Brühl Palace, Warsaw
The Brühl Palace otherwise known as Sandomierski Palace standing at Piłsudski Square. It was a large palace and one of the most beautiful rococo
Rococo , also referred to as "Late Baroque", is an 18th-century style which developed as Baroque artists gave up their symmetry and became increasingly ornate, florid, and playful...

 buildings in pre-World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...



The palace was built between 1639-42 by Lorenzo de Sent for Crown Grand Chancellor
Kanclerz was one of the highest officials in the historic Poland. This office functioned from the early Polish kingdom of the 12th century until the end of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795. A respective office also existed in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania since the 16th...

 Jerzy Ossoliński
Jerzy Ossolinski
Prince Jerzy Ossoliński was a Polish szlachcic, Crown Court Treasurer from 1632, voivode of Sandomierz from 1636, Reichsfürst since 1634, Crown Deputy Chancellor from 1639, Great Crown Chancellor from 1643, starost of Bydgoszcz , Lubomel , Puck and Bolim , magnate, politician and diplomat...

 in Mannerist
Mannerist architecture and sculpture in Poland
Mannerist architecture and sculpture in Poland dominated between 1550 and 1650, when it was finally replaced with baroque. The style includes various mannerist traditions, which are closely related with ethnic and religious diversity of the country, as well as with its economic and political...

 style. It was built on the plan of elongated rectangular with two hexagonal towers at garden side of the building. The palace was adorned with sculptures - allegory of Poland above the main portal, four figures of kings of Poland in the niche
Niche (architecture)
A niche in classical architecture is an exedra or an apse that has been reduced in size, retaining the half-dome heading usual for an apse. Nero's Domus Aurea was the first semi-private dwelling that possessed rooms that were given richly varied floor plans, shaped with niches and exedras;...

s and a statue of Minerva
Minerva was the Roman goddess whom Romans from the 2nd century BC onwards equated with the Greek goddess Athena. She was the virgin goddess of poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, crafts, magic...

 crowning the roof. Possible inspiration to palace's upper parts pavilion with characteristic roof was Bonifaz Wohlmut's reconstruction of Belvedere in Prague
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 2.3 million...

, 1557-1563.

After the Chancellor's death the property was inherited by his daughter Helena Tekla Ossolińska
Helena Tekla Ossolinska
Princess Helena Tekla Ossolińska was a Polish noble lady.-History:Born in 1635 in Kielce, Poland, to paupers, Ossolińska grew up on a mule farm. At age thirteen, her parents became ill and she was adopted by the Royal family of Poland. While she became a Princess, the three other Royal children...

, wife of Aleksander Michał Lubomirski, Starost of Sandomierz
Starost is a title for an official or unofficial position of leadership that has been used in various contexts through most of Slavic history. It can be translated as "elder"...

 (from whom it takes its name). Later, between 1681–96, it was rebuilt and remodeled by Tylman Gamerski
Tylman van Gameren
Tylman van Gameren was a Dutch-born Polish architect and engineer who, at the age of 28, settled in Poland and worked for Queen Maria Kazimiera, wife of Poland's King Jan III Sobieski...

 and Giovanni Bellotti for Prince Józef Karol Lubomirski
Józef Karol Lubomirski
Prince Józef Karol Lubomirski was a Polish noble.He was owner of Dubno, Wiśnicz, Tarnów and Zesław, Koniuszy of the Crown since 1683, Court Marshals of the Crown since 1692, Grand Marshal of the Crown in 1702, Starost of Sandomierz and Zator....

 - Aleksander Michał's son.

In 1750, Heinrich von Brühl
Heinrich von Brühl
Heinrich, count von Brühl , was a German statesman at the court of Saxony and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth...

 bought the palace as a residence. Between 1754-59 it was rebuilt according to designs by Johann Friedrich Knöbel and Joachim Daniel von Jauch
Joachim Daniel von Jauch
Joachim Daniel von Jauch was a German architect who supervised the baroque development of the city of Warsaw.-Early life and work:...

. The palace was enhanced and covered with a mansard roof
Mansard roof
A mansard or mansard roof is a four-sided gambrel-style hip roof characterized by two slopes on each of its sides with the lower slope at a steeper angle than the upper that is punctured by dormer windows. The roof creates an additional floor of habitable space, such as a garret...

. Two outbuildings were added to the palace complex surrounding a triangular courtyard
A court or courtyard is an enclosed area, often a space enclosed by a building that is open to the sky. These areas in inns and public buildings were often the primary meeting places for some purposes, leading to the other meanings of court....

 that sometimes served as a parade ground. From that time the palace was known as the Brühl Palace.

On 27 May 1787, the Palace played a key role in a plot by Russian ambassador to Poland, Otto Magnus von Stackelberg
Otto Magnus von Stackelberg (ambassador)
Reichsgraf Otto Magnus von Stackelberg was a diplomat of the Russian Empire, an envoy in Madrid from 1767 to 1771, ambassador in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1772 to 1790 and in Sweden from 1791 to 1793....

. He derailed yet another Polish policy which seemed threatening to Russia. With few major wars in the past decades, the economy
An economy consists of the economic system of a country or other area; the labor, capital and land resources; and the manufacturing, trade, distribution, and consumption of goods and services of that area...

 of the Commonwealth was improving, and its budget
A budget is a financial plan and a list of all planned expenses and revenues. It is a plan for saving, borrowing and spending. A budget is an important concept in microeconomics, which uses a budget line to illustrate the trade-offs between two or more goods...

 had a notable surplus. Many voices said that the money should be spent on increasing the size, and providing new equipment for, the Polish army. However, as a large Polish army could be a threat to the Russian garrisons controlling Poland, von Stackelberg ordered his proxies in the Permanent Council
Permanent Council
The Permanent Council was the highest administrative authority in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth between 1775 and 1789 and the first modern government in Europe...

 to spent the money on a different goal: for the huge sum of 1 million zloty's (representng most of the surplus), the Council bought the Brühl Palace - and promptly donated it to 'Poland's ally', Russia, to serve as Russia's new embassy.
At the end of the eighteenth century, Dominik Merlini gave the interior a neoclassical
Neoclassicism is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome...


During 1932-37 the palace was adapted for use as the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the new Polish Republic. The architect this time was Adam Pniewski, who added a new modern building and modernized the interiors of all the buildings in the palace complex.

It was deliberately and completely destroyed by the Germans
Planned destruction of Warsaw
The planned destruction of Warsaw refers to the largely realised plans by Nazi Germany to completely raze the city. The plan was put into full motion after the Warsaw Uprising in 1944...

 on December 18, 1944 (during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...


Warsaw’s municipal government authorities have recently decided to rebuild the Brühl Palace. The new building will have a facade referring to its historic shape, but a new private investor may adapt the interiors to the needs of either office space or a hotel. Recently the National Bank of Poland has shown considerable interest in using the reconstructed palace as its main base of operations in the capital, Warsaw.

See also

  • Saxon Palace
  • Saxon Garden
    Saxon Garden
    The Saxon Garden is a 15.5–hectare public garden in downtown Warsaw, Poland, facing Piłsudski Square. It is the oldest public park in the city...

  • Saxon Axis
    Saxon Axis
    The Saxon Axis is a feature of the historical city centre of the city of Warsaw. It is a line running from the Vistula through the Presidential Palace, the Krakowskie Przedmieście, Saxon Square, Saxon Palace, Saxon Garden, Lubomirski Palace to Plac Żelaznej Bramy.The idea was first proposed by...

  • Piłsudski Square
  • Kotowski Palace
    Kotowski Palace
    Kotowski Palace was a 17th-century palace in Warsaw, Poland. It served as a main cloister building for sisters of Benedictine Sisters of Perpetual Adoration.-History:...

External links

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