Borei class submarine

The Borei class is a class
Ship class
A ship class is a group of ships of a similar design. This is distinct from a ship-type, which might reflect a similarity of tonnage or intended use. For example, the is a nuclear aircraft carrier of the Nimitz class....

 of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine
Ballistic missile submarine
A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine equipped to launch ballistic missiles .-Description:Ballistic missile submarines are larger than any other type of submarine, in order to accommodate SLBMs such as the Russian R-29 or the American Trident...

 produced and operated by the Russian Navy. The class is intended to replace the Delta III
Delta III class submarine
The 667BDR Kaľmar Delta-III class submarine is a large ballistic missile submarine operated by Russian Navy. Like as other previous Delta class submarines the Delta III is a double hulled design with a thin low magnetic steel outer hull wrapped around a thicker inner pressure hull.- Design :The...

, Delta IV  and Typhoon
Typhoon class submarine
The Project 941 or Akula, Russian "Акула" class submarine is a type of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine deployed by the Soviet Navy in the 1980s...

 classes now in Russian Navy service. The class is named after Boreas, the North wind.

History and description

Work on the first unit of the Borei class (officially designated Project 935) started in 1996. A new submarine-launched ballistic missile
Submarine-launched ballistic missile
A submarine-launched ballistic missile is a ballistic missile capable of delivering a nuclear warhead that can be launched from submarines. Modern variants usually deliver multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles each of which carries a warhead and allows a single launched missile to...

 was developed in parallel, called the R-39UTTH "Bark"
R-39UTTH "Bark", NATO reporting name of SS-N-28, was a Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. The missile was an upgraded version of the R-39 missile that was designed for the Typhoon class. The new missile was to be carried by the new Russian nuclear submarines of the Borei class...

. However, the work on this missile was abandoned, and a new missile called the Bulava was designed. The submarine needed to be redesigned to accommodate the new missile, and the project name was changed to Project 955. The vessels are being built at the Northern Machinebuilding Enterprise (Sevmash
JSC PO Sevmash is a shipbuilding company based in Severodvinsk, a port city on Russia's White Sea. The name Sevmash is an abbreviation of Severnoye Mashinostroitelnoye Predpriyatie , i.e. "Northern Machine-Building Enterprise". Sevmash is the largest shipbuilding enterprise in Russia and today the...

) in Severodvinsk
Severodvinsk is a city in the north of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, located in the delta of the Northern Dvina River, west of Arkhangelsk. Administratively, it is incorporated as a town of oblast significance . Municipally, it is incorporated as Severodvinsk Urban Okrug. The city was founded as...

, and were designed by the Rubin Marine Equipment Design Bureau (Rubin
Rubin Design Bureau
Rubin Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering in Saint Petersburg is one of the main Russian centers of submarine design, having designed more than two-thirds of all nuclear submarines in the Russian Navy...

). Because of the repeated failures during Bulava test launches, some experts have suggested that the Borei submarine could instead be armed with R-29RMU Sineva
R-29RMU Sineva
The R-29RMU Sineva , also designated RSM-54,is a Russian liquid-fuelled submarine-launched ballistic missile. It has the GRAU index 3M27, and is identified by NATO as the SS-N-23 Skiff...

 missiles. The Sineva is already in active duty on the Delta IV class submarine.

Advances include a compact and integrated hydrodynamically efficient hull for reduced broadband noise and the first ever use of pump-jet
A pump-jet, hydrojet, or water jet, is a marine system that creates a jet of water for propulsion. The mechanical arrangement may be a ducted propeller with nozzle, or a centrifugal pump and nozzle...

 propulsion on a Russian nuclear submarine. Costing some 23 bln RUR ($890 million USD), Borei is approximately 170 metres (557.7 ft) long, 13 metres (42.7 ft) in diameter, and has a maximum submerged speed of at least 46 km/h (23.5 kn; 28.6 mph). In comparison the cost of an Ohio class
Ohio class submarine
The Ohio class is a class of nuclear-powered submarines used by the United States Navy. The United States has 18 Ohio-class submarines:...

 SSBN was around 2 billion USD per boat (1997 prices). Smaller than the Typhoon class, the Borei was initially slated to carry 12 missiles but was able to carry 4 more due to the decrease in mass of the 45-ton Bulava SLBM (a modified version of the Topol-M ICBM
RT-2UTTH Topol M
The RT-2UTTKh «Topol-M» is one of the most recent intercontinental ballistic missiles to be deployed by Russia , and the first to be developed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union....

) over the originally proposed R-39UTTH Bark
R-39UTTH "Bark", NATO reporting name of SS-N-28, was a Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. The missile was an upgraded version of the R-39 missile that was designed for the Typhoon class. The new missile was to be carried by the new Russian nuclear submarines of the Borei class...


Launch and trials

The launch of the first submarine of the class, the (Юрий Долгорукий), was scheduled for 2002 but was delayed because of budget constraints. The vessel was eventually rolled out of its construction hall on 15 April 2007 in a ceremony attended by many senior military and industrial personnel. The Yuriy Dolgorukiy was the first Russian strategic missile submarine to be launched in seventeen years since the end of the Soviet era. Currently, there are two more Borei class submarines under construction, named (Александр Невский) and (Владимир Мономах). The next submarine in the series, (Святитель Николай) was planned to be laid down on 22 December 2009, the anniversary of the establishment of the Sevmash Shipyard. The planned contingent of eight strategic submarines is expected to be commissioned within the next decade (five Project 955 are planned for purchase through 2015).

Although the Yuriy Dolgorukiy was officially rolled out of its construction hall on 15 April 2007 the submarine was not put into the water until February 2008. By July 2009 it had yet to be armed with Bulava missiles and is therefore not fully operational, although ready for sea trials on 24 October 2008.
On November 21, 2008 the reactor on the Yuriy Dolgorukiy was activated and on 19 June 2009 began its sea trials in the White Sea
White Sea
The White Sea is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia. It is surrounded by Karelia to the west, the Kola Peninsula to the north, and the Kanin Peninsula to the northeast. The whole of the White Sea is under Russian sovereignty and considered to be part of...

The submarine will undergo up to six trials before being commissioned and the problem with the Bulava missile could delay it even more.

On 28 September 2010 the Yury Dolgoruky completed company sea trials. By late October the Russian Pacific Fleet was fully prepared to host Russia's new Borey class strategic nuclear-powered submarines. It is expected that four subs will be deployed in the Northern fleet and four subs in the Pacific fleet. On 9 November 2010 Yury Dolgoruky passed all sea trials directed to new equipment and systems.

Initially, the plan was to conduct the first torpedo launches during the ongoing state trials in December 2010 and then in same month conduct the first launch of the main weapon system, R-30 (RSM-56) Bulava
Bulava (missile)
The Bulava |mace]]"; designation RSM-56, NATO reporting name SS-NX-30, GRAU index 3M30) is a submarine-launched ballistic missile under development for the Russian Navy and to be deployed on the new Borei class of ballistic missile nuclear submarines...

 missile. The plan was then postoned to mid-summer 2011 due to ice conditions in the White Sea

On 2 December 2010 the second Borei class submarine, the Alexander Nevsky, was moved to a floating dock in Sevmash shipyard. There the final preparations took place before the submarine was launched. Submarine was launched on 6 December 2010 and begin sea trials on 24 October 2011.

On 28 June 2011 a Bulava missile was launched for the first time from the Borei class submarine Yury Dolgoruky. The test was announced as a success.

Project 955U Borei II

On 15 December 2009 a defense Ministry official announced that the laydown of the fourth Borei class submarine had been postponed from December to the first quarter of 2010. The reason for the delay was said to be "organizational and technical reasons". Fourth ship of class will be constructed under new 955U modification. It is reported by unnamed sources that this modification will include major structural changes and the installation of 4 more (20 total) launch tubes, and probably other changes. If these reports are true, technically the fourth ship will be the lead ship of a new Borei II class (not official).


Name Project Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Note
K-535 Yuriy Dolgorukiy 955 2 November 1996 13 February 2008 Expected in late 2011 Pacific the Yuriy Dolgorukiy is performing missile tests with its main armament the Bulava missile.
K-550 Aleksandr Nevskiy 955A 19 March 2004 6 December 2010 Expected in 2012 Pacific On sea trials since 24 October 2011
K-??? Vladimir Monomakh 955A 19 March 2006 N/A Expected in 2012 Pacific (?)
K-??? Svyatitel Nikolay
Russian submarine Svyatitel Nikolay
The Svyatitel Nikolay is a proposed name to the officially still unnamed Russian ballistic missile submarine of the fourth generation Project 955 Borei class, the fourth in series and a possible lead ship of the improved Project 955 Borei II class...

955U Expected in 2010 N/A N/A Work began in 2010. Still not been officially laid down.

External links

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