Callao
Overview
 
Callao is the largest and most important port in Peru
Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

. The city is coterminous with the Constitutional Province of Callao, the only province
Province
A province is a territorial unit, almost always an administrative division, within a country or state.-Etymology:The English word "province" is attested since about 1330 and derives from the 13th-century Old French "province," which itself comes from the Latin word "provincia," which referred to...

 of the Callao Region. Callao is located west of Lima
Lima
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central part of the country, on a desert coast overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima...

, the country's capital, and is part of the Lima Metropolitan Area
Lima Metropolitan Area
The Lima Metropolitan Area , is an area formed by the conurbation of the Peruvian cities of Lima and Callao. It is the largest metropolitan area in Peru, the eighth largest in the Americas, and among the thirty largest in the world. The conurbation process started to be evident in the 1980s. The...

, a large metropolis
Metropolis
A metropolis is a very large city or urban area which is a significant economic, political and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications...

 that holds almost one-third of Peru's population. Callao borders Lima Province
Lima Province
Lima Province is located in the central coast of Peru and is the only province in the country not belonging to any of the twenty-five regions. Its capital is Lima, which is also the nation's capital....

 on the north, east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.
Callao was founded by Spanish colonists in 1537, just two years after Lima (1535).
Encyclopedia
Callao is the largest and most important port in Peru
Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

. The city is coterminous with the Constitutional Province of Callao, the only province
Province
A province is a territorial unit, almost always an administrative division, within a country or state.-Etymology:The English word "province" is attested since about 1330 and derives from the 13th-century Old French "province," which itself comes from the Latin word "provincia," which referred to...

 of the Callao Region. Callao is located west of Lima
Lima
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central part of the country, on a desert coast overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima...

, the country's capital, and is part of the Lima Metropolitan Area
Lima Metropolitan Area
The Lima Metropolitan Area , is an area formed by the conurbation of the Peruvian cities of Lima and Callao. It is the largest metropolitan area in Peru, the eighth largest in the Americas, and among the thirty largest in the world. The conurbation process started to be evident in the 1980s. The...

, a large metropolis
Metropolis
A metropolis is a very large city or urban area which is a significant economic, political and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications...

 that holds almost one-third of Peru's population. Callao borders Lima Province
Lima Province
Lima Province is located in the central coast of Peru and is the only province in the country not belonging to any of the twenty-five regions. Its capital is Lima, which is also the nation's capital....

 on the north, east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west.

History

Callao was founded by Spanish colonists in 1537, just two years after Lima (1535). It soon became the main port for Spanish commerce in the Pacific. The origin of its name is unknown; both Indian (particularly Yunga, or Coastal Peruvian) and Spanish sources are credited, but it is certain that it was known by that name since 1550.

At the height of the Viceroyalty
Viceroyalty of Peru
Created in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru was a Spanish colonial administrative district that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima...

, virtually all goods produced in Peru, Bolivia
Bolivia
Bolivia officially known as Plurinational State of Bolivia , is a landlocked country in central South America. It is the poorest country in South America...

, and Argentina were carried over the Andes
Andes
The Andes is the world's longest continental mountain range. It is a continual range of highlands along the western coast of South America. This range is about long, about to wide , and of an average height of about .Along its length, the Andes is split into several ranges, which are separated...

 by mule
Mule
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. Horses and donkeys are different species, with different numbers of chromosomes. Of the two F1 hybrids between these two species, a mule is easier to obtain than a hinny...

 to Callao, to be shipped to Panama
Panama
Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...

, carried overland, and then transported on to Spain via Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

.

On 20 August 1836, during the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy
Peru-Bolivian Confederation
The Peru–Bolivian Confederation was a short-lived confederate state that existed in South America between 1836 and 1839. Its first and only head of state, titled Supreme Protector, was the Bolivian president, Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz....

, President Andrés de Santa Cruz
Andrés de Santa Cruz
Andrés de Santa Cruz y Calahumana was President of Peru and Bolivia...

 mandated the creation of the Callao Littoral Province (Provincia Litoral del Callao), which had political autonomy in its internal affairs. During the government of President Ramón Castilla
Ramón Castilla
Ramón Castilla y Marquesado was a Peruvian caudillo and President of Peru four times. His earliest prominent appearance in Peruvian history began with his participation in a commanding role of the army of the Libertadores that helped Peru become an independent nation...

, Callao was given the name of Constitutional Province (Provincia Constitucional), on 22 April 1857; before that, Callao had the name of Littoral Province. All of the other Peruvian provinces had been given their names by law, while Callao was given it by constitutional mandate.

Callao was never part of the Lima Department
Lima Department
Lima Department was a department of Peru. It was formed by the territories of present day Lima Region, Callao Region and Ica Region, and Casma Province, Huarmey Province and Santa Province, which later would be part of the La Costa Department....

 nor of any other departments.

The province's first mayor was Col. Manuel Cipriano Dulanto.

By 1949, Callao was known as one of the biggest centers of coca
Coca
Coca, Erythroxylum coca, is a plant in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America. The plant plays a significant role in many traditional Andean cultures...

-based products and cocaine
Cocaine
Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. The name comes from "coca" in addition to the alkaloid suffix -ine, forming cocaine. It is a stimulant of the central nervous system, an appetite suppressant, and a topical anesthetic...

 traffic in the world.

Notable events

  • In 1746, a tsunami
    Tsunami
    A tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, typically an ocean or a large lake...

     caused by an earthquake
    Earthquake
    An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time...

     destroyed the entire port of Callao.
  • On 2 May 1866, during the Battle of Callao
    Battle of Callao
    The Battle of Callao occurred on May 2, 1866 between a Spanish fleet under the command of Admiral Casto Méndez Núñez and the fortified battery emplacements of the Peruvian port city of Callao during the Chincha Islands War...

    , the Spanish fleet tried to reconquer independent Peru.
  • On 19 June 1986, hundreds of prisoners were massacred
    Peruvian prison massacres
    The Peruvian prison massacres occurred on June 18–19, 1986, after a series of riots in the San Pedro, Santa Mónica, and El Frontón prisons in Lima and Callao...

     on El Frontón.

City highlights

Callao is built on and around a peninsula, the district of La Punta
La Punta
La Punta is a district of the Constitutional Province of Callao in Peru, and one of the six districts that make up the port city of Callao.It is located in a peninsula in the western part of the province and is almost entirely surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, except on its northeastern side, where...

, a wealthy residential neighborhood. An historical fortress, the Castillo de Real Felipe (site of "Rodil
José Ramón Rodil y Campillo
Don José Ramón Rodil y Campillo, 1st Marquis of Rodil and 3rd Viscount of Trobo, was a Spanish general and statesman, born in Santa María del Trovo, Galicia region...

's Last Stand"), stands on the promontory overlooking the harbor.

A large naval base is sited in Callao. Its prison holds Abimael Guzmán
Abimael Guzmán
Manuel Rubén Abimael Guzmán Reynoso , also known by the nom de guerre Presidente Gonzalo , a former professor of philosophy, was the leader of the Shining Path during the Maoist insurgency known as the internal conflict in Peru...

, the leader of the Shining Path
Shining Path
Shining Path is a Maoist guerrilla terrorist organization in Peru. The group never refers to itself as "Shining Path", and as several other Peruvian groups, prefers to be called the "Communist Party of Peru" or "PCP-SL" in short...

 rebel movement, and Vladimiro Montesinos
Vladimiro Montesinos
Vladimiro Ilyich Montesinos Torres was the long-standing head of Peru's intelligence service, Servicio de Inteligencia Nacional , under President Alberto Fujimori. In 2000, secret videos, which he had recorded, were televised that showed his bribing an elected congressman to leave the opposition...

, the ex-director of internal security during the Fujimori
Alberto Fujimori
Alberto Fujimori Fujimori served as President of Peru from 28 July 1990 to 17 November 2000. A controversial figure, Fujimori has been credited with the creation of Fujimorism, uprooting terrorism in Peru and restoring its macroeconomic stability, though his methods have drawn charges of...

 regime.

Jorge Chávez International Airport
Jorge Chávez International Airport
Jorge Chávez International Airport , known as Aeropuerto Internacional Jorge Chávez in Spanish, is Peru's main international and domestic airport. It is located in Callao, 11 kilometers from the Historic Centre of Lima and 17 km from Miraflores. Callao is the port city now fully...

 is located in Callao.

On a bluff overlooking the harbor sits Colegio Militar Leoncio Prado, the military high school. The city also has a university, the National University of Callao.

Callao has several islands: San Lorenzo
San Lorenzo Island, Peru
San Lorenzo Island is the largest island of Peru. The island is in the Pacific Ocean near the port of Callao and measures .-Access:As of 2011, San Lorenzo is not open to the public...

 (currently a military base), El Frontón
El Frontón
El Frontón is an island off the coast of Callao, Peru.For much of El Frontón's history, the island was used as a prison. Fernando Belaúnde Terry, who was twice president of Peru, was imprisoned on the island as a political prisoner. During his imprisonment, Belaúnde Terry made an unsuccessful...

 (a former high security prison), the Cavinzas, and the Palominos, where numerous sea lion
Sea Lion
Sea lions are pinnipeds characterized by external ear-flaps, long fore-flippers, the ability to walk on all fours, and short thick hair. Together with the fur seal, they comprise the family Otariidae, or eared seals. There are six extant and one extinct species in five genera...

s and sea birds live in a virtually untouched ecosystem
Ecosystem
An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving , physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water and sunlight....

. There are proposed plans to build a huge naval, terrestrial, and air port on San Lorenzo Island. This project is called the San Lorenzo Megaport Project
San Lorenzo Megaport Project
The San Lorenzo Megaport Project is a proposed plan to build a huge air, naval, and terrestrial port on the island of San Lorenzo in Callao, Peru using land reclamation techniques. It plans to be the largest port and only megaport in Latin America. The island is strategically located on the middle...

.

Residents of Callao are known as chalacos.

Callao's football professional team is called Sport Boys
Sport Boys
Sport Boys Association is a Peruvian football club, playing in the port city of Callao. It was founded on Peru's independence day, July 28, 1927....

 and Atletico Chalaco.

Airport

Jorge Chávez International Airport (IATA: LIM, ICAO: SPIM), known as Aeropuerto Internacional Jorge Chávez in Spanish, is Peru's main international and domestic airport. It is located in Callao, 11 km (6.8 mi) from the Historic Centre of Lima and 17 km (10.6 mi) from Miraflores. Callao is the port city now fully integrated with Lima
Lima
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central part of the country, on a desert coast overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima...

, the nation's capital. In 2008, the airport handled 8,288,506 passengers and 98,733 aircraft movements.

For many years it was the hub for now defunct Aeroperú and Compañía de Aviación Faucett, one of the oldest airlines in Latin America. Now it serves as a hub for many aviation companies such as TACA Perú
TACA Peru
TACA Peru is an airline based in Lima, Peru. It operates domestic services and international services. Its main base is Jorge Chávez International Airport , Lima. The airline operates out of 18 airports. It is part of Grupo TACA and operates its flights with TACA's codes.- History :The airline was...

 and LAN Perú
LAN Peru
LAN Perú S.A. is an airline based in Lima, Peru. It is a subsidiary of Chilean publicly-traded company LAN Airlines , which owns 49% of the airline. It operates scheduled domestic and international services. Its main base is on the grounds of Jorge Chávez International Airport...


Government

Local government affairs are divided into two levels. Regional matters are handled by the Regional Government of Callao (Gobierno Regional del Callao), which is located in the Bellavista District
Bellavista District
Bellavista is a district of the Constitutional Province of Callao in Peru, and one of the six districts that comprise the port city of Callao.The current mayor of the district is Juan Ricardo Víctor Sotomayor García.-Geography:...

. Affairs such as city cleaning, promoting of sports and basic services are handled by the Provincial Municipality of Callao, which is headquartered in the Callao District
Callao District
Callao is one of the six districts of the Constitutional Province of Callao in the Callao Region, Peru. It is also the downtown district of the city of Callao.The Chillón River marks the district's northern border with Ventanilla...

. Also, each of the six districts has its own Municipality which handles matters in their respective jurisdictional areas.

Districts

Callao is divided into six districts
Districts of Peru
The districts of Peru are the third-level country subdivisions of Peru. They are subdivisions of the provinces, which in turn are subdivisions of the larger regions or departments...

, , each of which is headed by a mayor (alcalde).
  • 1 Bellavista
    Bellavista District
    Bellavista is a district of the Constitutional Province of Callao in Peru, and one of the six districts that comprise the port city of Callao.The current mayor of the district is Juan Ricardo Víctor Sotomayor García.-Geography:...

  • 2 Callao
    Callao District
    Callao is one of the six districts of the Constitutional Province of Callao in the Callao Region, Peru. It is also the downtown district of the city of Callao.The Chillón River marks the district's northern border with Ventanilla...

     (downtown)
  • 3 Carmen de la Legua Reynoso
    Carmen de la Legua Reynoso
    Carmen de la Legua Reynoso is a district of the Constitutional Province of Callao in Peru, and one of the six districts that comprise the port city of Callao....

  • 4 La Perla
    La Perla District
    La Perla is a district of the Constitutional Province of Callao in Peru, and one of the six districts that comprise the port city of Callao.The current mayor of La Perla is Pedro Jorge López Barrios. It was officially established as a district on October 22, 1964.-Geography:The district has a total...

  • 5 La Punta
  • 6 Ventanilla
    Ventanilla District
    Ventanilla is a district of the Constitutional Province of Callao in Peru, and one of the six districts that comprise the port city of Callao. Covering more than half of the province's territory, it is Callao's largest district....



* The rest of Callao Region is composed of the islands of San Lorenzo
San Lorenzo Island, Peru
San Lorenzo Island is the largest island of Peru. The island is in the Pacific Ocean near the port of Callao and measures .-Access:As of 2011, San Lorenzo is not open to the public...

, El Frontón and Cavinzas, which all together have an area of 17.63 square kilometres (6.8 sq mi).

Railway

The port is served by the Ferrocarril Central Andino
Ferrocarril Central Andino
Ferrocarril Central Andino is the consortium which operates the Ferrovías Central railway in Peru linking the Pacific port of Callao and the capital Lima with Huancayo and Cerro de Pasco...

 railway, which in 2006 is to be modernised from narrow gauge of 3 feet (914 mm) to the world standard gauge
Standard gauge
The standard gauge is a widely-used track gauge . Approximately 60% of the world's existing railway lines are built to this gauge...

 of .

In popular culture

  • The Peruvian author Mario Vargas Llosa
    Mario Vargas Llosa
    Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa, 1st Marquis of Vargas Llosa is a Peruvian-Spanish writer, politician, journalist, essayist, and Nobel Prize laureate. Vargas Llosa is one of Latin America's most significant novelists and essayists, and one of the leading authors of his generation...

    attended the military school and referred to it in his first novel, La Ciudad y los Perros (1962) (published in English as The Time of the Hero in 1963). The book was adapted as a film entitled The City and the Dogs (19xx). It featured exterior shots of the school.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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