Battle of Chingshanli
The Battle of Qingshanli was fought over six days in October 1920 between the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
-Foundation:During the Meiji Restoration, the military forces loyal to the Emperor were samurai drawn primarily from the loyalist feudal domains of Satsuma and Chōshū...

 and Korea
Korea ) is an East Asian geographic region that is currently divided into two separate sovereign states — North Korea and South Korea. Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and is separated from Japan to the...

n armed groups in a densely-wooded region of eastern Manchuria
Manchuria is a historical name given to a large geographic region in northeast Asia. Depending on the definition of its extent, Manchuria usually falls entirely within the People's Republic of China, or is sometimes divided between China and Russia. The region is commonly referred to as Northeast...

 called Qīngshānlǐ . It occurred during the campaign of the Japanese army in Jiandao, during Japanese occupation of Korea (1910–1945).


After the March 1st Movement
March 1st Movement
The March 1st Movement, or Samil Movement, was one of the earliest public displays of Korean resistance during the occupation of the Korean Empire by Japan. The name refers to an event that occurred on March 1, 1919, hence the movement's name, literally meaning "Three-One Movement" or "March First...

 of 1919 by Koreans calling for liberation from Japanese occupation, some Korean activists formed an independence army. The Japanese government asked China to subdue them but got no substantive result.

On October 2, 1920, independence forces raided Hun-ch'un and killed 13 Japanese including the commissioner of the consulate police. In response, Japan decided to send troops to eastern Manchuria. Japan immediately held talks with China, and on October 16 received permission for military action in eastern Jilin from the governor of Jilin.

Status of the Battles

The Japanese forces who joined the expedition were that of the 19th Division of the Army, the 28th Brigade of the 19th Division, which was on its way back to Japan, and two units from the 11th and 13th Divisions who had been sent to Vladivostok
The city is located in the southern extremity of Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula, which is about 30 km long and approximately 12 km wide.The highest point is Mount Kholodilnik, the height of which is 257 m...


Among them, only the 19th Division of the Army launched an actual military operation and the rest just held a lockdown and a demonstration. The 19th Division was deployed in Hunchun
Hunchun is a county-level city in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, far eastern Jilin province, Northeast China. It borders North Korea and Russia , has over 250,000 inhabitants, and streching on a 5,145 square-kilometer...

 (Isobayashi Detachment), Wangqing (Kimura Detachment) and Yanji
Yanji , also known as Yeon'gil from its Korean name , is the seat of the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, eastern Jilin province, Northeast China. Its population is approximately 400,000 of which a large section is ethnic Korean...

Helong is a city of southeastern Jilin province, Northeast China. It is under the administration of the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.-Administrative Divisions:Helong has 3 subdistricts and 8 towns.Subdistricts:...

 (Azuma Detachment). The Isobayashi and Kimura detachments engaged in no major combat.

From October 21 to 23, the Northern military administration office army (북로군정서군, 北路軍政署軍) led by Kim Jwa-jin
Kim Jwa-jin
Kim Jwa-jin , sometimes called the "Korean Makhno" or by his pen name Baekya, played an important role in the development of Korean nationalism....

 lured some of Japanese soldiers and attacked them in Baiyunping (白雲坪), Quanshuiping (泉水坪) and Wanlougou (完樓溝). Although the Korean force was small and used guerilla warfare, were victorious. The Japanese force, who were defeated by the Korean Independent Army, appealed for help to the Azuma Detachment. They were rushed in for the relief of the remnants to fight against the Korean Independence Army.

The Azuma Detachment engaged in combat with the Korean Independence Army from October 23. The Northern military administration office army united Korea independent army led by Hong Beom-do
Hong Beom-do
Hong Beom-do ; August 27, 1868 – October 25, 1943), was a Korean independence activist. Hong was born in Chasong, North Pyongan.- Biography :...

 in the struggle against Japanese force. The Korean troops had the Japanese Azuma Detachment at a disadvantage, and the two forces plunged into the final battle in the Yulang town (漁郎村). The Korean army claimed to have killed 1,200 Japanese soldiers, and wounded thousands of others on October 26. As a result, the Japanese retreated from the area of operation.

The Battle of Qingshanli is considered as a great victory for Korean guerillas.

Hun-ch'un massacre

South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

 views the Hun-ch'un Incident as a deception by Japan, who they believe used it as an excuse to despatch troops.

According to Korean sources, the Japanese army bribed a bandit leader named Ch'ang-chiang-hao and made him attack Hun-ch'un. The Japanese victims were incidentally attacked by bandits who were enticed to the raid by Ch'ang-chiang-hao and were not under his control.

Casualties of the Japanese army

Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

ese sources claim 11 dead and 24 wounded, and no officer casualties. These numbers are repeated by the list of the dead of the Yasukuni Shrine
Yasukuni Shrine
is a Shinto shrine located in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. It is dedicated to the soldiers and others who died fighting on behalf of the Emperor of Japan. Currently, its Symbolic Registry of Divinities lists the names of over 2,466,000 enshrined men and women whose lives were dedicated to the service of...

. Japanese investigation of weapons of the 19th Division after the expedition claims that the Japanese army consumed little.

The only Japanese soldier Korean sources name was "Regimental Commander Kano." "The Bloody History of the Korean Independence Movement" states that a secret paper by a Japanese consul reported Regimental Commander Kano's death, although Japan has not revealed such a report so far. Japan claims the only man corresponding to "Regimental Commander Kano" was Colonel Kano Nobuteru, who served as commander of the 27th regiment, and that his name cannot be found in the casualty list, but is said to have led the regiment until 1922. Moreover, two months after the Battle of Qingshanli, the regiment commanded by Colonel Kano captured one Korean. This event is recorded in a secret telegraph from the Japanese consulate in Qingshanli on November 31, 1920.

On the contrary, South Koreans refer to this battle as the "great victory at Cheongsalli" and consider it a victory of the Independence Army. For the casualties of the Japanese army, Chosun Doknip Undongji Hyulsa by Bak Inseok (1920) states "900-1,600 including Regimental Commander Kano," Daehan Minguk jeongdangsa compiled by the National Election Commission (1964) "over 1,000," Hanguk jeonjaengsa by the Military History Compilation Committee of the Ministry of National Defense (1967) "3,300 dead and wounded," and Hanguk Minjok Undongsa by Jo Jihun (1975) "3,300 including Regimental Commander Kano."
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