Carbonated water
Overview
 
Carbonated water is water
Water
Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state . Water also exists in a...

 into which carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom...

 gas under pressure has been dissolved, a process that causes the water to become effervescent
Effervescence
Effervescence might refer to one of the following:*Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution.*Collective effervescence is a perceived energy formed by a gathering of people....

.

Carbonated water is the defining ingredient of carbonated soft drinks
Soft drink
A soft drink is a non-alcoholic beverage that typically contains water , a sweetener, and a flavoring agent...

. The process of dissolving carbon dioxide in water is called carbonation
Carbonation
Carbonation is the process of dissolving carbon dioxide in water. The process usually involves carbon dioxide under high pressure. When the pressure is reduced, the carbon dioxide is released from the solution as small bubbles, which cause the solution to "fizz." This effect is seen in carbonated...

.
In the US, carbonated water was known as soda water until WWII, due to the sodium salts it contained. These were added as flavoring and acidity regulators with the intent of mimicking the taste of natural mineral water
Mineral water
Mineral water is water containing minerals or other dissolved substances that alter its taste or give it therapeutic value, generally obtained from a naturally occurring mineral spring or source. Dissolved substances in the water may include various salts and sulfur compounds...

.

During the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

, it was sometimes called "two cents plain," a reference to its being the cheapest drink at soda fountain
Soda fountain
A soda fountain is a device that dispenses carbonated drinks. They can be found in restaurants, concession stands and other locations such as convenience stores...

s.
Encyclopedia
Carbonated water is water
Water
Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state . Water also exists in a...

 into which carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom...

 gas under pressure has been dissolved, a process that causes the water to become effervescent
Effervescence
Effervescence might refer to one of the following:*Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution.*Collective effervescence is a perceived energy formed by a gathering of people....

.

Carbonated water is the defining ingredient of carbonated soft drinks
Soft drink
A soft drink is a non-alcoholic beverage that typically contains water , a sweetener, and a flavoring agent...

. The process of dissolving carbon dioxide in water is called carbonation
Carbonation
Carbonation is the process of dissolving carbon dioxide in water. The process usually involves carbon dioxide under high pressure. When the pressure is reduced, the carbon dioxide is released from the solution as small bubbles, which cause the solution to "fizz." This effect is seen in carbonated...

.

Etymology

In the US, carbonated water was known as soda water until WWII, due to the sodium salts it contained. These were added as flavoring and acidity regulators with the intent of mimicking the taste of natural mineral water
Mineral water
Mineral water is water containing minerals or other dissolved substances that alter its taste or give it therapeutic value, generally obtained from a naturally occurring mineral spring or source. Dissolved substances in the water may include various salts and sulfur compounds...

.

During the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

, it was sometimes called "two cents plain," a reference to its being the cheapest drink at soda fountain
Soda fountain
A soda fountain is a device that dispenses carbonated drinks. They can be found in restaurants, concession stands and other locations such as convenience stores...

s. In the 1950s, terms such as sparkling water and seltzer water gained favor. The term seltzer water is a genericized trademark
Genericized trademark
A genericized trademark is a trademark or brand name that has become the colloquial or generic description for, or synonymous with, a general class of product or service, rather than as an indicator of source or affiliation as intended by the trademark's holder...

 that derives from the German town Selters
Selters (Lahn)
Selters is a village in the district Limburg-Weilburg, Hesse, Germany. It is situated at the Taunus side of the river Lahn and belongs to the municipality Löhnberg. The village has a total population of about 400 inhabitants....

, which is renowned for its mineral springs
Mineral Springs
Mineral Springs is the name of several locations in the United States:* Mineral Springs, Arkansas* Mineral Springs, North Carolina* Mineral Springs Township, North Dakota* Mineral Springs at Green Springs, Ohio...

. Naturally carbonated water has been commercially bottled and shipped from this town since the 18th century or earlier. Generally, seltzer water has no added sodium salts, while club soda still retains the sodium salts.

In many parts of the US, soda has come to mean any type of sweetened, carbonated soft drink
Soft drink
A soft drink is a non-alcoholic beverage that typically contains water , a sweetener, and a flavoring agent...

.

Chemistry

Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom...

 and water form carbonic acid
Carbonic acid
Carbonic acid is the inorganic compound with the formula H2CO3 . It is also a name sometimes given to solutions of carbon dioxide in water, because such solutions contain small amounts of H2CO3. Carbonic acid forms two kinds of salts, the carbonates and the bicarbonates...

 , which gives the water a slightly sour taste with a pH
PH
In chemistry, pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Pure water is said to be neutral, with a pH close to 7.0 at . Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline...

 between 3 and 4. An alkaline
Alkalinity
Alkalinity or AT measures the ability of a solution to neutralize acids to the equivalence point of carbonate or bicarbonate. The alkalinity is equal to the stoichiometric sum of the bases in solution...

 salt, such as sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the chemical compound with the formula Na HCO3. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda . The natural mineral form is...

, may be added to soda water to reduce its acid
Acid
An acid is a substance which reacts with a base. Commonly, acids can be identified as tasting sour, reacting with metals such as calcium, and bases like sodium carbonate. Aqueous acids have a pH of less than 7, where an acid of lower pH is typically stronger, and turn blue litmus paper red...

ity.

Carbon dioxide dissolved in water at a low concentration (0.2%–1.0%) cannot be tasted by humans, but the sour flavour of carbonic acid can be. The addition of a sodium or potassium salt can neutralize some of the acidic flavor of drinks that are made with soda water.

Commercial

The process of dissolving carbon dioxide in water is called carbonation
Carbonation
Carbonation is the process of dissolving carbon dioxide in water. The process usually involves carbon dioxide under high pressure. When the pressure is reduced, the carbon dioxide is released from the solution as small bubbles, which cause the solution to "fizz." This effect is seen in carbonated...

. Commercial soda water in siphons is made by chilling filtered plain water to 8 °C (46.4 °F), adding a sodium
Sodium
Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal and is a member of the alkali metals; its only stable isotope is 23Na. It is an abundant element that exists in numerous minerals, most commonly as sodium chloride...

 or potassium
Potassium
Potassium is the chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number 19. Elemental potassium is a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite the hydrogen emitted in the reaction.Potassium and sodium are...

 based alkaline compound such as sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the chemical compound with the formula Na HCO3. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda . The natural mineral form is...

 to reduce acidity, and then pressurizing the water with carbon dioxide. The gas dissolves in the water, and a top-off fill of carbon dioxide is added to pressurize the siphon to approximately 120 pound per square inches (827,370.9 Pa), some 30 to- higher than is present in fermenting champagne bottles.

In many modern restaurant
Restaurant
A restaurant is an establishment which prepares and serves food and drink to customers in return for money. Meals are generally served and eaten on premises, but many restaurants also offer take-out and food delivery services...

s and drinking establishment
Drinking establishment
A drinking establishment is a business whose primary function is the serving of alcoholic beverages for consumption on the premises. Some establishments may also serve food, or have entertainment, but their main purpose is to serve alcoholic beverages...

s, soda water is manufactured on-site using devices known as carbonators. Carbonators use mechanical pumps to pressurize filtered water to approximately 100 psi (689,475.7 Pa). The pressurised water is stored in stainless steel vessels and is injected into the water, producing carbonated water.

Home

Carbonated water can be made at home by use of a readily available 1 l (1.1 US qt) rechargeable soda siphon and disposable carbon dioxide cartridges. One recipe is to chill filtered tap water in the fridge, add one quarter to one half a level teaspoon of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) to the soda siphon, add the chilled water and add the carbon dioxide. A pH testing kit can be used to vary the amount of sodium bicarbonate used to neutralize acidity. The siphon should be kept in the refrigerator to preserve carbonation of the contents. Many soda siphons are handsome objects in their own right, and are kept out for viewing on the drinks tray. Soda water made in this way tends not to be as 'gassy' as commercial soda water , although chilling the water before carbonation helps.

Carbonated water can be produced in the home by "charging" a refillable seltzer bottle by filling it with water and then adding carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom...

. Soda water may be identical to plain carbonated water or it may contain a small amount of table salt, sodium citrate
Sodium citrate
Trisodium citrate has the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7. It is sometimes referred to simply as sodium citrate, though sodium citrate can refer to any of the three sodium salts of citric acid. It possesses a saline, mildly tart flavor. For this reason, citrates of certain alkaline and alkaline earth...

, sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the chemical compound with the formula Na HCO3. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda . The natural mineral form is...

, potassium bicarbonate
Potassium bicarbonate
Potassium bicarbonate , is a colorless, odorless, slightly basic, salty substance...

, potassium citrate
Potassium citrate
Potassium citrate is a potassium salt of citric acid with the molecular formula C6H5K3O7. It is a white, slightly hygroscopic crystalline powder. It is odorless with a saline taste....

, potassium sulfate
Potassium sulfate
Potassium sulfate is a non-flammable white crystalline salt which is soluble in water...

, or disodium phosphate
Disodium phosphate
Disodium hydrogen phosphate is a sodium salt of phosphoric acid. It is a white powder that is highly hygroscopic and water soluble. It is therefore used commercially as an anti-caking additive in powdered products. It is also known as disodium hydrogen orthophosphate, sodium hydrogen phosphate...

, depending on the bottler. These additives are included to emulate the slightly salty taste of store-bought soda water. This process also occurs naturally to produce naturally carbonated mineral water, such as in Mihalkovo in the Bulgarian Rhodope Mountains
Rhodope Mountains
The Rhodopes are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece. Its highest peak, Golyam Perelik , is the seventh highest Bulgarian mountain...

, or in Medzitlija
Medžitlija
Medžitlija is a village situated in the south-west of the Republic of Macedonia, close to the city of Bitola The village is close to the border with Greece. The population is mixed, there is a significant number of Albanians....

 in Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
Macedonia , officially the Republic of Macedonia , is a country located in the central Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in 1991...

.

Consumer-priced commercial carbonation machines targeted at the home market, such as Sodastream
Sodastream
SodaStream is a maker of home carbonation systems that was invented by Guy Gilbey in 1903. Later versions allowed the addition of concentrates to create carbonated flavoured beverages...

, have been successful. These are typically attached to small, refillable pressurized carbon dioxide canisters and sold with concentrated syrup for flavoring.

Soda siphons

The gas pressure in a siphon drives soda water up through a tube inside the siphon when a valve lever at the top is depressed. Careful use of the valve will prevent a surge of pressurized soda water being released into the drink, splashing forcibly upward.

Use

Carbonated water is often drunk plain or mixed with fruit juice
Juice
Juice is the liquid that is naturally contained in fruit or vegetable tissue.Juice is prepared by mechanically squeezing or macerating fruit or vegetable flesh without the application of heat or solvents. For example, orange juice is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree...

. It is also mixed with alcoholic beverage
Distilled beverage
A distilled beverage, liquor, or spirit is an alcoholic beverage containing ethanol that is produced by distilling ethanol produced by means of fermenting grain, fruit, or vegetables...

s to make cocktail
Cocktail
A cocktail is an alcoholic mixed drink that contains two or more ingredients—at least one of the ingredients must be a spirit.Cocktails were originally a mixture of spirits, sugar, water, and bitters. The word has come to mean almost any mixed drink that contains alcohol...

s, such as whisky
Whisky
Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash. Different grains are used for different varieties, including barley, malted barley, rye, malted rye, wheat, and corn...

 and soda or Campari
Campari
Campari is an alcoholic apéritif obtained from the infusion of herbs and fruit in alcohol and water. It is a bitters characterized by its dark red color....

 and soda. Flavored carbonated water is also commercially available. It differs from sodas in that it contains flavors (usually sour fruit flavors such as lemon
Lemon
The lemon is both a small evergreen tree native to Asia, and the tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit. The fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world – primarily for its juice, though the pulp and rind are also used, mainly in cooking and baking...

, lime
Lime (fruit)
Lime is a term referring to a number of different citrus fruits, both species and hybrids, which are typically round, green to yellow in color, 3–6 cm in diameter, and containing sour and acidic pulp. Limes are a good source of vitamin C. Limes are often used to accent the flavors of foods and...

, cherry
Cherry
The cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy stone fruit. The cherry fruits of commerce are usually obtained from a limited number of species, including especially cultivars of the wild cherry, Prunus avium....

, orange
Orange (fruit)
An orange—specifically, the sweet orange—is the citrus Citrus × sinensis and its fruit. It is the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world....

, or raspberry
Raspberry
The raspberry or hindberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus; the name also applies to these plants themselves...

) but no sweetener.

Carbonated water is a diluent
Diluent
A diluent is a diluting agent.Certain fluids are too viscous to be pumped easily or too dense to flow from one particular point to the other. This can be problematic, because it might not be economically feasible to transport such fluids in this state.To ease this restricted movement, diluents...

. It works well in short drinks made with whiskey, brandy
Brandy
Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine. Brandy generally contains 35%–60% alcohol by volume and is typically taken as an after-dinner drink...

, and Campari and in long drinks such as those made with vermouth
Vermouth
Vermouth is a fortified wine flavored with various dry ingredients. The modern versions of the beverage were first produced around the late 18th and early 19th centuries in Italy and France...

. Soda water may be used to dilute drinks based on cordials such as orange squash. Soda water is a necessary ingredient in many cocktails, where it is used to top-off the drink and provide a degree of 'fizz'. Adding soda water to 'short' drinks such as spirits dilutes them and makes them 'long'. One report states that the presence of carbon dioxide in a cocktail may accelerate the uptake of alcohol in the blood, making both the inebriation and recovery phases more rapid.
The addition of carbonated water to dilute spirits was especially popular in hot climates and seen as a somewhat "British" habit. Adding soda water to quality Scotch whiskey has been deprecated by whiskey lovers, but was a popular lunchtime drink or early evening pre-dinner or pre-theater drink until the late part of the 20th century. Pre-filled glass soda-siphons were sold at many liquor stores, a deposit was charged on the siphon, to encourage the return of the relatively expensive siphon for re-filling. In 1965, the deposit on a single soda-siphon in England was 7/6d (seven shillings and six pence).

History

In 1767 Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley, FRS was an 18th-century English theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, chemist, educator, and political theorist who published over 150 works...

 invented carbonated water when he first discovered a method of infusing water with carbon dioxide when he suspended a bowl of water above a beer vat at a local brewery in Leeds
Leeds
Leeds is a city and metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. In 2001 Leeds' main urban subdivision had a population of 443,247, while the entire city has a population of 798,800 , making it the 30th-most populous city in the European Union.Leeds is the cultural, financial and commercial...

, England. The air blanketing the fermenting beer—called 'fixed air'—was known to kill mice suspended in it. Priestley found water thus treated had a pleasant taste, and he offered it to friends as a cool, refreshing drink. In 1772, Priestley published a paper entitled "Impregnating Water with Fixed Air" in which he describes dripping "oil of vitriol" (sulfuric acid
Sulfuric acid
Sulfuric acid is a strong mineral acid with the molecular formula . Its historical name is oil of vitriol. Pure sulfuric acid is a highly corrosive, colorless, viscous liquid. The salts of sulfuric acid are called sulfates...

) onto chalk
Chalk
Chalk is a soft, white, porous sedimentary rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. Calcite is calcium carbonate or CaCO3. It forms under reasonably deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite plates shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores....

 to produce carbon dioxide gas, and encouraging the gas to dissolve into an agitated bowl of water.

In 1771 chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

 professor Torbern Bergman
Torbern Bergman
Torbern Olof Bergman was a Swedish chemist and mineralogist noted for his 1775 Dissertation on Elective Attractions, containing the largest chemical affinity tables ever published...

 independently invented a similar process to make carbonated water. In poor health and frugal, he was trying to reproduce naturally-effervescent
Effervescence
Effervescence might refer to one of the following:*Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution.*Collective effervescence is a perceived energy formed by a gathering of people....

 spring waters thought at the time to be beneficial to health.

Carbonated water was introduced in the latter part of the 18th century, and reached Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata , formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it was the commercial capital of East India...

 (formerly known as Calcutta), India in 1822.

In the late eighteenth century, J. J. Schweppe
Johann Jacob Schweppe
Johann Jacob Schweppe was a German-born naturalised Swiss watchmaker and amateur scientist who developed the first practical process to manufacture carbonated mineral water, based on a process discovered by Joseph Priestley in 1770....

 (1740–1821) developed a process to manufacture carbonated mineral water
Mineral water
Mineral water is water containing minerals or other dissolved substances that alter its taste or give it therapeutic value, generally obtained from a naturally occurring mineral spring or source. Dissolved substances in the water may include various salts and sulfur compounds...

, based on the process discovered by Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley, FRS was an 18th-century English theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, chemist, educator, and political theorist who published over 150 works...

, founding the Schweppes Company in Geneva in 1783. In 1792 he moved to London to develop the business there.

The soda siphon, or siphon — a glass or metal pressure vessel with a release valve and spout for dispensing pressurized soda water — was a common sight in bar
Bar (establishment)
A bar is a business establishment that serves alcoholic drinks — beer, wine, liquor, and cocktails — for consumption on the premises.Bars provide stools or chairs that are placed at tables or counters for their patrons. Some bars have entertainment on a stage, such as a live band, comedians, go-go...

s and in early- to mid-20th century homes where it became a symbol of middle-class affluence.

Ányos Jedlik
Ányos Jedlik
Stephen Ányos Jedlik was a Hungarian inventor, engineer, physicist, and Benedictine priest. He was also member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and author of several books. He is considered by Hungarians and Slovaks to be the unsung father of the dynamo and electric motor.-Career:He was born...

 (1800–95) invented consumable soda-water that is a popular drink today. He also built a carbonated water factory in Budapest, Hungary. The process he developed for getting the into the water remains a mystery. After this invention, a Hungarian drink made of wine and soda water called "fröccs" (wine spritzer
Spritzer
A spritzer is a tall, chilled drink, usually made with white wine and seltzer or club soda.-Origin and variations:Spritzer is derived from the variant of the German language spoken in Austria, where the drink is very popular. It is used alongside the equally common form Gespritzter A spritzer is a...

s) was popular in Europe.

Since then, carbonated water is made by passing pressurized carbon dioxide through water. The pressure increases the solubility
Solubility
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a homogeneous solution of the solute in the solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the used solvent as well as on...

 and allows more carbon dioxide to dissolve
Solvation
Solvation, also sometimes called dissolution, is the process of attraction and association of molecules of a solvent with molecules or ions of a solute...

 than would be possible under standard atmospheric pressure. When the bottle is opened, the pressure is released, allowing the gas to come out of the solution, forming the characteristic bubbles.

Social popularity, decline, and renaissance

Carbonated water changed the way people drank. Instead of drinking spirits neat, soda water and carbonated soft drinks helped dilute alcohol, and made having a drink more socially acceptable. Popping into a friend's house for a "dash and a splash" — a whisky and soda — before going out to a social event was part of everyday life in Britain as late as 1965. Whisky and sodas can be seen in many British TV series and films from the 1960s and earlier and the soda siphon is ubiquitous in many movies made before 1970. Social drinking changed with the counter-culture movement of the 1970s, beginning the decline of soda water's popularity. Soda water's 'last hurrah' in Britain may have been the 1970s 'Soda Stream', a home bottling kit which enabled the creation of sparkling beverages with fruit syrups and water.

The popularity of soda water has declined since the late 1980s as drinking habits changed and new bottled or canned beverages arrived. Soda siphons are still bought by the more traditional bar trade and are available at the bar in many upmarket establishments. In the UK there are now only two wholesalers of soda-water in traditional glass siphons, and an estimated market of around 120,000 siphons per year (2009). Worldwide, preferences are for beverages in recyclable plastic containers.

Home soda siphons and soda water are enjoying a renaissance in the 21st century as retro
Retro
Retro is a culturally outdated or aged style, trend, mode, or fashion, from the overall postmodern past, that has since that time become functionally or superficially the norm once again. The use of "retro" style iconography and imagery interjected into post-modern art, advertising, mass media, etc...

 items become fashionable. Contemporary soda siphons are commonly made of aluminum, although glass
Glass
Glass is an amorphous solid material. Glasses are typically brittle and optically transparent.The most familiar type of glass, used for centuries in windows and drinking vessels, is soda-lime glass, composed of about 75% silica plus Na2O, CaO, and several minor additives...

 and stainless steel
Stainless steel
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French "inoxydable", is defined as a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5 or 11% chromium content by mass....

 siphons are available. The valve-heads of today are made of plastic, with metal valves, and replaceable o-ring
O-ring
An O-ring, also known as a packing, or a toric joint, is a mechanical gasket in the shape of a torus; it is a loop of elastomer with a disc-shaped cross-section, designed to be seated in a groove and compressed during assembly between two or more parts, creating a seal at the interface.The O-ring...

 seals. Older siphons are in demand on on-line auction sites. Carbonated water, without the acidity regulating addition of soda, is currently seen as fashionable although home production (see below) is mainly eschewed in favor of commercial products.

Health effects

Carbonated water is a negligible cause of dental erosion; also known as acid erosion. While the dissolution potential of sparkling water is greater than that of still water, it is quite low. In comparison, carbonated soft drink
Soft drink
A soft drink is a non-alcoholic beverage that typically contains water , a sweetener, and a flavoring agent...

s cause tooth decay at a rate several hundred times that of sparkling water.

The de-gassing of carbonated water only slightly reduces its dissolution potential, which suggests that the addition of sugar to water, not the carbonation of water, is the main cause of tooth decay.

Intake of carbonated beverages has not been associated with increased bone fracture risk in observational studies, and the net effect of carbonated beverage constituents on the amount of calcium in the body is negligible. Carbonated water eases the symptoms of indigestion (dyspepsia) and constipation, according to a study in the European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

A 2004 article in the Journal of Nutrition
Journal of Nutrition
The Journal of Nutrition is one of two academic journals published by the American Society for Nutrition. It is freely accessible to the public after a 12 month embargo. It was started in 1928 and has an impact factor of 3.77, making it the 3rd among peer-reviewed journals in ISI's nutrition and...

found that fizzy waters with higher sodium levels reduced cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular problems in postmenopausal women.

See also

  • Carbonation
    Carbonation
    Carbonation is the process of dissolving carbon dioxide in water. The process usually involves carbon dioxide under high pressure. When the pressure is reduced, the carbon dioxide is released from the solution as small bubbles, which cause the solution to "fizz." This effect is seen in carbonated...

  • Carbonic acid
    Carbonic acid
    Carbonic acid is the inorganic compound with the formula H2CO3 . It is also a name sometimes given to solutions of carbon dioxide in water, because such solutions contain small amounts of H2CO3. Carbonic acid forms two kinds of salts, the carbonates and the bicarbonates...

  • Effervescence
    Effervescence
    Effervescence might refer to one of the following:*Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution.*Collective effervescence is a perceived energy formed by a gathering of people....

  • Premix and postmix
    Premix and postmix
    Premix and postmix are two methods of serving – usually carbonated – soft drinks that are alternatives to bottles and cans.-Premix:...

  • Sodium bicarbonate
    Sodium bicarbonate
    Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the chemical compound with the formula Na HCO3. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda . The natural mineral form is...

  • Sodium carbonate
    Sodium carbonate
    Sodium carbonate , Na2CO3 is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. It most commonly occurs as a crystalline heptahydrate, which readily effloresces to form a white powder, the monohydrate. Sodium carbonate is domestically well-known for its everyday use as a water softener. It can be extracted from the...

  • Soft drink
    Soft drink
    A soft drink is a non-alcoholic beverage that typically contains water , a sweetener, and a flavoring agent...

  • Tonic water
    Tonic water
    Tonic water is a carbonated soft drink in which quinine is dissolved. Originally used as a prophylactic against malaria, tonic water usually now has a significantly lower quinine content and is consumed for its distinctively bitter taste...


External links

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