Battle of Bregalnica
The Battle of Bregalnica was fought between the Kingdom of Bulgaria
History of Independent Bulgaria
The Treaty of San Stefano of March 3, 1878 provided for a self-governing Bulgarian state, which comprised the geographical regions of Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia. Based on that date Bulgarians celebrate Bulgaria's national day each year...

 army and the Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
The Kingdom of Serbia was created when Prince Milan Obrenović, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was crowned King in 1882. The Principality of Serbia was ruled by the Karađorđevic dynasty from 1817 onwards . The Principality, suzerain to the Porte, had expelled all Ottoman troops by 1867, de...

 during the Second Balkan War
Second Balkan War
The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 29 June 1913. Bulgaria had a prewar agreement about the division of region of Macedonia...

. Serbian forces came out victorious.

In Bulgarian history, the battles of Bregalnica and Kalimanci are considered as two parts of one single battle ending with the defeat of the Serbian forces.


According to the military convention between Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

 and Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

 from 13 March 1912 that predated the First Balkan War
First Balkan War
The First Balkan War, which lasted from October 1912 to May 1913, pitted the Balkan League against the Ottoman Empire. The combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies and achieved rapid success...

, the main Bulgarian forces were to be used on the Thracian
Thrace is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. As a geographical concept, Thrace designates a region bounded by the Balkan Mountains on the north, Rhodope Mountains and the Aegean Sea on the south, and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the east...

 front (Eastern theater), while the whole Serbian army and one Bulgarian army of 100,000 men were to be used against the Ottoman army in Macedonia
Macedonia (region)
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe. Its boundaries have changed considerably over time, but nowadays the region is considered to include parts of five Balkan countries: Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, Serbia, as...

 (Western theater). Since the Bulgarians did not engage agreed forces in the Western theater but sent them instead to the Eastern theater, the main burden of fighting in Macedonia was left to the Serbian army. The Greek army also engaged Ottoman forces in the Western theater and, much more important, used its superior navy to block Ottoman naval lines in the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
The Aegean Sea[p] is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the southern Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosporus...

 thus preventing Ottoman reinforcements from Asia coming to the European part of empire.

The Serbian army defeated the Ottoman Vardar army in the three major battles at Battle of Kumanovo
Kumanovo is a city in the Republic of Macedonia and is the seat of Kumanovo Municipality which is the largest municipality in the country. Municipal institutions include a city council, mayor and other administrative bodies.-Name:...

, Battle of Prilep
Prilep is the fourth largest city in the Republic of Macedonia. It has a population of 66,246 citizens. Prilep is known as "the city under Marko's Towers" because of its proximity to the towers of Prince Marko.-Name:...

 and Battle of Bitola
Bitola is a city in the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia. The city is an administrative, cultural, industrial, commercial, and educational centre. It is located in the southern part of the Pelagonia valley, surrounded by the Baba and Nidže mountains, 14 km north of the...

 and effectively conquered the entire Vardar Macedonia
Vardar Macedonia
Vardar Macedonia is an area in the north of the Macedonia . The borders of the area are those of the Republic of Macedonia. It covers an area of...

 (roughly the present-day Republic of Macedonia) as well as territories of northern and central Albania
Albania , officially known as the Republic of Albania , is a country in Southeastern Europe, in the Balkans region. It is bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea...

. In the same time the Greek army defeated smaller Ottoman forces in the Epirus
The name Epirus, from the Greek "Ήπειρος" meaning continent may refer to:-Geographical:* Epirus - a historical and geographical region of the southwestern Balkans, straddling modern Greece and Albania...

 and Aegean Macedonia and thus with the Serbian army practically ended Ottoman military presence in the areas of Macedonia, Albania and Epirus.
Meanwhile the Bulgarian army in the eastern theater of war defeated the main Ottoman forces at Kırkkilise
Kırklareli is the capital of Kırklareli Province in Eastern Thrace, on the European part of Turkey. The province has a coastline on the Black Sea. There is a Jewish community.-Name:It is not clearly known when the city was founded, nor under what name...

 and Lüleburgaz
Lüleburgaz, is a town and district of Kırklareli Province in the Marmara region of Turkey.-Facts:The city has a population of 100,412 and is the largest town in Kırklareli Province....

 but were eventually stopped at the fortified positions at Çatalca
Çatalca is a city and a rural district in Istanbul, Turkey. It is in Thrace, on the ridge between the Marmara and the Black Sea. Most people living in Çatalca are either farmers or those visiting vacation homes. Many families from Istanbul come to Çatalca during weekends to hike in the forests or...

 and engaged in a long siege of Edirne. Since the failure of Bulgarians at Edirne could put in jeopardy the results of the entire war, including the Serbian victories in Macedonia, Serbia sent two infantry divisions and much needed heavy artillery to aid Bulgarians at Edirne. Reinforced with Serbian troops Bulgarians eventually managed to capture Edirne which ultimately lead to the Ottoman defeat in the war and signing the peace Treaty of London on 30 May 1913.

Since the treaty of London proclaimed independent Albanian state which included much of the territories that were assigned to Serbia in pre-war Serbian-Bulgarian agreement, Serbia sought compensation on the other side, most notably in Vardar Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
Macedonia , officially the Republic of Macedonia , is a country located in the central Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in 1991...

 which was conquered and still held by the Serbian army. The Serbian-Bulgarian agreement from 1912. made no clear division of Macedonia between Serbia and Bulgaria since it had left large area of it as disputed territory allowing Russian arbitration in the case of dispute. Serbia felt that it was damaged with the lost of the territories in Albania
Albania , officially known as the Republic of Albania , is a country in Southeastern Europe, in the Balkans region. It is bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea...

 and that its gains weren't proportional to its efforts in war, especially because of the sending of the additional forces to Edirne and Bulgarian failing to engage agreed forces in western theater. Using this argument Serbia demanded that the territories that were conquered in Macedonia by the Serbian army should be given to Serbia especially because Bulgaria gained much more territories in the east then it was initially planned by the Serbs. Since the Greece also had unresolved issue with the Bulgaria in Aegean Macedonia
Aegean Macedonia
Aegean Macedonia is a term that refers to the Greek region of Macedonia. It is currently mainly used in the Republic of Macedonia, including in the irredentist context of a United Macedonia. The term is also used in Bulgaria as the more common synonym for Greek Macedonia, without the connotations...

two states approached each other in a defensive alliance against Bulgaria.
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.