malvin, Pocitos
Pocitos
Pocitos is an upscale beach barrio in Uruguay's capital city, Montevideo.This area is located along the banks of the Rio de la Plata. The barrio is known for its beach, Playa Pocitos, and the Rambla, or boulevard, that lies alongside it...

, Punta Carretas, and Punta Gorda. The current barrio of Parque Battle includes four former districts: Belgrano, Italiano, Villa Dolores and Batlle Park itself and borders the neighbourhoods of La Blanqueada
La Blanqueada
La Blanqueada is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Tres Cruces to the west, Larrañaga to the northwest, Unión to the northeast and Parque Batlle to the south. It is home to the Military Hospital....

, Tres Cruces
Tres Cruces
Tres Cruces is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Cordón to the south and to the west, with La Comercial and Larrañaga to the north and with La Blanqueada and Parque Batlle to the east...

, Pocitos and Buceo. It has a high population density and most of its households are of medium-high- or high-income. Villa Dolores, a subdistrict of Parque Batlle, took its name from the original villa of Don Alejo Rossell y Rius and of Doña Dolores Pereira de Rossel. On their grounds, they started a private collection of animals that became a zoological garden and was passed to the city in 1919; in 1955 the Planetarium of Montevideo was built within its premises.

Parque Batlle is named in honour of José Batlle y Ordóñez
José Batlle y Ordóñez
José Pablo Torcuato Batlle y Ordóñez was the president of Uruguay in 1899 and from 1903 until 1907 and for a further term from 1911 to 1915. He was the son of former president, Lorenzo Batlle y Grau. His children César, Rafael and Lorenzo Batlle Pacheco were actively engaged in politics...

, President of Uruguay
President of Uruguay
The President of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay is the head of state of Uruguay. His or her rights are determined in the Constitution of Uruguay. Conforms with the Secretariat of the Presidency, the Council of Ministers and the Director of the Office of Planning and Budget, the executive branch...

 from 1911–1915. The park was originally proposed by an Act of March 1907, which also projected wide boulevards and avenues. French landscape architect, Carlos Thays
Carlos Thays
Carlos Thays was a French-Argentine landscape architect, and a student of French landscape architect Édouard André.-Biography:...

, began the plantings in 1911. In 1918, the park was named Parque de los Aliados, following the victory of the Allies of World War I
Allies of World War I
The Entente Powers were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The members of the Triple Entente were the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire; Italy entered the war on their side in 1915...

. On 5 May 1930, after significant expansion, it was again renamed as Parque Batlle y Ordóñez, in memory of the prominent politician and president, who had died in 1929. The park was designated a National Historic Monument Park in 1975. As of 2010, the park covers an area of 60 hectares (148.3 acre) and is considered the "lung" of the Montevideo city due to the large variety of trees planted here.

The Estadio Centenario
Estadio Centenario
Estadio Centenario is a stadium in Parque Batlle, Montevideo, Uruguay, used primarily for football. The stadium was built between 1929 and 1930 to host the 1930 FIFA World Cup, as well as to commemorate the centennial of Uruguay's first constitution...

, the national football stadium, opened in 1930 for the first World Cup
FIFA World Cup
The FIFA World Cup, often simply the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association , the sport's global governing body...

, and later hosted several other sporting grounds of note (see Sports).

In 1934, sculptor José Belloni
José Belloni
José Belloni was a Uruguayan sculptor of the Realist school.- Biography :José Belloni was born in Montevideo, in 1882. His family returned to Europe in 1890, however, and the Bellonis settled in Lugano, Switzerland...

's "La Carreta", a bronze monument on granite base, was installed on Avenida Lorenzo Merola near Estadio Centenario. One of several statues in the park, it depicts yoke
Yoke
A yoke is a wooden beam, normally used between a pair of oxen or other animals to enable them to pull together on a load when working in pairs, as oxen usually do; some yokes are fitted to individual animals. There are several types of yoke, used in different cultures, and for different types of oxen...

d oxen pulling a loaded wagon. It was designated a national monument in 1976. Another statue on the same side of the park is a bronze copy of the Discobolus
Discobolus
The Discobolus of Myron is a famous Greek sculpture that was completed towards the end of the Severe period, circa 460-450 BC. The original Greek bronze is lost...

 of Myron.

On the west side of Parque Batlle, on Artigas Boulevard
Artigas Boulevard
Artigas Boulevard is an avenue in Montevideo named after Uruguayan hero José Artigas. It starts from the Rambla of Montevideo at Punta Carretas, goes north for about 6.5 kilometers, turns 100º west, and runs for another 4 kilometers up to the Rambla at Capurro - Bella Vista.It meets with...

, the 1938 Obelisk of Montevideo
Obelisk of Montevideo
The Obelisk of Montevideo, officially listed as the Obelisco a los Constituyentes de 1830, is a monument, work of the sculptor José Luis Zorrilla de San Martín . It is a three sided obelisk made of granite, 40 meters tall with 3 bronze statues on its sides, representing "Law", "Liberty" and "Force"...

 is a monument dedicated to those who created the first Constitution. The work of sculptor José Luis Zorrilla de San Martín
José Luis Zorrilla de San Martín
José Luis Zorrilla de San Martín was a Uruguayan sculptor.One of the pivotal sculptors from Uruguay, he have significant impact in the monuments of the capital city of Montevideo...

 (1891–1975), it is a three-sided granite obelisk, 40 metres (131.2 ft) tall, with bronze statues on its three sides, representing "Law", "Liberty", and "Force", respectively. It has been a National Heritage Site since 1976.

Parque Prado

Established in 1873, the largest of Montevideo's six main public parks is the 1.06 square kilometres (261.9 acre) Parque Prado
Parque Prado
Parque Prado is the largest of Montevideo's six principal public parks. Established in 1873, it covers an area of 106 hectares and is located in the barrio of Prado. Located in the northern part of the city, the Miguelete Creek flows through the neighbourhood and park of the same name.The...

. Located in the northern part of the city, the Miguelete Creek flows through the park and the neighbourhood and of the same name. It is surrounded by the avenues Agraciada, Obes Lucas, Joaquín Suárez, Luis Alberto de Herrera and by the streets Castro and José María Reyes.

The most frequented areas of the park are the Rosedal, a public rose garden with pergola
Pergola
A pergola, arbor or arbour is a garden feature forming a shaded walkway, passageway or sitting area of vertical posts or pillars that usually support cross-beams and a sturdy open lattice, often upon which woody vines are trained...

s, the Botanical Garden, the area around the Hotel del Prado, as well as the Rural del Prado, a seasonal cattle and farm animal fairground. The Rosedal contains four pergolas, eight domes, and a fountain; its 12,000 roses were imported from France in 1910. There are several jogging paths along the Miguelete river.

The Presidential Residence is located behind the Botanical Gardens. Established in 1930, Juan Manuel Blanes Museum
Juan Manuel Blanes Museum
Juan Manuel Blanes Municipal Museum of Arts Juan Manuel Blanes Municipal Museum of Arts Juan Manuel Blanes Municipal Museum of Arts (en eis the name of a municipal museum, Avenida Millán 4015 In Prado, Montevideo, Uruguay.-Location and history:It is located in the neighbourhood of Prado,...

 is situated in the Palladian
Palladian architecture
Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio . The term "Palladian" normally refers to buildings in a style inspired by Palladio's own work; that which is recognised as Palladian architecture today is an evolution of...

 villa, a National Heritage Site since 1975, and includes a Japanese garden. The Professor Atilio Lombardo Museum and Botanical Gardens were established in 1902. The National Institute of Physical Climatology and its observatory are also in the Prado.

Parque Rodó

Parque Rodó
Parque Rodó
Parque Rodó is both a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay and a park which lies mostly outside the limits of the barrio itself and belongs to Punta Carretas...

 is both a barrio (neighbourhood) of Montevideo and a park which lies mostly outside the limits of the neighbourhood itself and belongs to Punta Carretas
Punta Carretas
Punta Carretas is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Parque Rodó and Pocitos to the north, while from east south and west, it is delimited by the coastline...

. The name "Rodó" commemorates José Enrique Rodó, an important Uruguayan writer whose monument is in the southern side of the main park. The park was conceived as a French-style city park. Apart from the main park area which is delimited by Sarmiento Avenue to the south, Parque Rodó includes an amusement park; the Estadio Luis Franzini
Estadio Luis Franzini
The Estadio Luis Franzini is an outdoor football stadium located in Montevideo, Uruguay. The stadium's maximum capacity is 18,000 people, and it is the home ground of Defensor Sporting. The stadium was closed during the 1997 season for renovations. It reopened on 16 August 1998 with the name...

, belonging to Defensor Sporting; the front lawn of the Faculty of Engineering and a strip west of the Club de Golf Punta Carretas that includes the Canteras ("quarry") del Parque Rodó, the Teatro de Verano ("summer theatre") and the Lago ("lake") del Parque Rodó.

On the east side of the main park area is the National Museum of Visual Arts. On this side, a very popular street market takes place every Sunday. On the north side is an artificial lake with a little castle housing a municipal library for children. An area to its west is used as an open air exhibition of photography. West of the park, across the coastal avenue Rambla Presidente Wilson, stretches Ramirez Beach. Directly west of the main park are, and belonging to Parque Rodó barrio, is the former Parque Hotel, now called Edifício Mercosur, seat of the parliament of the members countries of the Mercosur
Mercosur
Mercosur or Mercosul is an economic and political agreement among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Founded in 1991 by the Treaty of Asunción, which was later amended and updated by the 1994 Treaty of Ouro Preto. Its purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people,...

. During the guerilla war the Tupamaros
Tupamaros
Tupamaros, also known as the MLN-T , was an urban guerrilla organization in Uruguay in the 1960s and 1970s. The MLN-T is inextricably linked to its most important leader, Raúl Sendic, and his brand of social politics...

 frequently attacked buildings in this area, including the old hotel.

Forts

The first set of subsidiary forts were planned by the Portuguese at Montevideo in 1701 to establish a front line base to stop frequent insurrections by the Spaniards emanating from Buenos Aires. These fortifications were planned within the River Plate estuary at Colonia del Sacramento. However, this plan came to fruition only in November 1723, when Captain Manuel Henriques de Noronha reached the shores of Montevideo with soldiers, guns and colonists on his warship Nossa Senhora de Oliveara. They built a small square fortification. However, under siege from forces from Buenos Aires, the Portuguese withdrew from Montevideo Bay in January 1724, after signing an agreement with the Spaniards.

Fortaleza del Cerro

Fortaleza del Cerro overlooks the bay of Montevideo. An observation post at this location was first built by the Spanish in the late 18th century. In 1802, a beacon replaced the observation post; construction of the fortress began in 1809 and was completed in 1839. It has been involved in many historical developments and has been repeatedly taken over by various sides. In 1907, the old beacon was replaced with a stronger electric one. It has been a National Monument since 1931 and has housed a military museum since 1916. Today it is one of the tourist attractions of Montevideo.

Punta Brava Lighthouse

Punta Brava Lighthouse (Faro Punta Brava), also known as Punta Carretas Lighthouse, was erected in 1876. The lighthouse is 21 metres (68.9 ft) high and its light reaches 15 miles (24.1 km) away, with a flash every ten seconds. In 1962, the lighthouse became electric. The lighthouse is important for guiding boats into the Banco Inglés Buceo Port or the entrance of the Santa Lucía River.

Rambla of Montevideo

The Rambla is an avenue that goes along the entire coastline of Montevideo. The literal meaning of the Spanish word rambla is "avenue" or "watercourse", but in the Americas it is mostly used as "coastal avenue", and since all the southern departments of Uruguay
Departments of Uruguay
||Uruguay consists of 19 departments :# Artigas . Formed in 1884 from part of Salto Department. The only department to border both Argentina in the west and Brazil in the north and east.# Canelones . One of the original 6 departments created in 1816...

 border either the Río de la Plata or the Atlantic Ocean, they all have ramblas as well. As an integral part of Montevidean identity, the Rambla has been included by Uruguay in the Indicative List of World Heritage sites, though it has not received this status. Previously, the entire Rambla was called Rambla Naciones Unidas ("United Nations"), but in recent times different names have been given to specific parts of it.
The Rambla is a very important site for recreation and leisure in Montevideo. Every day, a large number of people go there to take long strolls, jog, roller skate, fish and even—in a special area—skateboard. Its 27 kilometres (16.8 mi) length makes it one of the longest esplanades in the world.

Montevideo is noted for its beaches, which are particularly important because 60% of the population spends the summer in the city. Its best known beaches are Ramírez, Pocitos
Pocitos
Pocitos is an upscale beach barrio in Uruguay's capital city, Montevideo.This area is located along the banks of the Rio de la Plata. The barrio is known for its beach, Playa Pocitos, and the Rambla, or boulevard, that lies alongside it...

, Carrasco
Carrasco, Montevideo
Carrasco is a barrio in Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Punta Gorda to the west, Carrasco Norte to the north, Canelones Department to the east and the coastline to the south...

, Buceo
Buceo
Buceo is a barrio in Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders To the Pocitos and Villa Dolores to the west, Parque Batlle, Unión and Malvín Norte to the north, Malvín to the east and the coastline to the south. The coastal avenue along Buceo takes on the names Rambla Armenia and Rambla República de Chile...

 and Malvín
Malvín
Malvín is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Buceo to the west, Malvín Norte and Las Canteras to the north, Punta Gorda to the east and the coastline to the south. The coastal avenue along Malvín is called Rambla O'Higgins and across it is Playa Malvín, the beach of Malvín.- External...

. Further east and west are other beaches including the Colorada, Punta Espinillo, Punta Yeguas, Zabala and Santa Catarina.

Cemeteries

There are five large cemeteries
Cemetery
A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. The term "cemetery" implies that the land is specifically designated as a burying ground. Cemeteries in the Western world are where the final ceremonies of death are observed...

 in Montevideo, all administered by the "Fúnebre y Necrópolis" annex of the Intendencia of Montevideo.

The largest cemetery is the Cementerio del Norte
Cementerio del Norte, Montevideo
Cementerio del Norte is the largest cemetery in Montevideo, Uruguay, and also the largest green park area of the city. It is located in the barrio of Casavalle in the northern-central part of the city, about 7 kilometres from the centre. To the southwest is Parque Luis Rivero and the barrio of...

, located in the northern-central part of the city. The Central Cemetery
Central Cemetery of Montevideo
The Central Cemetery of Barrio Sur, Montevideo is one of the main cemeteries in Uruguay. It also ranks amongst the most popular in the country, given the fact that most famous Uruguayan people are buried here....

 (Spanish: Cementerio central), located in Barrio Sur
Barrio Sur
Barrio Sur is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It is directly South of the Centro and is delimited by Canelones Str. on the North, Andes Str. on the West, the coastal avenue on the South and Dr. Barrios Amorin Str. on the East...

 in the southern area of the city, is one of Uruguay's main cemeteries. It was one of the first cemeteries (as against church graveyards) in the country, founded in 1835 in a time where burials were still carried out by the Catholic Church. It is the burial place of many of the most famous Uruguayans, such as Eduardo Acevedo
Eduardo Blanco Acevedo
Eduardo Blanco Acevedo was a Uruguayan political figure and physician.-Background:He was a distinguished Uruguayan political figure. He was long associated with the Colorado party...

, Delmira Agustini
Delmira Agustini
Delmira Agustini , a Uruguayan poet, is considered one of the greatest female Latin American poets of the early 20th century.-Background:Born in Montevideo, the daughter of Italian immigrants, Agustini was a precocious child...

, Luis Batlle Berres
Luis Batlle Berres
Luis Conrado Batlle y Berres was a Uruguayan political figure.-Background:Batlle Berres was a journalist and prominent member of the Uruguayan Colorado Party...

, José Batlle y Ordóñez
José Batlle y Ordóñez
José Pablo Torcuato Batlle y Ordóñez was the president of Uruguay in 1899 and from 1903 until 1907 and for a further term from 1911 to 1915. He was the son of former president, Lorenzo Batlle y Grau. His children César, Rafael and Lorenzo Batlle Pacheco were actively engaged in politics...

, Juan Manuel Blanes
Juan Manuel Blanes
Juan Manuel Blanes was a noted Uruguayan painter of the Realist school.-Life and work:Blanes was born in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 1830. He was raised by his mother, with whom he relocated to the countryside in his early teens...

, François Ducasse, father of Comte de Lautréamont
Comte de Lautréamont
Comte de Lautréamont was the pseudonym of Isidore Lucien Ducasse , an Uruguayan-born French poet....

 (Isidore Ducasse), Luis Alberto de Herrera
Luis Alberto de Herrera
Luis Alberto de Herrera was a Uruguayan lawyer and politician.-Political and diplomatic roles:A National leader of great importance during the first half of the 20th century; he led the National Party through the most decisive instances along five decades...

, Benito Nardone
Benito Nardone
Benito Nardone Cetrulo was a Uruguayan political figure.-Biography:Nardone was born at Montevideo.For many years he was a popular radio commentator...

, José Enrique Rodó
José Enrique Rodo
José Enrique Rodó Piñeyro was a Uruguayan essayist. He called for the youth of Latin America to reject materialism, to revert back to Greco-Roman habits of free thought and self enrichment, and to develop and concentrate on their culture.He cultivated an epistolary relationship with important...

, and Juan Zorrilla de San Martín
Juan Zorrilla de San Martín
Juan Zorrilla de San Martín was a Uruguayan epic poet - he is referred as "National Poet of Uruguay" -and political figure . He is featured on the 20-peso note.-Well-known poems:...

.

The other large cemeteries are the Cementerio Buceo, Cementerio Del Cerro, and Cementerio Paso Molino.

The British Cemetery Montevideo (Cementerio Británico) is another of the oldest cemeteries in Uruguay, located in the Buceo
Buceo
Buceo is a barrio in Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders To the Pocitos and Villa Dolores to the west, Parque Batlle, Unión and Malvín Norte to the north, Malvín to the east and the coastline to the south. The coastal avenue along Buceo takes on the names Rambla Armenia and Rambla República de Chile...

 neighbourhood. Many noblemen
Nobility
Nobility is a social class which possesses more acknowledged privileges or eminence than members of most other classes in a society, membership therein typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be...

 and eminent persons are buried there. The cemetery originated when the Englishman Mr. Thomas Samuel Hood purchased a plot of land in the name of the English residents in 1828. However, in 1884 the government compensated the British by moving the cemetery to Buceo to accommodate city growth. A section of the cemetery, known as British Cemetery Montevideo Soldiers and Sailors
British Cemetery Montevideo Soldiers and Sailors
British Cemetery Montevideo Sailors and Soldiers contains information about servicemen of different nationalities whose tombs can be found within the Cemetery....

, contains the graves of quite a number of sailors of different nationalities, although the majority are of British descent. One United States Marine
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

, Henry de Costa, is buried here.

Culture

Montevideo has a very rich architectural heritage and an impressive number of writers, artists, and musicians. Uruguayan tango is a unique form of dance that originated in the neighbourhoods of Montevideo towards the end of the 1800s. Tango
Tango music
Tango is a style of ballroom dance music in 2/4 or 4/4 time that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay . It is traditionally played by a sextet, known as the orquesta típica, which includes two violins, piano, double bass, and two bandoneons...

, candombe
Candombe
Candombe is a musical genre that has its roots in the African Bantu, and is proper of Uruguay, Argentina and Brazil .Uruguayan Candombe is the most practiced and spread internationally and has been recognized by UNESCO as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity...

 and murga
Murga
Murga is a form of popular musical theatre performed in Uruguay and in Argentina during the Carnival season. Murga groups operate in Montevideo and at the Buenos Aires Carnival, though to a lesser extent than in Montevideo; the Argentine murga is more centred on dancing and less on vocals than the...

 are the three main styles of music in this city. The city is also the centre of the cinema of Uruguay
Cinema of Uruguay
The Cinema of Uruguay has a role in the Culture of Uruguay. The industry has many actors and directors that made the Uruguayan cinema a part of Latin American cinema.-The early days:...

, which includes commercial, documentary and experimental films. There are two movie theatre companies running seven cinemas, around ten independent ones and four art film cinemas in the city. The theatre of Uruguay is admired inside and outside Uruguayan borders. The Solís Theatre
Solís Theatre
Solis Theatre is Uruguay's oldest theatre. It was built in 1856 and is currently owned by the government of Montevideo. It is located in Plaza Independencia ....

 is the most prominent theatre in Uruguay and the oldest in South America. There are several notable theatrical companies and thousands of professional actors and amateurs. Montevideo playwrights produce dozens of works each year; of major note are Mauricio Rosencof
Mauricio Rosencof
Mauricio Rosencof is a well-known Uruguayan playwright, poet and journalist from Florida, Uruguay. Since 2005 he has been Director of Culture of the Municipality of Montevideo....

, Ana Magnabosco and Ricardo Prieto.

In recent years Montevideo nightlife has moved to Ciudad Vieja, where a large concentration of buildings cater for the recreational interests of young people during the night time. Under a presidential decree of 1 March 2006 smoking is prohibited in any public place with roofing, and there is a prohibition on the sale of alcohol in certain businesses from 21.00 to 9.00.

A Cultural Centre of Spain, as well as Asturian
Asturias
The Principality of Asturias is an autonomous community of the Kingdom of Spain, coextensive with the former Kingdom of Asturias in the Middle Ages...

 and cultural centres, testify to Montevideo's considerable Spanish heritage. Montevideo also has important museums including Museo Torres García
Museo Torres García
The Museo Torres García is located in the historic Ciudad Vieja of Montevideo where unusual portraits of historical icons and cubist paintings akin to Picasso's paintings, painted by Joaquin Torres García are exhibited...

, Museo José Gurvich, Museo Nacional de Artes Visuales and Museo Juan Manuel Blanes etc., as mentioned above.

Literature

The first public library in Montevideo was formed by the initial donation of the private library of Father José Manuel Pérez Castellano, who died in 1815. Its promoter, director and organizer was Father Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga, who also made a considerable donation along with donations from José Raimundo Guerra, as well as others from the Convent of San Francisco in Salta
Salta
Salta is a city in northwestern Argentina and the capital city of the Salta Province. Along with its metropolitan area, it has a population of 464,678 inhabitants as of the , making it Argentina's eighth largest city.-Overview:...

. In 1816 its stock was 5,000 volumes. The current building of the National Library of Uruguay
National Library of Uruguay
The Biblioteca Nacional del Uruguay was created in 1815. It is the legal deposit and copyright library for Uruguay. It has been located in its current building since 1955. In 2006, it had more than 900,000 books, and 20,000 periodical publications, audiovisual materials, maps, scores, engravings,...

 (Biblioteca Pública de Uruguay) was designed by Luis Crespi in the Neoclassical
Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing...

 style and occupies an area of 4000 sqm. Construction began in 1926 and it was finally inaugurated in 1964. Its current collection amounts to roughly 900,000 volumes.

Authors

The city has a long and rich literary tradition. Although Uruguayan literature
Uruguayan literature
-Beginnings:Literature properly speaking starts in Uruguay with the country-flavoured poetry of Bartolomé Hidalgo, 1788-1822. The two leading figures of the Romantic period are Adolfo Berro and Juan Zorrilla de San Martín.ll-Modernistas:...

 is not limited to the authors of the capital (Horacio Quiroga
Horacio Quiroga
Horacio Silvestre Quiroga Forteza was an Uruguayan playwright, poet, and short story writer....

 was born in Salto
Salto
Salto may refer to:*Salto, a Latin word for "to leap/jump", and in gymnastics refers to a somersault* Glasflügel H-101 "Salto" -Organisations:...

 and Mario Benedetti
Mario Benedetti
Mario Benedetti was an Uruguayan journalist, novelist, and poet....

 in Paso de los Toros
Paso de los Toros
Paso de los Toros is a Uruguayan commercial line of carbonated soft drinks named after the Uruguayan city Paso de los Toros. Originally produced by a local company, it is currently manufactured by Pepsi...

, for instance), Montevideo has been and is the centre of the editorial and creative activity of literature.

In 1900, the city had a remarkable group of writers, including José Enrique Rodó
José Enrique Rodo
José Enrique Rodó Piñeyro was a Uruguayan essayist. He called for the youth of Latin America to reject materialism, to revert back to Greco-Roman habits of free thought and self enrichment, and to develop and concentrate on their culture.He cultivated an epistolary relationship with important...

, Carlos Vaz Ferreira
Carlos Vaz Ferreira
Carlos Vaz Ferreira was an Uruguayan philosopher, writer, and academic. Influenced by John Stuart Mill and Herbert Spencer, he is notable for introducing liberal, pluralistic political values and pragmatic philosophical concepts to South American society.-Life:Vaz was born in Montevideo. His...

, Julio Herrera y Reissig
Julio Herrera y Reissig
Julio Herrera y Reissig, was a Uruguayan poet, playwright and essayist, who began his career during the late Romanticist period and later became an early proponent of Modernism.-Background:...

, Delmira Agustini
Delmira Agustini
Delmira Agustini , a Uruguayan poet, is considered one of the greatest female Latin American poets of the early 20th century.-Background:Born in Montevideo, the daughter of Italian immigrants, Agustini was a precocious child...

 and Felisberto Hernández
Felisberto Hernández
Felisberto Hernandez was an Uruguayan writer.-Background:Hernández was born in Montevideo, Uruguay. His father was from Tenerife...

. Montevideo was then called the "Atenas del Plata" or the "Athens
Athens
Athens , is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, as its recorded history spans around 3,400 years. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state...

 of the Rio de la Plata".

Among the outstanding authors of Montevideo of the second half of the twentieth century are Juan Carlos Onetti
Juan Carlos Onetti
Juan Carlos Onetti was an Uruguayan novelist and author of short stories.A high school drop-out, Onetti's first novel, El pozo, published in 1939, met with his close friends' immediate acclaim, as well as from some writers and journalists of his time...

, Antonio Larreta, Eduardo Galeano
Eduardo Galeano
Eduardo Hughes Galeano is a Uruguayan journalist, writer and novelist. His best known works are Memoria del fuego and Las venas abiertas de América Latina which have been translated into twenty languages and transcend orthodox genres: combining fiction, journalism, political analysis, and...

, Marosa di Giorgio
Marosa di Giorgio
Marosa di Giorgio was an acclaimed Uruguayan poet and novelist.Marosa di Giorgio is considered one of the most singular voices in Latin America. Critics tend to agree that her writing is greatly influenced by European surrealism, although her vocabulary, style, and imagery are uniquely her own...

 and Cristina Peri Rossi
Cristina Peri Rossi
Cristina Peri Rossi is an Uruguayan novelist, poet, translator, and author of short stories.Considered a leading light of the post-1960s period of prominence of the Latin-American novel, she has written more than 37 works. She was born in Montevideo, Uruguay but was exiled in 1972, and moved to...

.

A new generation of writers have become known internationally in recent years. These include Eduardo Espina (essayist and poet), Fernando Butazzoni (novelist), Rafael Courtoisie (poet) and Hugo Burel (short story writer and novelist).

Music

In Montevideo, as throughout the Rio de Plata region, the most popular forms of music are tango
Tango music
Tango is a style of ballroom dance music in 2/4 or 4/4 time that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay . It is traditionally played by a sextet, known as the orquesta típica, which includes two violins, piano, double bass, and two bandoneons...

, milonga
Milonga
Milonga can refer to an Argentine, Uruguayan, and Southern Brazilian form of music which preceded the tango and the dance form which accompanies it, or to the term for places or events where the tango or Milonga are danced...

 and vals criollo. Many notable songs originated in Montevideo including "El Tango supremo", La Cumparsita", La Milonga", "La Puñalada" and "Desde el Alma", composed by notable Montevideo musicians such as Gerardo Matos Rodríguez
Gerardo Matos Rodríguez
Gerardo Hernan Matos Rodríguez Montevideo, Uruguay, also known as Becho, was a Uruguayan musician, composer and journalist.-Background and early career:...

, Pintín Castellanos and Rosita Melo
Rosita Melo
Clotilde Mela Rosa Luciano, better known as Rosita Melo , was an Argentinian-Uruguayan pianist, composer and poet....

. Tango is deeply ingrained in the cultural life of the city and is the theme for many of the bars and restaurants in the city. Fun Fun' Bar, established in 1935, is one of the most important places for tango in Uruguay as is El Farolito, located in the old part of the city and Joventango, Café Las Musas, Garufa and Vieja Viola. Many contemporary tango performers hail from Montevideo, such as Kutxi Romero. The city is also home to the Montevideo Jazz Festival and has the Bancaria Jazz Club bar catering for jazz enthusiasts.

Art

The daily newspaper El País sponsors the Virtual Museum of contemporary Uruguayan art. The director and curator of the Museum presents exhibitions in "virtual spaces, supplemented by information, biographies, texts in English and Spanish".

In the early 1970s (1973, to be particular) when the military junta took over power in Uruguay, art suffered in Montevideo. The art studios went into protest mode, with Rimer Cardillo, one of the country's leading artists, making the National Institute of Fine Arts, Montevideo a "hotbed of resistance". This resulted in the military junta coming down heavily on artists by closing the Fine Art Institute and carting away all the presses and other studio equipment. Consequently, the learning of fine arts was only in private studios run by people who had been let out of jail, in works of printing and on paper and also painting and sculpture. It resumed much later.

Museums

The Montevideo Cabildo
Montevideo Cabildo
The Montevideo Cabildo is the public building in Montevideo that was used as the government house during the colonial times of the Viceroyalty of the River Plate. Today the building is used as a museum and houses the Historical Archive of the city. It is located on Constitution Square, in Ciudad...

 was the seat of government during the colonial
Colonialism
Colonialism is the establishment, maintenance, acquisition and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory. It is a process whereby the metropole claims sovereignty over the colony and the social structure, government, and economics of the colony are changed by...

 times of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, , was the last and most short-lived Viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire in America.The Viceroyalty was established in 1776 out of several former Viceroyalty of Perú dependencies that mainly extended over the Río de la Plata basin, roughly the present day...

. It is located in front of Constitution Square, in Ciudad Vieja. Built between 1804 and 1869 in Neoclassical style, with a series of Doric and Ionic columns, it became a National Heritage Site in 1975. In l958, the Municipal Historic Museum and Archive was inaugurated here. It features three permanent city museum
City Museum
City Museum is a museum, consisting largely of repurposed architectural and industrial objects, housed in the former International Shoe building in the Washington Avenue Loft District of St...

 exhibitions, as well as temporary art exhibitions, cultural events, seminars, symposiums and forums.
The Palacio Taranco
Palacio Taranco
Palacio Taranco, located in front of the Plaza Zabala, in the heart of the Old City of Montevideo, Uruguay, is a palace erected in the early 20th century during a period in which the architectural style was influenced by French architecture...

 is located in front of the Plaza Zabala, in the heart of Ciudad Vieja. It was erected in the early 20th century as the residence of the Ortiz Taranco brothers on the ruins of Montevideo's first theatre (of 1793), during a period in which the architectural style was influenced by French architecture. The palace was designed by French architects Charles Louis Girault and Jules Chifflot León who also designed the Petit Palais
Petit Palais
The Petit Palais is a museum in Paris, France. Built for the Universal Exhibition in 1900 to Charles Girault's designs, it now houses the City of Paris Museum of Fine Arts ....

 and the Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
-The design:The astylar design is by Jean Chalgrin , in the Neoclassical version of ancient Roman architecture . Major academic sculptors of France are represented in the sculpture of the Arc de Triomphe: Jean-Pierre Cortot; François Rude; Antoine Étex; James Pradier and Philippe Joseph Henri Lemaire...

 in Paris. It passed to the city from the heirs of the Tarancos in 1943, along with its precious collection of Uruguayan furniture and draperies and was deemed by the city as an ideal place for a museum; in 1972 it became the Museum of Decorative Arts of Montevideo and in 1975 it became a National Heritage Site. The Decorative Arts Museum has an important collection of European paintings and decorative arts, ancient Greek
Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

 and Roman art
Roman art
Roman art has the visual arts made in Ancient Rome, and in the territories of the Roman Empire. Major forms of Roman art are architecture, painting, sculpture and mosaic work...

 and Islamic ceramics of the 10th–18th century from the area of present-day Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. The palace is often used as a meeting place by the Uruguayan government.
The National History Museum of Montevideo is located in the historical residence of General Fructuoso Rivera. It exhibits artifacts related to the history of Uruguay. In a process begun in 1998, the National Museum of Natural History (1837) and the National Museum of Anthropology (1981), merged in 2001, becoming the National Museum of Natural History and Anthropology. In July 2009, the two institutions again became independent. The Historical Museum has annexed eight historical houses in the city, five of which are located in the Ciudad Vieja. One of them, on the same block with the main building, is the historic residence of Antonio Montero, which houses the Museo Romantico.

The Museo Torres García
Museo Torres García
The Museo Torres García is located in the historic Ciudad Vieja of Montevideo where unusual portraits of historical icons and cubist paintings akin to Picasso's paintings, painted by Joaquin Torres García are exhibited...

 is located in the Old Town, and exhibits Joaquín Torres García
Joaquín Torres García
Joaquín Torres García , was a Uruguayan plastic artist and art theorist, also known as the founder of Constructive Universalism...

's unusual portraits of historical icons and cubist
Cubism
Cubism was a 20th century avant-garde art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture...

 paintings akin to those of Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso known as Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish expatriate painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer, one of the greatest and most influential artists of the...

 and Braque
Georges Braque
Georges Braque[p] was a major 20th century French painter and sculptor who, along with Pablo Picasso, developed the art style known as Cubism.-Early Life:...

. The museum was established by Manolita Piña Torres, the widow of Torres Garcia, after his death in 1949. She also set up the García Torres Foundation, a private non-profit organization that organizes the paintings, drawings, original writings, archives, objects and furniture designed by the painter as well as the photographs, magazines and publications related to him.
There are several other important art museums in Montevideo. The National Museum of Visual Arts
National Museum of Visual Arts (Uruguay)
National Museum of Visual Arts is the name of a museum, Julio Herrera y Reissig esq. Tomás Giribaldi, s/n, In Parque Rodó, Montevideo, Uruguay. It was inaugurated on December 10 of 1911....

 in Parque Rodó has Uruguay's largest collection of paintings. The Juan Manuel Blanes Museum
Juan Manuel Blanes Museum
Juan Manuel Blanes Municipal Museum of Arts Juan Manuel Blanes Municipal Museum of Arts Juan Manuel Blanes Municipal Museum of Arts (en eis the name of a municipal museum, Avenida Millán 4015 In Prado, Montevideo, Uruguay.-Location and history:It is located in the neighbourhood of Prado,...

 was founded in 1930, the 100th anniversary of the first Constitution of Uruguay
Constitution of Uruguay
The Constitution of Uruguay is the supreme law of Uruguay. Its first version was written in 1830 and its last amendment was made in 2002. A new amendment is in talks as of April 2007....

, significant with regard to the fact that Juan Manuel Blanes
Juan Manuel Blanes
Juan Manuel Blanes was a noted Uruguayan painter of the Realist school.-Life and work:Blanes was born in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 1830. He was raised by his mother, with whom he relocated to the countryside in his early teens...

 painted Uruguayan patriotic themes. In back of the museum is a beautiful Japanese Garden with a pond where there are over a hundred carp
Carp
Carp are various species of oily freshwater fish of the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia. The cypriniformes are traditionally grouped with the Characiformes, Siluriformes and Gymnotiformes to create the superorder Ostariophysi, since these groups have certain...

. The Museo de Historia del Arte, located in the Palacio Municipal, features replicas of ancient monuments and exhibits a varied collection of artifacts from Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, Greece, Rome and Native American cultures including local finds of the pre-Columbian period. The Museo Municipal Precolombino y Colonial, in the Ciudad Vieja, has preserved collections of the archaeological finds from excavations carried out by Uruguayan archaeologist Antonio Taddei. These antiquaries are exhibits of pre-Columbian art of Latin America, painting and sculpture from the 17th and 18th century mostly from Mexico, Peru
Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

 and Brazil. The Museo de Arte Contempo has small but impressive exhibits of modern Uruguayan painting and sculpture.

There are also other types of museums in the city. The Museo del Gaucho y de la Moneda, located in the Centro, has distinctive displays of the historical culture of Uruguay's gaucho
Gaucho
Gaucho is a term commonly used to describe residents of the South American pampas, chacos, or Patagonian grasslands, found principally in parts of Argentina, Uruguay, Southern Chile, and Southern Brazil...

s, their horse gear, silver work and mate
Yerba mate
Maté, yerba maté or erva maté , Ilex paraguariensis, is a species of holly native to subtropical South America in northeastern Argentina, Bolivia, southern Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay...

(tea), gourds, and bombillas (drinking straws) in odd designs. The Museo Naval, is located on the eastern waterfront in Buceo and offers exhibits depicting the maritime history of Uruguay. The Museo del Automóvil, belonging to the Automobile Club of Uruguay, has a rich collection of vintage cars which includes a 1910 Hupmobile
Hupmobile
The Hupmobile was an automobile built from 1909 through 1940 by the Hupp Motor Company, which was located at 345 Bellevue Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Its first car, the Model 20, was introduced to the public at the Detroit Auto Show in February 1909...

. The Museo y Parque Fernando García in Carrasco, a transport and automobile museum, includes old horse carriages and some early automobiles. The Castillo Pittamiglio, with an unusual façade, highlights the eccentric legacy of Humberto Pittamiglio, local alchemist and architect.

Cuisine

The center of traditional Uruguayan food and beverage in Montevideo is the Mercado del Puerto ("Port Market"). A torta frita is a pan-fried cake consumed in Montevideo and throughout Uruguay. It is generally circular, with a small cut in the centre for cooking, and is made from wheat flour, yeast, water and sugar or salt. Beef
Beef
Beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines, especially domestic cattle. Beef can be harvested from cows, bulls, heifers or steers. It is one of the principal meats used in the cuisine of the Middle East , Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Europe and the United States, and is also important in...

 is very important in Uruguayan cuisine and an essential part of many dishes. Montevideo has a variety of restaurants, from traditional Uruguayan cuisine
Uruguayan cuisine
Uruguayan cuisine is traditionally based on its European roots, in particular, Mediterranean food from Italy, Spain, Portugal and France, but also from countries such as Germany and Britain, along with African and indigenous mixtures. Many foods from those countries such as pasta, sausages, and...

 to Japanese cuisine
Japanese cuisine
Japanese cuisine has developed over the centuries as a result of many political and social changes throughout Japan. The cuisine eventually changed with the advent of the Medieval age which ushered in a shedding of elitism with the age of shogun rule...

 such as sushi
Sushi
is a Japanese food consisting of cooked vinegared rice combined with other ingredients . Neta and forms of sushi presentation vary, but the ingredient which all sushi have in common is shari...

. Notable restaurants in Montevideo include Arcadia atop the Plaza Victoria, widely regarded to be the finest restaurant in the city. Arcadia is set in a classic Italian-inspired dining room and serves lavish dishes such as terrine of pheasant
Pheasant
Pheasants refer to some members of the Phasianinae subfamily of Phasianidae in the order Galliformes.Pheasants are characterised by strong sexual dimorphism, males being highly ornate with bright colours and adornments such as wattles and long tails. Males are usually larger than females and have...

 marinated in cognac, grilled lamb glazed with mint
Mentha
Mentha is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae . The species are not clearly distinct and estimates of the number of species varies from 13 to 18. Hybridization between some of the species occurs naturally...

 and garlic
Garlic
Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and rakkyo. Dating back over 6,000 years, garlic is native to central Asia, and has long been a staple in the Mediterranean region, as well as a frequent...

, and duck confit on thin strudel pastry with red cabbage
Red Cabbage
The red cabbage is a sort of cabbage, also known as Red Kraut or Blue Kraut after preparation....

. El Fogon is more popular with the late-night diners of the city. Its interior is brightly lit and the walls covered with big mirrors. Officially a barbecue and seafood restaurant, it serves grilled meat dishes, as well as salmon
Salmon
Salmon is the common name for several species of fish in the family Salmonidae. Several other fish in the same family are called trout; the difference is often said to be that salmon migrate and trout are resident, but this distinction does not strictly hold true...

, shrimp
Shrimp
Shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. Adult shrimp are filter feeding benthic animals living close to the bottom. They can live in schools and can swim rapidly backwards. Shrimp are an important...

 and calamari. Also of note is the Cru. Numerous restaurants are located along the Rambla of Montevideo. There is an Irish pub in the eastern part of the Old District named Shannon Irish pub, another testament to the European heritage of the city.

Festivals

As the capital of Uruguay, Montevideo is home to a number of festivals and carnivals including a Gaucho festival when people ride through the streets on horseback in traditional gaucho gear. The major annual festival is the annual Montevideo Carnaval which is part of the national festival of Carnival Week, celebrated throughout Uruguay, with central activities in the capital, Montevideo. Officially, the public holiday lasts for two days on Carnival Monday and Shrove Tuesday
Shrove Tuesday
Shrove Tuesday is a term used in English-speaking countries, especially in Ireland, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Philippines, Germany, and parts of the United States for the day preceding Ash Wednesday, the first day of the season of fasting and prayer called Lent.The...

 preceding Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday, in the calendar of Western Christianity, is the first day of Lent and occurs 46 days before Easter. It is a moveable fast, falling on a different date each year because it is dependent on the date of Easter...

, but due to the prominence of the festival, most shops and businesses close for the entire week.
During carnival there are many open-air stage performances and competitions and the streets and houses are vibrantly decorated. "Tablados" or popular scenes, both fixed and movable, are erected in the whole city. Notable displays include "Desfile de las Llamadas" ("Parade of the Calls"), which is a grand united parade held on the south part of downtown, where it used to be a common ritual back in the early 20 century. Due to the scale of the festival, preparation begins as early as December with an election of the "zonal beauty queens" to appear in the carnival.

Religion

The main religion in Uruguay is Roman Catholicism and has been since the foundation of the city. The city is part of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Montevideo
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Montevideo
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Montevideo is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Uruguay.Erected as the Apostolic Vicariate of Montevideo in 1830, the vicariate was promoted to the Diocese of Montevideo on July 13, 1878...

 which was created as the Apostolic Vicariate
Apostolic vicariate
An apostolic vicariate is a form of territorial jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Church established in missionary regions and countries that do not have a diocese. It is essentially provisional, though it may last for a century or more...

 of Montevideo in 1830. The vicariate was promoted to the Diocese of Montevideo on 13 July 1878. Pope Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII , born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci to an Italian comital family, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903...

 elevated it to the rank of a metropolitan archdiocese
Metropolitan bishop
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.Before the establishment of...

 on 14 April 1897. The new archdiocese became the Metropolitan
Metropolitan bishop
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.Before the establishment of...

 of the suffragan sees
Suffragan bishop
A suffragan bishop is a bishop subordinate to a metropolitan bishop or diocesan bishop. He or she may be assigned to an area which does not have a cathedral of its own.-Anglican Communion:...

 of Canelones
Roman Catholic Diocese of Canelones
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Canelones is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Uruguay. The diocese was erected in 1961, and is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Montevideo....

, Florida
Roman Catholic Diocese of Florida
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Florida is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Uruguay. The diocese was erected in 1897 as the diocese of Melo from the diocese of Montevideo. In 1931, the name was changed to the diocese of Florida-Melo...

, Maldonado–Punta del Este, Melo
Roman Catholic Diocese of Melo
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Melo is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Uruguay. The diocese was erected in 1955, split off from the former diocese of Florida-Melo, and is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Montevideo....

, Mercedes
Roman Catholic Diocese of Mercedes
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Mercedes is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Uruguay. The diocese was erected in 1960, from parts of both the Diocese of Salto and the Diocese of San José de Mayo...

, Minas
Roman Catholic Diocese of Minas
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Minas is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Uruguay. The diocese was erected in 1960, and is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Montevideo....

, Salto
Roman Catholic Diocese of Salto
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Salto is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Uruguay. The diocese was erected in 1897, and is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Montevideo....

, San José de Mayo
Roman Catholic Diocese of San José de Mayo
The Roman Catholic Diocese of San José de Mayo is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Uruguay. The diocese was created in 1955, from territory in the Archdiocese of Montevideo and the Diocese of Salto...

, Tacuarembó
Roman Catholic Diocese of Tacuarembó
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Tacuarembó is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Uruguay. The diocese was created in 1960, from the Diocese of Florida and is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Montevideo....

.

Montevideo is the only archdiocese in Uruguay and, as its Ordinary
Ordinary
In those hierarchically organised churches of Western Christianity which have an ecclesiastical law system, an ordinary is an officer of the church who by reason of office has ordinary power to execute the church's laws...

, the archbishop is also Primate
Primate (religion)
Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. Depending on the particular tradition, it can denote either jurisdictional authority or ceremonial precedence ....

 of the Uruguayan Church
Roman Catholicism in Uruguay
The Roman Catholic Church in Uruguay is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome....

. The archdiocese's mother church
Mother Church
In Christianity, the term mother church or Mother Church may have one of the following meanings:# The first mission church in an area, or a pioneer cathedral# A basilica or cathedral# The main chapel of a province of a religious order...

 and thus seat of its archbishop is Catedral Inmaculada Concepción y San Felipe y Santiago. As of 2010, the current Archbishop of Montevideo is His Excellency
Excellency
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain members of an organization or state.Usually, people styled "Excellency" are heads of state, heads of government, governors, ambassadors, certain ecclesiastics, royalty, aristocracy, and military, and others holding equivalent rank .It is...

Nicolás Cotugno Fanizzi, SDB
Salesians of Don Bosco
The Salesians of Don Bosco is a Roman Catholic religious order founded in the late nineteenth century by Saint John Bosco in an attempt, through works of charity, to care for the young and poor children of the industrial revolution...

, since his appointment on 4 December 1998.

Montevideo Metropolitan Cathedral

The Montevideo Metropolitan Cathedral is the main Roman Catholic church of Montevideo. It is located in Ciudad Vieja, immediately across Constitution Square from the Cabildo
Montevideo Cabildo
The Montevideo Cabildo is the public building in Montevideo that was used as the government house during the colonial times of the Viceroyalty of the River Plate. Today the building is used as a museum and houses the Historical Archive of the city. It is located on Constitution Square, in Ciudad...

. In 1740 a brick church was built on the site. In 1790, the foundation was laid for the current neoclassical structure. The church was consecrated in 1804. Bicentennial celebrations were held in 2004.

In 1897, Pope Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII , born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci to an Italian comital family, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903...

 elevated the church to Metropolitan Cathedral status. Important ceremonies are conducted under the direction of the Archbishop of Montevideo. Weddings and choral concerts are held here and the parish priest conducts the routine functions of the cathedral. In the 19th century, its precincts were also used as a burial place of famous people who died in the city. For decades, the prison and the nearby parish church were the only major buildings in the neighbourhood.

Nuestra Señora del Sagrado Corazón

Nuestra Señora del Sagrado Corazón ("Our Lady of the Sacred Heart"), also known as Iglesia Punta Carretas ("Punta Carretas Church"), was built between 1917 and 1927 in the Romanesque Revival style. The church was originally part of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin
Order of Friars Minor Capuchin
The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin is an Order of friars in the Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. The worldwide head of the Order, called the Minister General, is currently Father Mauro Jöhri.-Origins :...

, but is presently in the parish of the Ecclesiastic Curia. Its location is at the corner of Solano García and José Ellauri. It has a nave and aisles. The roof has many vaults. During the construction of the Punta Carretas Shopping complex, major cracks developed in the structure of the church as a result of differential foundation settlement.

Public Education

The University of the Republic is the country's largest and most important university, with a student body of 81,774, according to the census of 2007. It was founded on 18 July 1849 in Montevideo, where most of its buildings and facilities are still located. Its current Rector
Rector
The word rector has a number of different meanings; it is widely used to refer to an academic, religious or political administrator...

 is Dr. Rodrigo Arocena
Rodrigo Arocena
Rodrigo Arocena Linn is an Uruguayan mathematician.He received his Ph.D. from the Central University of Venezuela in 1979, under the supervision of Mischa Cotlar. He has been rector of the University of the Republic since 2006.-External links: retrieved 17/09/2011...

. The university houses 14 faculties (departments) and various institutes and schools. Many eminent Uruguayans have graduated from this university, including Carlos Vaz Ferreira
Carlos Vaz Ferreira
Carlos Vaz Ferreira was an Uruguayan philosopher, writer, and academic. Influenced by John Stuart Mill and Herbert Spencer, he is notable for introducing liberal, pluralistic political values and pragmatic philosophical concepts to South American society.-Life:Vaz was born in Montevideo. His...

, José Luis Massera
José Luis Massera
José Luis Massera was an Uruguayan mathematician who researched the stability of differential equations....

, Gabriel Paternain
Gabriel Paternain
Gabriel Pedro Paternain is a Uruguayan mathematician. He is currently a professor in geometry and dynamics in DPMMS at the University of Cambridge, and a teaching fellow at Trinity College. He obtained his Licenciatura from Universidad de la Republica in Uruguay in 1987, and his PhD from the State...

, Mario Wschebor
Mario Wschebor
Mario Wschebor Wonsever was an Uruguayan mathematician. He earned his degree at the University of the Republic, Uruguay, where he was Dean of the Faculty of Sciences between 1987–1997, after actively participating in the process of its creation...

, Roman Fresnedo Siri
Roman Fresnedo Siri
Roman Fresnedo Siri was a Uruguayan architect.- Biography :Born Salto, Uruguay, he graduated as an architect of the Faculty of Architecture, University of the Republic, at the Old City of Montevideo....

, Carlos Ott
Carlos Ott
Carlos Ott is a Uruguayan architect who resides in Canada. He became famous when he won the first prize in 1983 for the construction of the Opéra de la Bastille in Paris, which was inaugurated on July 14, 1989...

 and Eladio Dieste
Eladio Dieste
Eladio Dieste was a Uruguayan engineer and architect who made his reputation by building a range of structures from grain silos, factory sheds, markets and churches, all in Uruguay and all of exceptional elegance...



The process of founding the country's public university began on 11 June 1833 with the passage of a law proposed by Senator Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga. It called for the creation of nine academic departments; the President of the Republic would pass a decree formally creating the departments once the majority of them were in operation. In 1836, the House of General Studies was formed, housing the departments of Latin, philosophy, mathematics, theology and jurisprudence. On 27 May 1838, Manuel Oribe
Manuel Oribe
Manuel Ceferino Oribe y Viana was the fourth president of Uruguay.-Biography:Manuel Oribe was the son of Captain Francisco Oribe and María Francisca Viana, a descendant of the first governor of Montevideo, José Joaquín de Viana...

 passed a decree establishing the Greater University of the Republic. That decree had few practical effects, given the institutional instability of the Oriental Republic of the Uruguay at that time.

Private Education

The largest private university in Uruguay, is also located in Montevideo. ORT Uruguay was first established as a non-profit organization
Non-profit organization
Nonprofit organization is neither a legal nor technical definition but generally refers to an organization that uses surplus revenues to achieve its goals, rather than distributing them as profit or dividends...

 in 1942, and was officially certified as a private university in September 1996, becoming the first private educational institution in the country to achieve that status. It is a member of World ORT
World ORT
World ORT is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose mission is the advancement of Jewish and other people through training and education, with past and present activities in over 100 countries....

, an international educational network founded in 1880 by the Jewish community in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

, Russia.
The university has about 8,000 students, distributed among 5 faculties and institutes, mainly geared towards the sciences and technology/engineering. Its current rector as of 2010 is Dr. Jorge A. Grünberg.

The Montevideo Crandon Institute is an American School of missionary origin and the main Methodist educational institution in Uruguay. Founded in 1879 and supported by the Women's Society of the Methodist Church of the United States, it is one of the most traditional and emblematic institutions in the city inculcating John Wesley
John Wesley
John Wesley was a Church of England cleric and Christian theologian. Wesley is largely credited, along with his brother Charles Wesley, as founding the Methodist movement which began when he took to open-air preaching in a similar manner to George Whitefield...

's values. Its alumni include presidents, senators, ambassadors and Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

 winners, along with musicians, scientists, and others. The Montevideo Crandon Institute boasts of being the first academic institution in South America where a home economics
Home Economics
Home economics is the profession and field of study that deals with the economics and management of the home and community...

 course was taught.

The Christian Brothers of Ireland Stella Maris College
Stella Maris College (Montevideo)
The Stella Maris College of Montevideo, commonly referred as Christian Brothers College – Stella Maris or just Christian, is a private, co-educational, not-for-profit Catholic school run by the Christian Brothers of Ireland...

 is a private, co-educational, not-for-profit Catholic
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

 school located in the wealthy residential southeastern neighbourhood of Carrasco
Carrasco, Montevideo
Carrasco is a barrio in Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Punta Gorda to the west, Carrasco Norte to the north, Canelones Department to the east and the coastline to the south...

. Established in 1955, it is regarded as one of the best high school
High school
High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

s in the country, blending a rigorous curriculum with strong extracurricular activities. The school's headmaster, history professor Juan Pedro Toni, is a member of the Stella Maris Board of Governors and the school is a member of the International Baccalaureate Organization
International Baccalaureate Organization
The International Baccalaureate , formerly the International Baccalaureate Organization , is an international educational foundation headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland and founded in 1968. IB offers three educational programmes for children ages 3–19.The organization's name and logo were changed...

 (IBO). Its long list of distinguished former pupils includes economists, engineers, architects, lawyers, politicians and even F1
Formula One
Formula One, also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship, is the highest class of single seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . The "formula" designation in the name refers to a set of rules with which...

 champions. The school has also played an important part in the development of rugby union in Uruguay
Rugby union in Uruguay
Rugby union is considered one of the most popular sports in Uruguay. The national team, commonly known as Los Teros, have been playing international rugby since the late 1940s and have made appearances in two world cups - once in 1999 and again in 2003.- Governing body :The Unión de Rugby del...

, with the creation of Old Christians Club
Old Christians Club
Old Christians Club, or simply Old Christians, is a rugby union and field hockey club from the Solymar neighbourhood of Montevideo, Uruguay.....

, the school's alumni
Alumnus
An alumnus , according to the American Heritage Dictionary, is "a graduate of a school, college, or university." An alumnus can also be a former member, employee, contributor or inmate as well as a former student. In addition, an alumna is "a female graduate or former student of a school, college,...

 club.

Also in Carrasco is The British Schools of Montevideo
The British Schools of Montevideo
The British Schools of Montevideo is a private, coeducational, non-profit school, which aims to give an intensive bilingual education, combining the Uruguayan national curriculum with an English language program.-Educational programs and governance:...

, one of the oldest educational institutions in the country, established in 1908. It has the reputation of being one of the best schools in the country. Its original purpose was to give Uruguayan children a complete education, on par with the best schools of the United Kingdom and to establish strong bonds between the British and Uruguayan children living in the country.
The School is governed by the Board of Governors, elected by the British Schools Society in Uruguay, whose honorary president is the British Ambassador to Uruguay. Prominent alumni include former government ministers Pedro Bordaberry
Pedro Bordaberry
Juan Pedro Bordaberry Herrán is a Uruguayan political figure. He is the current President of the Colorado Party-Early life:Bordaberry was educated at The British Schools of Montevideo, gaining fluency in English...

 Herrán and Gabriel Gurméndez Armand-Ugon
Gabriel Gurméndez Armand-Ugon
Gabriel Gurméndez Armand-Ugon is an Uruguayan industrial engineer, business executive and government figure.-Background:He studied industrial engineering at Universidad de la República, in Montevideo...

.

Other educational institutions of note include Instituto Alfredo Vásquez Acevedo, Instituto Preuniversitario Juan XXIII, Lycée Français de Montevideo
Lycée Français de Montevideo
Lycée Français Jules Supervielle de Montevideo is a French school in Montevideo. It is located at Benigno Paiva 1160.-External links:*...

, Escuela Brasil (Montevideo)
Escuela Brasil (Montevideo)
The School No. 17 Brazil is a building that is located in the Uruguayan capital, Montevideo, in the neighbourhood of Pocitos, in the streets Avenida Brasil 2963, on 26 de Marzo and José Martí.The project architect is Americo Maini, 1908....

, Liceo Joaquín Suárez
Liceo Joaquin Suarez (Montevideo)
Joaquin Suarez's high school was the first public secondary school in Pocitos, in the city of Montevideo.From 1944 to 1948 its location was in Magallanes street where he shared the building with the Italian School, a place that later the Faculty of Economics and Faculty of Humanities later...

 and Colegio Preuniversitario Ciudad de San Felipe.

Sports

Montevideo is a strong centre of professional sport, and by far the most prominent in Uruguay. Estadio Centenario
Estadio Centenario
Estadio Centenario is a stadium in Parque Batlle, Montevideo, Uruguay, used primarily for football. The stadium was built between 1929 and 1930 to host the 1930 FIFA World Cup, as well as to commemorate the centennial of Uruguay's first constitution...

, the national football stadium in Parque Batlle, was opened in 1930 for the first World Cup
FIFA World Cup
The FIFA World Cup, often simply the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association , the sport's global governing body...

, as well as to commemorate the centennial of Uruguay's first constitution. In this World Cup, Uruguay won the title game against Argentina by 4 goals to 2. The stadium has 70,000 seats. It is listed by FIFA
FIFA
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association , commonly known by the acronym FIFA , is the international governing body of :association football, futsal and beach football. Its headquarters are located in Zurich, Switzerland, and its president is Sepp Blatter, who is in his fourth...

 as one of the football world's classic stadiums, along with Maracanã
Estádio do Maracanã
The Estádio do Maracanã , officially Estádio Jornalista Mário Filho, is an open-air stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Owned by the Rio de Janeiro State Government, it is named after the Maracanã neighbourhood in Rio de Janeiro. It was opened in 1950 to host the FIFA World Cup, and in the final...

, Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
The original Wembley Stadium, officially known as the Empire Stadium, was a football stadium in Wembley, a suburb of north-west London, standing on the site now occupied by the new Wembley Stadium that opened in 2007...

, San Siro
San Siro
The Stadio Giuseppe Meazza, originally and commonly referred to as the San Siro because of its location, officially given its current name on 3 March 1980, is a football stadium located in the San Siro district in Milan, Italy. It is the home of both A.C. Milan and F.C. Internazionale Milano...

, Estadio Azteca
Estadio Azteca
Estadio Azteca is a stadium in Santa Ursula, Mexico City, Mexico. It is the official home stadium of the Mexico national football team and the Mexican team Club América.The stadium was the venue for football soccer in the 1968 Summer Olympics....

, and Santiago Bernabéu Stadium
Santiago Bernabéu Stadium
The Estadio Santiago Bernabéu is an all-seater football stadium in Madrid, Spain. It was inaugurated on 14 December 1947 and is owned by Real Madrid Club de Fútbol. It has a current capacity of 85,454 spectators....

. A museum located within the football stadium has exhibits of memorabilia from of Uruguay's 1930 and 1950 World Cup championships. Museum tickets give access to the stadium, stands, locker rooms and playing field.

Between 1935 and 1938, the athletics track and the municipal velodrome
Velodrome
A velodrome is an arena for track cycling. Modern velodromes feature steeply banked oval tracks, consisting of two 180-degree circular bends connected by two straights...

 were completed within Parque Batlle. The Tabaré Athletic Club is occasionally made over as a carnival theatre using impermanent materials.

Today the vast majority of teams in the Uruguayan Premier League and First Division come from Montevideo, including Nacional
Club Nacional de Football
Club Nacional de Football is a Uruguayan sports club based in Montevideo. It is best known for its professional football team, which plays in the Uruguayan Primera División....

, Peñarol, Central Español
Central Español
Central Español Fútbol Club, usually known simply as Central Español is a Uruguayan football club based in Montevideo.- The F.U.F era :Together with Peñarol, Central founded F.U.F in 1923 after being expelled from A.U.F...

, Cerrito, Cerro, Danubio, Defensor Sporting
Defensor Sporting Club
-History:Founded on March 15, 1913 as Club Atlético Defensor, the name of the club was changed in 1989 to Defensor Sporting Club after a merger with Sporting Club Uruguay. The team plays in the Luis Franzini Stadium...

, Atlético Fénix
Centro Atlético Fénix
Centro Atlético Fénix are a sports club from Montevideo in Uruguay. They currently play in the Uruguayan 1st Division. Fénix is one of the most popular and traditional teams of Uruguay's 2nd Division, along with Racing Club de Montevideo, who are their all-time rivals.-History:The club were founded...

, Liverpool, Wanderers
Montevideo Wanderers F.C.
Montevideo Wanderers Fútbol Club, usually known simply as Wanderers is a Uruguayan football club based in Montevideo. The club are currently members of the Primera División and play at the Estadio Viera...

, Racing
Racing Club de Montevideo
Racing Club de Montevideo is a football club from Montevideo in Uruguay. It currently play in the Uruguayan 1st Division.Racing Club is known as "La Escuelita" due to the excellent players that resulted from the team, it was like a player machine...

, River Plate
Club Atlético River Plate (Uruguay)
Club Atlético River Plate is an Uruguayan football club based in Montevideo. The club currently plays in the Primera División. River is the result of the merger of former clubs Olimpia and Capurro....

 and Rampla Juniors.

Besides Estadio Centenario, other stadiums include Belvedere
Estadio Belvedere
Estadio Belvedere is a multi-use stadium in Montevideo, Uruguay. It is currently used primarily for football matches. The stadium holds 10,000 people and was built in 1909. On August 15, 1910, in a game at Estadio Belvedere, the Uruguay national football team wore their signature light blue...

, Complejo Rentistas
Estadio Complejo Rentistas
Estadio Complejo Rentistas is a multi-use stadium in Montevideo, Uruguay. It is currently used primarily for football matches. It is the home stadium of Club Atlético Rentistas. The stadium holds 10,000 people and was opened in 1998....

, Gran Parque Central
Estadio Gran Parque Central
The Estadio Gran Parque Central, usually just Parque Central, is the stadium of Club Nacional de Football. It is located in Montevideo, Uruguay, near Nacional headquarters , in the La Blanqueada neighbourhood...

, Jardines del Hipódromo, José Pedro Damiani, "La Bombonera"
Estadio "La Bombonera"
The Estadio "La Bombonera" is a football stadium in Montevideo, Uruguay owned and used by Club Atlético Basáñez. It has a capacity of 6,000 spectators and opened in 1981.-Links:*...

, Luis Franzini
Estadio Luis Franzini
The Estadio Luis Franzini is an outdoor football stadium located in Montevideo, Uruguay. The stadium's maximum capacity is 18,000 people, and it is the home ground of Defensor Sporting. The stadium was closed during the 1997 season for renovations. It reopened on 16 August 1998 with the name...

, Luis Tróccoli
Estadio Luis Tróccoli
Estadio Luis Tróccoli is a multi-use stadium in Montevideo, Uruguay. It is currently used primarily for football matches and is the home of CA Cerro. The stadium holds 25,000 spectators and was built in 1964....

 and the park stadiums of Abraham Paladino, Alfredo Víctor Viera, Omar Saroldi, José Nasazzi, Osvaldo Roberto, Maracaná
Estadio Parque Maracaná
The Estadio Parque Maracaná is a football stadium that is located in Casavalle, Montevideo, Uruguay. It has a capacity of 8,000 and is the home stadium of Club Sportivo Cerrito. The stadium opened on Saturday 20th September 2008, with a match between Cerrito and Huracán Buceo in the Segunda...

 and Palermo.

The Uruguayan Basketball League is headquartered in Montevideo and most of its teams are from the city, including Defensor Sporting
Defensor Sporting Club
-History:Founded on March 15, 1913 as Club Atlético Defensor, the name of the club was changed in 1989 to Defensor Sporting Club after a merger with Sporting Club Uruguay. The team plays in the Luis Franzini Stadium...

, Trouville, Unión Atlética, Capitol, Malvín
Club Malvín
Club Malvín is a sports club from Montevideo, Uruguay, established on January 28, 1938, in the residential neighbourhood of Malvín. The club engages in several sports: futsal, tennis, and handball, but basketball is by far the most important.-History:...

 and Biguá. Montevideo is also a centre of rugby
Rugby football
Rugby football is a style of football named after Rugby School in the United Kingdom. It is seen most prominently in two current sports, rugby league and rugby union.-History:...

; equestrianism
Equestrianism
Equestrianism more often known as riding, horseback riding or horse riding refers to the skill of riding, driving, or vaulting with horses...

, which regained importance in Montevideo after the Maroñas Racecourse reopened; golf, with the Club de Punta Carretas; and yachting, with the Puerto del Buceo, an ideal place to moor yachts. The Golf Club of Punta Carretas was founded in 1894 covers all the area encircled by the west side of Bulevar Artigas, the Rambla (Montevideo's promenade) and the Parque Rodó (Fun Fair).

Transportation

The Dirección Nacional de Transporte (DNT), part of the national Ministry of Transport and Public Works, is responsible for the organization and development of Montevideo's transport infrastructure. A very good bus service network covers the entire city. An international bus station, the Tres Cruces Bus Terminal, is located on the lower level of the Tres Cruces Shopping Center, on the side of Artigas Boulevard
Artigas Boulevard
Artigas Boulevard is an avenue in Montevideo named after Uruguayan hero José Artigas. It starts from the Rambla of Montevideo at Punta Carretas, goes north for about 6.5 kilometers, turns 100º west, and runs for another 4 kilometers up to the Rambla at Capurro - Bella Vista.It meets with...

. This terminal, along with the Baltazar Brum Bus Terminal (or Rio Branco Terminal) by the Port of Montevideo, handles the long distance and intercity bus routes connecting to destinations within Uruguay.
The State Railways Administration of Uruguay (AFE) operates three commuter rail lines, namely the Empalme Olmos, San Jose and Florida. These lines operate to major suburban areas of Canelones
Canelones Department
The Canelones Department , with an area of and 485,240 inhabitants, is located to the south of Uruguay. Its capital is Canelones.-Geography and climate:...

, San José
San José Department
San José Department is a department of Uruguay. Its capital is San José de Mayo.-Population and Demographics:As of the census of 2004, there were 103,104 people and 33,063 households in the department. The average household size was 3.0...

 and Florida
Florida Department
Florida is a department of Uruguay. Its capital of is Florida.-Population and Demographics:As of the census of 2004, there were 68,181 people and 21,938 households in the department. The average household size was 3.1...

. Within the Montevideo city limits, local trains stop at Lorenzo Carnelli
Lorenzo Carnelli
Lorenzo Carnelli was a Uruguayan lawyer and politician who belonged to the National Party.In 1925, he left the National Party and founded the Radical National Party. In the elections of 1927, he got 2.2% of the vote. Blanco historical leader Luis Alberto de Herrera lost these elections by 1% of...

, Yatai (Step Mill), Sayago
Sayago, Montevideo
Sayago is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay.Bordering Colón and next to El Prado, Sayago is limited by the streets Millán, Av. Raffo, General Máximo Santos and Eugenio Garzón.- External links :*...

, Columbus (line to San Jose and Florida), Peñarol and Manga
Manga, Montevideo
Manga is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It shares borders with Manga - Toledo Chico to the north and northwest, Villa García - Manga Rural to the east, Piedras Blancas to the south and Casavalle to the southwest....

 (line Empalme Olmos) stations. The historic 19th century General Artigas Central Station
Estación Central General Artigas
Estación Central General Artigas is the former central railway station of Montevideo, Uruguay, situated in Aguada.Designed by the Italian engineer and architect Luigi Andreoni, it was opened to the public on the 15th of July 1897 and was closed on the 1st of March 2003.-External links:*...

 located in the neighbourhood of Aguada
Aguada, Montevideo
Aguada, Montevideo is a barrio of Montevideo, Uruguay. It borders Centro and Cordón on the south, Villa Muñoz to the east, Reducto and Bella Vista to the north and the port of Montevideo on the west...

, six blocks from the central business district, was abandoned 1 March 2003 and remains closed. A new station, 500 metres (1,640.4 ft) north of the old one and part of the Tower of Communications modern complex, has taken over the rail traffic.
The Aeropuerto Internacional de Carrasco, which serves Montevideo, is located 12 miles (19.3 km) from the city centre. Pluna
PLUNA
PLUNALíneas Aéreas Uruguayas S.A. is the flag carrier of Uruguay, headquartered in Carrasco, Montevideo. It operates scheduled services within South America, as well as unscheduled cargo and charter services, with its main hub being Carrasco International Airport near Montevideo.- Foundation :The...

, the Uruguayan national carrier, operates domestic and international flights. United
United Airlines
United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees (which includes the entire holding company United Continental...

, American
American Airlines
American Airlines, Inc. is the world's fourth-largest airline in passenger miles transported and operating revenues. American Airlines is a subsidiary of the AMR Corporation and is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas adjacent to its largest hub at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport...

 and Aerolíneas Argentinas
Aerolíneas Argentinas
Aerolíneas Argentinas , formally Aerolíneas Argentinas S.A., is Argentina's largest airline and serves as the country's flag carrier. Owned in its majority by the Argentine Government, the airline is headquartered in the Torre Bouchard, located in San Nicolás, Buenos Aires...

 also operate International flights to Montevideo from their respective countries. The airport serves over 1,500,000 passenger annually. Ángel S. Adami Airport
Ángel S. Adami Airport
Ángel S. Adami Airport is an airport serving Montevideo, Uruguay, located in the neighborhood of Lezica–Melilla.-External links:...

 is a private airport operated by minor charter companies.

Port

The port on Montevideo Bay is one of the reasons the city was founded. It gives natural protection to ships, although two jetties now further protect the harbour entrance from waves. This natural port is competitive with the other great port of Río de la Plata, Buenos Aires.
The main engineering work on the port occurred between the years 1870 and 1930. These six decades saw the construction of the port's first wooden pier, several warehouses in La Aguada, the north and south Rambla, a river port, a new pier, the dredged river basin and the La Teja refinery. A major storm in 1923 necessitated repairs to many of the city's engineering works. Since the second half of the 20th century, physical changes have ceased, and since that time the area has degraded due to national economic stagnation.

The port's proximity has contributed to the installation of various industries in the area surrounding the bay, particularly import/export businesses and other business related to port and naval activity. The density of industrial development in the area surrounding the port has kept its popularity as a residential area relatively low despite its centrality. The main environmental problems are subaquatic sedimentation and air and water contamination.

Healthcare

In Montevideo, as elsewhere in the country, there are both public and private health services. In both sectors, medical services are provided by polyclinic
Polyclinic
Polyclinics in England are intended to offer a far greater range of services than can be offered by current general practitioner practices and local health centres. In addition to traditional GP services they would offer extended urgent care, healthy living services, community mental health...

s and hospitals or sanatoria. The term hospital is used here for both outpatient and inpatient facilities, while sanatorio is used for private short- and long-term facilities for the treatment of illnesses.

Public hospitals

Hospital de Clínicas
Hospital de Clínicas
Hospital de Clínicas "Dr. Manuel Quintela" is a hospital in the Parque Batlle area of Montevideo, Uruguay. It belongs to the Faculty of Medicine of the University of the Republic. It functions as a general hospital, and is a general reference institution. The building was designed by architect...

 "Dr. Manuel Quintela" is a University Hospital attached to the University of the Republic, and is located on Avenida Italia. It functions as an adult general polyclinic and hospital. The building was designed by architect Carlos Surraco in 1928–1929 and has a surface area of 110000 sqm on 23 floors. The hospital was inaugurated 21 September 1953. For many years it was led by Dr. Hugo Villar, who was a considerable influence on the institution.

Hospital Maciel
Hospital Maciel
Hospital Maciel is a hospital in Montevideo, located in the western part of the Old City. It is one of the oldest hospitals in Uruguay. The land was originally donated in Spanish colonial times by philanthropist Francisco Antonio Maciel, who teamed up with Mateo Vidal to establish a hospital and...

 is one of the oldest hospitals in Uruguay and stands on the block bounded by the streets Maciel, 25 de Mayo, Guaraní and Washington, with the main entrance at 25 de Mayo, 172. The land was originally donated in Spanish colonial times by philanthropist Francisco Antonio Maciel
Francisco Antonio Maciel
Francisco Antonio Maciel , was a Uruguayan philanthropist of the time of the Spanish colony. He was known as the "father of the poor."...

, who teamed up with Mateo Vidal to establish a hospital and charity. The first building was constructed between 1781 and 1788 and later expanded upon. The present building stems from the 1825 plans of José Toribio (son of Tomás Toribio) and later Bernardo Poncini (wing on the Guaraní street, 1859), Eduardo Canstatt (corner of Guaraní and 25 de Mayo) and Julián Masquelez (1889). The hospital has a chapel built in the Greek style by Miguel Estévez in 1798.

Hospital Pereira Rossell
Hospital Pereira Rossell
Hospital Pereira Rossell is a hospital in Montevideo, Uruguay. It is located in the barrio of Parque Batlle, just west of the park of the same name. It was founded in 1908 and was built on land donated in late 1900 by Alexis Rossell y Rius and Dolores Pereira de Rossell...

 was founded in 1908 and was built on land donated in late 1900 by Alexis Rossell y Rius and Dolores Pereira de Rossell. It was the city's first pediatric hospital, and shortly afterwards the addition of an obstetric and gynaecological clinic in 1915 made it the first maternity hospital as well. Later, the hospital received a donation from Dr. Enrique Pouey for a radiotherapy unit.

Hospital Vilardebó
Hospital Vilardebó
Hospital Vilardebó is the only psychiatric hospital in Reducto, Montevideo, Uruguay. It opened on 21 May 1880, named after the physician and naturalist Teodoro Vilardebó Matuliche. The hospital was originally one the best of Latin America and in 1915 grew to 1500 hospital inpatients...

 is the only psychiatric hospital in Montevideo. Named after the physician and naturalist Teodoro Vilardebó Matuliche, it opened 21 May 1880. The hospital was originally one the best of Latin America and in 1915 grew to 1,500 inpatients. Today the hospital is very deteriorated, with broken walls and floors, lack of medicines, beds, and rooms for the personnel. It has an emergency service, outpatient, clinic and inpatient rooms and employs approximately 610 staff, psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, administrators, guards, among others. The average patient age is 30 years; more than half of the patients arrive by court order; 42% suffer from schizophrenia, 18% from depression and mania, and there are also a high percentage of drug addicted patients.

Other public polyclinics and hospitals of note include the Hospital Saint Bois
Hospital Saint Bois
Hospital Saint Bois is a hospital located at Camino Fauquet 6358, Villa Colón in the northwestern outskirts of Montevideo, Uruguay. It consists of a General Hospital and Eye Hospital. It was founded on November 18, 1928 and designed by Joaquín Torres García....

, founded 18 November 1928, which consists of a General Hospital and Eye Hospital; the Pasteur Hospital in La Unión neighbourhood; the Hospital Español, which was founded in 1886, passed to the private sector in the 20th century, closed in 2004 and was restored and reinaugurated in 2007 as the municipal Juan Jose Crottogini Polyclinic; the National Cancer Institute; and the National Institute of Trauma and Orthopedics.

Private healthcare

Private healthcare is offered by many private health insurance companies, each of which has one or more polyclinics and owns or is associated with one or more hospitals. Private medical facilities of note include the Hospital Británico, the Italian Hospital of Montevideo
Italian Hospital of Montevideo
The Italian Hospital of Montevideo, whose official name is Ospedale italiano Umberto I, is a clinic and sanatorium founded in 1890 near Parque Batlle, Montevideo. It lies just to the north of the 1830 obelisk and the Hospital Pereira Rossell...

, Mutualista CASMU's Sanatoria I, II, III and IV, the Evangelical Hospital, Médica Uruguaya
Médica Uruguaya
Médica Uruguaya is a private medical association of Uruguay with its central offices and hospital located next to Plaza de la Bandera , between Avenida 8 de Octubre and Avenida Italia, in Montevideo, Uruguay. It is located in the barrio of Tres Cruces, to the west of the park of Parque Batlle...

, Sanatorio de la Asociación Española, Sanatorios del Círculo Católico, Sanatorio Casa de Galicia and Sanatorio GREMCA.

Media

Out of the 100 radio stations found in Uruguay, 40 of them are in Montevideo. The city has a vibrant artistic and literary community. The press enjoyed full freedom until the advent of the Civic-military dictatorship (1973–1985)
Civic-military dictatorship of Uruguay (1973-1985)
The Civic-military dictatorship of Uruguay lasted from June 27, 1973 following the 1973 coup d'état until February 28, 1985.This dictatorship was the corollary of an escalation of violence and authoritarism in a traditionally peaceful country, and should be analyzed in the light of the Cold War...

; this freedom returned on 1 March 1985, as part of the restoration of democracy.

Some of the important newspapers published in the city are: Brecha, La Republica, El Observador
El Observador
El Observador is the Spanish language newscast of Radio Caracas Televisión . It is one of the first television news programs in Venezuela.-History:El Observador is one of the first television news programs in Venezuela...

, El País, Gaceta Commercial and La Diaria. El Día was the most prestigious paper in Uruguay, founded in 1886 by José Batlle, who would later go on to become President of Uruguay. The paper ceased production in the early 1990s. All television stations have their headquarters in Montevideo, for example: Saeta Canal 10, La Tele, Montecarlo Televisión (Channel 4) and Televisión Nacional (Channel 5)

Notable people

  • Amado Nervo
    Amado Nervo
    Amado Nervo also known as Juan Crisóstomo Ruiz de Nervo was the Mexican Ambassador to Argentina and Uruguay, journalist, poet, and educator. His poetry was known for its use of metaphor and reference to mysticism, presenting both love and religion, as well as Christianity and Hinduism...

     (Mexican author)
  • Comte de Lautréamont
    Comte de Lautréamont
    Comte de Lautréamont was the pseudonym of Isidore Lucien Ducasse , an Uruguayan-born French poet....

     (French author)
  • Delmira Agustini
    Delmira Agustini
    Delmira Agustini , a Uruguayan poet, is considered one of the greatest female Latin American poets of the early 20th century.-Background:Born in Montevideo, the daughter of Italian immigrants, Agustini was a precocious child...

     (Uruguayan writer)
  • Cristina Peri Rossi
    Cristina Peri Rossi
    Cristina Peri Rossi is an Uruguayan novelist, poet, translator, and author of short stories.Considered a leading light of the post-1960s period of prominence of the Latin-American novel, she has written more than 37 works. She was born in Montevideo, Uruguay but was exiled in 1972, and moved to...

     (Uruguayan writer)
  • Felisberto Hernández
    Felisberto Hernández
    Felisberto Hernandez was an Uruguayan writer.-Background:Hernández was born in Montevideo, Uruguay. His father was from Tenerife...

     (Uruguayan writer)
  • Esteban Echeverría
    Esteban Echeverría
    José Esteban Antonio Echeverría was an Argentine poet, fiction writer, cultural promoter, and political activist who played a significant role in the development of Argentine literature, not only through his own writings but also through his organizational efforts...

     (Argentine writer)
  • Juan Carlos Onetti
    Juan Carlos Onetti
    Juan Carlos Onetti was an Uruguayan novelist and author of short stories.A high school drop-out, Onetti's first novel, El pozo, published in 1939, met with his close friends' immediate acclaim, as well as from some writers and journalists of his time...

     (Uruguayan writer)
  • Jules Supervielle
    Jules Supervielle
    Jules Supervielle was a French poet and writer born in Uruguay.Jules Supervielle always kept away from Surrealism which was dominant in the first half of the twentieth century...

     (French author)
  • Mario Benedetti
    Mario Benedetti
    Mario Benedetti was an Uruguayan journalist, novelist, and poet....

     (Uruguayan writer)
  • Juan Zorrilla de San Martín
    Juan Zorrilla de San Martín
    Juan Zorrilla de San Martín was a Uruguayan epic poet - he is referred as "National Poet of Uruguay" -and political figure . He is featured on the 20-peso note.-Well-known poems:...

     (Uruguayan poet)
  • Juana de Ibarbourou
    Juana de Ibarbourou
    Juana Fernández Morales Vd.ª De Ibarbourou, also known as Juana de América, was a Uruguayan poet of Galician origin. She was one of the most popular poets of Spanish America...

     (Uruguayan poet)
  • Jules Laforgue
    Jules Laforgue
    Jules Laforgue was an innovative Franco-Uruguayan poet, often referred to as a Symbolist poet. Critics and commentators have also pointed to Impressionism as a direct influence and his poetry has been called "part-symbolist, part-impressionist".-Life:...

     (French poet)
  • Julio Herrera y Reissig
    Julio Herrera y Reissig
    Julio Herrera y Reissig, was a Uruguayan poet, playwright and essayist, who began his career during the late Romanticist period and later became an early proponent of Modernism.-Background:...

     (Uruguayan poet)
  • José Batlle y Ordóñez
    José Batlle y Ordóñez
    José Pablo Torcuato Batlle y Ordóñez was the president of Uruguay in 1899 and from 1903 until 1907 and for a further term from 1911 to 1915. He was the son of former president, Lorenzo Batlle y Grau. His children César, Rafael and Lorenzo Batlle Pacheco were actively engaged in politics...

     (president of Uruguay)
  • Luis Batlle Berres
    Luis Batlle Berres
    Luis Conrado Batlle y Berres was a Uruguayan political figure.-Background:Batlle Berres was a journalist and prominent member of the Uruguayan Colorado Party...

     (president of Uruguay)
  • Tabaré Vázquez
    Tabaré Vázquez
    Tabaré Ramón Vázquez Rosas is a former President of Uruguay. A physician by training, he is a member of the leftist Frente Amplo coalition . Vázquez was elected president on October 31, 2004, took office on March 1, 2005, and relinquished the office on March 1, 2010...

     (president of Uruguay)
  • Baltasar Brum
    Baltasar Brum
    Baltasar Brum Rodríguez was a Uruguayan political figure. He was President of Uruguay from 1919 to 1923.-Background:...

     (Uruguayan statesman)
  • Manuel Ceferino Oribe (Uruguayan politician)
  • José Gervasio Artigas
    José Gervasio Artigas
    José Gervasio Artigas is a national hero of Uruguay, sometimes called "the father of Uruguayan nationhood".-Early life:Artigas was born in Montevideo on June 19, 1764...

     (Uruguayan revolutionary)
  • Juan Manuel Blanes
    Juan Manuel Blanes
    Juan Manuel Blanes was a noted Uruguayan painter of the Realist school.-Life and work:Blanes was born in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 1830. He was raised by his mother, with whom he relocated to the countryside in his early teens...

     (Uruguayan artist)
  • Natalia Oreiro
    Natalia Oreiro
    Natalia Marisa Oreiro Iglesias is a Latin Grammy-nominated Uruguayan singer, actress and fashion designer of Galician ancestry, who developed most of her career in Argentina. Oreiro began her career in soap operas. Since 2008 she has switched to work primarily in films...

     (actress, singer)
  • Margarita Xirgu
    Margarita Xirgu
    Margarita Xirgu, also Margarida Xirgu was a Catalan stage actress, who was greatly popular throughout her country and Latin America. A friend of the poet Federico García Lorca, she was forced into exile during Francisco Franco's dictatorship of Spain, but continued her work in America...

     (Spanish actress)
  • Gabe Saporta
    Gabe Saporta
    Gabriel Eduardo "Gabe" Saporta is the lead singer and primary creative force behind the synthpop band Cobra Starship. He was previously the lead singer, bassist, and lyricist for the pop punk band Midtown....

     (musician)
  • El Cuarteto de Nos
    El Cuarteto de Nos
    El Cuarteto de Nos is a rock group formed in 1980 in Montevideo, Uruguay.- Resume :El Cuarteto is the oldest active Uruguayan band. It has gained universal praise trascending local culture through universal themes and engaging everyday pathos in a humorous light.- Beginnings :In 1980, El Cuarteto...

     (rock band)
  • Joaquín Torres-García (Uruguayan painter)
  • José Enrique Rodó
    José Enrique Rodo
    José Enrique Rodó Piñeyro was a Uruguayan essayist. He called for the youth of Latin America to reject materialism, to revert back to Greco-Roman habits of free thought and self enrichment, and to develop and concentrate on their culture.He cultivated an epistolary relationship with important...

     (Uruguayan philosopher)
  • Martín Cáceres
    Martín Cáceres
    José Martín Cáceres Silva is an Uruguayan professional footballer who plays for Sevilla FC in La Liga.His primary position is central defender, but he can also operate at right or left back.-Early years:...

     (footballer)
  • Sebastián Eguren
    Sebastián Eguren
    Sebastián Eguren Ledesma is an Uruguayan footballer who plays for Sporting de Gijón in La Liga, mainly as a defensive midfielder.-Club career:...

     (footballer)
  • Diego Forlán
    Diego Forlán
    Diego Forlán Corazo is an Uruguayan footballer who plays as a striker for Internazionale and the Uruguayan national team. He is a two-time winner of both the Pichichi Trophy and the European Golden Shoe, and also received the Golden Ball as the best player at the 2010 World Cup.Forlán was born...

     (footballer)
  • Enzo Francescoli
    Enzo Francescoli
    Enzo Francescoli Uriarte is a former uruguayan football player of Italian and Spanish origin, who retired in 1997. An elegant and highly skillful dribbler, passer, and goal-scorer, Francescoli was nicknamed El Príncipe or Le Prince...

     (footballer)
  • Jorge Fucile
    Jorge Fucile
    Jorge Ciro Fucile Perdomo is an Uruguayan footballer who plays for F.C. Porto in Portugal.A defender, he is equally at ease on the right or left flank.-Club career:...

     (footballer)
  • Christian Gonzalez (Persib
    Persib Bandung
    Persib, an acronym for Persatuan Sepak Bola Indonesia Bandung is an Indonesian football club based in Bandung, West Java. In most of the media, a tautology Persib Bandung is often used...

     footballer)
  • Marcelo Lipatin
    Marcelo Lipatin
    Marcelo Lipatin Lopez is an Uruguayan professional football player.-Playing career:In July 2008, Lipatin was offered a contract from Maccabi Tel Aviv after they discovered that Lipatin's father is Jewish and his mother converted to Judaism...

     (footballer)
  • Luis Diego López (Cagliari
    Cagliari Calcio
    Cagliari Calcio is an Italian football club based in Cagliari, Sardinia. The club was formed in 1920 and currently plays in Italian Serie A, having spent a large part of recent years mainly in Serie A and Serie B....

     footballer)
  • Diego Lugano
    Diego Lugano
    Diego Alfredo "Tota" Lugano Moreno is a Uruguayan footballer who currently plays for Ligue 1 club Paris Saint-Germain and the Uruguay national football team as a central defender....

     (footballer)
  • Fernando Muslera
    Fernando Muslera
    Néstor Fernando Muslera Micol is an Uruguayan footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Galatasaray and is first-choice keeper for the Uruguayan national team.-Uruguay:...

     (footballer)
  • Rosita Melo
    Rosita Melo
    Clotilde Mela Rosa Luciano, better known as Rosita Melo , was an Argentinian-Uruguayan pianist, composer and poet....

     (composer, poet, writer)
  • Álvaro Pereira
    Alvaro Pereira
    Álvaro Daniel Pereira Barragán is an Uruguayan footballer who plays for Futebol Clube do Porto in Portugal.On the left side, he can play as either a defender or midfielder.-Early years:...

     (footballer)
  • Maxi Pereira (footballer)
  • Diego Pérez
    Diego Pérez (footballer)
    Diego Fernando Pérez Aguado , nicknamed "Ruso" , is a Uruguayan footballer who plays as a defensive midfielder for Italian Serie A club Bologna. He played for Uruguay at the 2010 FIFA World Cup and the 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2011 editions of the Copa América...

     (footballer)
  • Gus Poyet (footballer)
  • Andy Ram
    Andy Ram
    Andy Ram is a professional tennis player from Israel, and the first Israeli tennis player to win a seniors Grand Slam event . He plays more doubles than singles as he prefers doubles more and wins more matches...

     (tennis player)
  • Elena Zuasti
    Elena Zuasti
    Elena Zuasti was a Uruguayan stage actress and comedienne.- Biography :Zuasti was born in Montevideo in 1935. She graduated twenty years later from the Dramatic Art School and managed to enter the National Comedy, where she remained until 1976. She also taught stage performance for many decades,...

     (stage actress)


Twin towns — Sister cities

Montevideo is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
Barcelona, Spain
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

 Bogotá, Colombia
Bogotá
Bogotá, Distrito Capital , from 1991 to 2000 called Santa Fé de Bogotá, is the capital, and largest city, of Colombia. It is also designated by the national constitution as the capital of the department of Cundinamarca, even though the city of Bogotá now comprises an independent Capital district...

 Buenos Aires, Argentina
Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo. It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent...

 Cádiz, Spain
Cádiz
Cadiz is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the homonymous province, one of eight which make up the autonomous community of Andalusia....

 Córdoba, Argentina
Córdoba, Argentina
Córdoba is a city located near the geographical center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas on the Suquía River, about northwest of Buenos Aires. It is the capital of Córdoba Province. Córdoba is the second-largest city in Argentina after the federal capital Buenos Aires, with...

 Curitiba, Brazil
Curitiba
Curitiba is the capital of the Brazilian state of Paraná. It is the largest city with the biggest economy of both Paraná and southern Brazil. The population of Curitiba numbers approximately 1.75 million people and the latest GDP figures for the city surpass US$61 billion according to...

 Porto Alegre, Brazil
Porto Alegre
Porto Alegre is the tenth most populous municipality in Brazil, with 1,409,939 inhabitants, and the centre of Brazil's fourth largest metropolitan area . It is also the capital city of the southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. The city is the southernmost capital city of a Brazilian...

 La Paz, Bolivia
La Paz
Nuestra Señora de La Paz is the administrative capital of Bolivia, as well as the departmental capital of the La Paz Department, and the second largest city in the country after Santa Cruz de la Sierra...

 La Plata, Argentina Madrid, Spain
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

 Melilla, Spain
Melilla
Melilla is a autonomous city of Spain and an exclave on the north coast of Morocco. Melilla, along with the Spanish exclave Ceuta, is one of the two Spanish territories located in mainland Africa...

 Montevideo, Minnesota
Montevideo, Minnesota
As of the census of 2000, there were 5,346 people, 2,353 households, and 1,444 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,190.5 people per square mile . There were 2,551 housing units at an average density of 568.1 per square mile...

, United States Qingdao, China
Qingdao
' also known in the West by its postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a major city with a population of over 8.715 million in eastern Shandong province, Eastern China. Its built up area, made of 7 urban districts plus Jimo city, is home to about 4,346,000 inhabitants in 2010.It borders Yantai to the...

 Quebec City, Canada
Quebec City
Quebec , also Québec, Quebec City or Québec City is the capital of the Canadian province of Quebec and is located within the Capitale-Nationale region. It is the second most populous city in Quebec after Montreal, which is about to the southwest...

 Rosario, Argentina Saint Petersburg, Russia
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

 São Paulo, Brazil
São Paulo
São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and South America, and the world's seventh largest city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the second-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas and among...

 Tianjin, China
Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

 Wellington, New Zealand
Wellington
Wellington is the capital city and third most populous urban area of New Zealand, although it is likely to have surpassed Christchurch due to the exodus following the Canterbury Earthquake. It is at the southwestern tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Rimutaka Range...



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