Baptism with the Holy Spirit
Overview
 
Baptism with the Holy Spirit (or Baptism in the Holy Spirit) in Christian theology
Christian theology
- Divisions of Christian theology :There are many methods of categorizing different approaches to Christian theology. For a historical analysis, see the main article on the History of Christian theology.- Sub-disciplines :...

 is a term describing baptism
Baptism
In Christianity, baptism is for the majority the rite of admission , almost invariably with the use of water, into the Christian Church generally and also membership of a particular church tradition...

 (i.e. washing, immersion, or plunge) in or with the Spirit of God
Holy Spirit (Christianity)
For the majority of Christians, the Holy Spirit is the third person of the Holy Trinity—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and is Almighty God...

. While the phrase "baptism with the Holy Spirit" is found in the New Testament
New Testament
The New Testament is the second major division of the Christian biblical canon, the first such division being the much longer Old Testament....

 and all Christian traditions accept it as a theological concept, each has interpreted it in a way consistent with their own beliefs on ecclesiology
Ecclesiology
Today, ecclesiology usually refers to the theological study of the Christian church. However when the word was coined in the late 1830s, it was defined as the science of the building and decoration of churches and it is still, though rarely, used in this sense.In its theological sense, ecclesiology...

 and Christian initiation. One view holds that the term refers only to the "once-for-all" event for the whole Church
Christian Church
The Christian Church is the assembly or association of followers of Jesus Christ. The Greek term ἐκκλησία that in its appearances in the New Testament is usually translated as "church" basically means "assembly"...

 described in the second chapter of the Book of Acts while another view holds that the term also refers to an experience of the individual believer distinct from salvation and initiation into the Church.

Before the emergence of the holiness movement
Holiness movement
The holiness movement refers to a set of beliefs and practices emerging from the Methodist Christian church in the mid 19th century. The movement is distinguished by its emphasis on John Wesley's doctrine of "Christian perfection" - the belief that it is possible to live free of voluntary sin - and...

 in the mid 19th century and Pentecostalism
Pentecostalism
Pentecostalism is a diverse and complex movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through the baptism in the Holy Spirit, has an eschatological focus, and is an experiential religion. The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost, the Greek...

 in the early 20th century, most denominations
Christian denomination
A Christian denomination is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and doctrine within Christianity. In the Orthodox tradition, Churches are divided often along ethnic and linguistic lines, into separate churches and traditions. Technically, divisions between one group and...

 believed that Christians received the baptism with the Holy Spirit either upon conversion
Conversion to Christianity
Conversion to Christianity is the religious conversion of a previously non-Christian person to some form of Christianity. It has been called the foundational experience of Christian life...

 and regeneration
Regeneration (theology)
Regeneration, while sometimes perceived to be a step in the Ordo salutis , is generally understood in Christian theology to be the objective work of God in a believer's life. Spiritually, it means that God brings Christians to new life from a previous state of subjection to the decay of death...

 or through rites of Christian initiation.
Encyclopedia
Baptism with the Holy Spirit (or Baptism in the Holy Spirit) in Christian theology
Christian theology
- Divisions of Christian theology :There are many methods of categorizing different approaches to Christian theology. For a historical analysis, see the main article on the History of Christian theology.- Sub-disciplines :...

 is a term describing baptism
Baptism
In Christianity, baptism is for the majority the rite of admission , almost invariably with the use of water, into the Christian Church generally and also membership of a particular church tradition...

 (i.e. washing, immersion, or plunge) in or with the Spirit of God
Holy Spirit (Christianity)
For the majority of Christians, the Holy Spirit is the third person of the Holy Trinity—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and is Almighty God...

. While the phrase "baptism with the Holy Spirit" is found in the New Testament
New Testament
The New Testament is the second major division of the Christian biblical canon, the first such division being the much longer Old Testament....

 and all Christian traditions accept it as a theological concept, each has interpreted it in a way consistent with their own beliefs on ecclesiology
Ecclesiology
Today, ecclesiology usually refers to the theological study of the Christian church. However when the word was coined in the late 1830s, it was defined as the science of the building and decoration of churches and it is still, though rarely, used in this sense.In its theological sense, ecclesiology...

 and Christian initiation. One view holds that the term refers only to the "once-for-all" event for the whole Church
Christian Church
The Christian Church is the assembly or association of followers of Jesus Christ. The Greek term ἐκκλησία that in its appearances in the New Testament is usually translated as "church" basically means "assembly"...

 described in the second chapter of the Book of Acts while another view holds that the term also refers to an experience of the individual believer distinct from salvation and initiation into the Church.

Before the emergence of the holiness movement
Holiness movement
The holiness movement refers to a set of beliefs and practices emerging from the Methodist Christian church in the mid 19th century. The movement is distinguished by its emphasis on John Wesley's doctrine of "Christian perfection" - the belief that it is possible to live free of voluntary sin - and...

 in the mid 19th century and Pentecostalism
Pentecostalism
Pentecostalism is a diverse and complex movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through the baptism in the Holy Spirit, has an eschatological focus, and is an experiential religion. The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost, the Greek...

 in the early 20th century, most denominations
Christian denomination
A Christian denomination is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and doctrine within Christianity. In the Orthodox tradition, Churches are divided often along ethnic and linguistic lines, into separate churches and traditions. Technically, divisions between one group and...

 believed that Christians received the baptism with the Holy Spirit either upon conversion
Conversion to Christianity
Conversion to Christianity is the religious conversion of a previously non-Christian person to some form of Christianity. It has been called the foundational experience of Christian life...

 and regeneration
Regeneration (theology)
Regeneration, while sometimes perceived to be a step in the Ordo salutis , is generally understood in Christian theology to be the objective work of God in a believer's life. Spiritually, it means that God brings Christians to new life from a previous state of subjection to the decay of death...

 or through rites of Christian initiation. Since the growth and spread of Pentecostal and charismatic
Charismatic Christianity
Charismatic Christianity is a Christian doctrine that maintains that modern-day believers experience miracles, prophecy, speaking in tongues, and other spiritual gifts as described in of the Bible...

 churches, however, the belief that the baptism with the Holy Spirit is an experience distinct from regeneration
Second work of grace
According to some Christian traditions, a second work of grace is a transforming interaction with God which may occur in the life of a Christian...

 has come into increasing prominence.

Biblical description

In the Gospels, the term was first used by John the Baptist
John the Baptist
John the Baptist was an itinerant preacher and a major religious figure mentioned in the Canonical gospels. He is described in the Gospel of Luke as a relative of Jesus, who led a movement of baptism at the Jordan River...

 who said in reference to Jesus
Jesus
Jesus of Nazareth , commonly referred to as Jesus Christ or simply as Jesus or Christ, is the central figure of Christianity...

, "He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire" . According to the Gospel of Luke
Gospel of Luke
The Gospel According to Luke , commonly shortened to the Gospel of Luke or simply Luke, is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels. This synoptic gospel is an account of the life and ministry of Jesus of Nazareth. It details his story from the events of his birth to his Ascension.The...

, Jesus described the baptism with the Holy Spirit as "the promise of the Father
God the Father
God the Father is a gendered title given to God in many monotheistic religions, particularly patriarchal, Abrahamic ones. In Judaism, God is called Father because he is the creator, life-giver, law-giver, and protector...

" . In Acts, it is described as "a gift" from God . It is also described in various places as the Spirit "falling upon", "coming upon", or being "poured out upon" believers.

In Acts, Jesus stated he would send the Holy Spirit so that his followers would "receive power" to be "witnesses for [him]" . The New Testament describes this occurring in several ways: By giving them supernatural courage , by giving them supernatural understanding , and by giving them various "gifts" for building each other up, from administrative ability to speaking in unknown languages ( 12-14; ).

History

Historically, Roman Catholics, the Eastern Orthodox, and Protestants agreed that the Church as a whole experienced baptism with the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost
Pentecost
Pentecost is a prominent feast in the calendar of Ancient Israel celebrating the giving of the Law on Sinai, and also later in the Christian liturgical year commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples of Christ after the Resurrection of Jesus...

. Thus any Christian being made a member of the Church also received the gift of the Holy Spirit. Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and various Protestant denominations have had different ways of defining who is and who is not a "full" member of the Church and thus of who has and has not received the Holy Spirit. However, despite differences in defining who is and who is not a Christian, these all agreed that all Christians have received baptism in the Holy Spirit. They agreed that the marvelous or demonstrable outpourings of the Holy Spirit in Acts 2, Acts 8, and Acts 10 are not paradigms to be repeated, but special events to signify that the Gospel
Gospel
A gospel is an account, often written, that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth. In a more general sense the term "gospel" may refer to the good news message of the New Testament. It is primarily used in reference to the four canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John...

 was crossing the special boundaries that Jesus described in Acts 1:8 (Jerusalem and Judea, Samaria, the ends of the earth). Historically these three traditions agreed that extending the borders of the Church to Samaritans (half-Jews; Acts 8) and then to Gentiles (Acts 10) were watershed moments of redemptive history which warranted the irrefutable outpouring of the Holy Spirit, citing, for example, Acts 10:45-48:
In the early Church, the practice of laying hands on
Laying on of hands
The laying on of hands is a religious ritual that accompanies certain religious practices, which are found throughout the world in varying forms....

 the newly baptized to impart the gift of the Holy Spirit was the origin of the sacrament
Sacrament
A sacrament is a sacred rite recognized as of particular importance and significance. There are various views on the existence and meaning of such rites.-General definitions and terms:...

 of confirmation. In the Eastern church
Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity comprises the Christian traditions and churches that developed in the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, Northeastern Africa, India and parts of the Far East over several centuries of religious antiquity. The term is generally used in Western Christianity to...

, confirmation continued to be celebrated immediately after water baptism. The two rites were separated in the Western church
Western Christianity
Western Christianity is a term used to include the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church and groups historically derivative thereof, including the churches of the Anglican and Protestant traditions, which share common attributes that can be traced back to their medieval heritage...

.

According to Pentecostal historian H. Vinson Synan
H. Vinson Synan
Harold Vinson Synan, , is an historian and author within the Pentecostal movement. Synan has published a total of sixteen books, fifteen of which are related to Pentecostal and Charismatic history. He once served as the Director of the Holy Spirit Research Center at Oral Roberts University...

, "the basic premise of Pentecostalism, that one may receive later effusions of the Spirit after initiation/conversion, can be clearly traced in Christian history to the beginnings of the rite of confirmation in the Western churches". Synan further traces the influence of Catholic and Anglican mystical traditions on John Wesley
John Wesley
John Wesley was a Church of England cleric and Christian theologian. Wesley is largely credited, along with his brother Charles Wesley, as founding the Methodist movement which began when he took to open-air preaching in a similar manner to George Whitefield...

's doctrine of Christian perfection
Christian perfection
Christian perfection, also known as perfect love; heart purity; the baptism of the Holy Spirit; the fullness of the blessing; Christian holiness; the second blessing; and entire sanctification, is a Christian doctrine which holds that the heart of the regenerant Christian may attain a state of...

, from which Pentecostal beliefs on Spirit baptism developed. John Fletcher
John William Fletcher
John William Fletcher , English divine, was born at Nyon in Switzerland, his original name being de la Fléchère....

, Wesley's designated successor, argued that Christian perfection or the second blessing, as it was also called, was a "baptism in the Holy Spirit" as well as a cleansing experience. His Checks to Antinomianism later became a standard for Pentecostally-inclined holiness teachers. On the subject, Fletcher wrote:
After his conversion in 1821, Presbyterian minister and revivalist Charles Grandison Finney
Charles Grandison Finney
Charles Grandison Finney was a leader in the Second Great Awakening. He has been called The Father of Modern Revivalism. Finney was best known as an innovative revivalist, an opponent of Old School Presbyterian theology, an advocate of Christian perfectionism, a pioneer in social reforms in favor...

 experienced what he called "baptism in the Holy Spirit" accompanied by "unutterable gushings" of praise. Finney identified Spirit baptism as a means to enter into sanctification and proposed the possibility of receiving subsequent receptions of the Holy Spirit for believers.

Within the holiness movement
Holiness movement
The holiness movement refers to a set of beliefs and practices emerging from the Methodist Christian church in the mid 19th century. The movement is distinguished by its emphasis on John Wesley's doctrine of "Christian perfection" - the belief that it is possible to live free of voluntary sin - and...

, which began in the Methodist Church but soon spread to many denominations, baptism in the Holy Spirit was generally understood to be synonymous with second blessing sanctification. In the early 1890s, R.C. Horner, a Canadian holiness evangelist introduced an important theological distinction between the two terms. He argued in his books Pentecost (1891) and Bible Doctrines (1909) that the baptism in the Holy Spirit was not included in sanctification but was actually a third work of grace subsequent to salvation and sanctification which empowered the believer for service. Charles Fox Parham
Charles Fox Parham
Charles Fox Parham was an American preacher and evangelist. Together with William J. Seymour, Parham was one of the two central figures in the development and early spread of Pentecostalism...

 would build on this doctrinal foundation when he identified speaking in tongues as the Bible
Bible
The Bible refers to any one of the collections of the primary religious texts of Judaism and Christianity. There is no common version of the Bible, as the individual books , their contents and their order vary among denominations...

 evidence of Spirit baptism.

Views

The diverse views on Spirit-baptism held among Christian traditions can be categorized into three main groups. These are baptism with the Spirit as sacramental initiation (Orthodox and Catholic churches), regeneration (traditional Protestantism), and empowerment for witness (Pentecostals and charismatics).

Eastern Orthodox

Orthodox Churches believe that baptism in the Holy Spirit is conferred with water baptism. The individual is anointed with oil (chrism
Chrism
Chrism , also called "Myrrh" , Holy anointing oil, or "Consecrated Oil", is a consecrated oil used in the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Rite Catholic, Oriental Orthodox, in the Assyrian Church of the East, and in Old-Catholic churches, as well as Anglican churches in the administration...

) immediately after baptism. According to Cyril of Jerusalem
Cyril of Jerusalem
Cyril of Jerusalem was a distinguished theologian of the early Church . He is venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Communion. In 1883, Cyril was declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Leo XIII...

:

Roman Catholic

The Catholic Church teaches that baptism, confirmation, and the Eucharist
Eucharist
The Eucharist , also called Holy Communion, the Sacrament of the Altar, the Blessed Sacrament, the Lord's Supper, and other names, is a Christian sacrament or ordinance...

—the sacraments of Christian initiation—lay the foundations of the Christian life. The Christian life is based on baptism. It is "the gateway to life in the Spirit" and "signifies and actually brings about the birth of water and the Spirit". The post-baptismal anointing (Chrismation in the Eastern churches) signifies the gift of the Holy Spirit and announces a second anointing to be conferred later in confirmation that completes the baptismal anointing.

Confirmation, then, is necessary for the completion of baptismal grace. When confirmed, Catholics receive the "special outpouring of the Holy Spirit as once granted to the apostles on the day of Pentecost". For the confirmand, it:
  • roots more deeply in the divine filiation
    Divine filiation
    Divine filiation is a Christian concept of becoming a "child of God". The concept implicates a share in the life and role of Jesus Christ. Divine filiation refers to the relationship between Jesus and God, specifically as the second person of the Trinity, "God the Son"...

    ;
  • unites more firmly to Christ;
  • increases the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit
    Seven gifts of the Holy Spirit
    The seven gifts of the Holy Spirit are a medieval enumeration of seven spiritual gifts probably encodified by Thomas Aquinas along with five intellectual virtues and four other groups of ethical characteristics. They are: wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety, and fear of the...

     (wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety, and fear of the Lord);
  • renders the bond with the Church more perfect;
  • gives a special strength of the Holy Spirit to spread and defend the faith by word and action as a true witness of Christ, to confess the name of Christ boldly, and never to be ashamed of the Cross
    Christian cross
    The Christian cross, seen as a representation of the instrument of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, is the best-known religious symbol of Christianity...


Traditional Protestant

Protestants, prior to Wesley and Fletcher, have believed that the gift of the Holy Spirit is given at the moment of regeneration, which, in Protestant terms, is not predicated on water baptism or membership in the Visible church. Rather all who have faith in Jesus Christ are members of the Invisible church
Invisible church
The invisible church or church invisible is a theological concept of an "invisible" body of the elect who are known only to God, in contrast to the "visible church"—that is, the institutional body on earth which preaches the gospel and administers the sacraments...

 and as such are given the Holy Spirit.

Wesleyanism

Within the Wesleyan tradition, baptism with the Holy Spirit has often been linked to a sanctified life. The United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
The United Methodist Church is a Methodist Christian denomination which is both mainline Protestant and evangelical. Founded in 1968 by the union of The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church, the UMC traces its roots back to the revival movement of John and Charles Wesley...

 has a sacramental view of baptism, believing that it is by both water and Spirit and "involves dying to sin, newness of life, union with Christ, receiving the Holy Spirit, and incorporation into Christ's church". It also believes that baptism is the "doorway to the sanctified life" defined as "a gift of the gracious presence of the Holy Spirit, a yielding to the Spirit's power, a deepening of our love for God and neighbor".

The churches in the holiness movement
Holiness movement
The holiness movement refers to a set of beliefs and practices emerging from the Methodist Christian church in the mid 19th century. The movement is distinguished by its emphasis on John Wesley's doctrine of "Christian perfection" - the belief that it is possible to live free of voluntary sin - and...

 emphasize entire sanctification as a definite experience linked to Spirit baptism. According to the Articles of Faith of the Church of the Nazarene
Church of the Nazarene
The Church of the Nazarene is an evangelical Christian denomination that emerged from the 19th century Holiness movement in North America with its members colloquially referred to as Nazarenes. It is the largest Wesleyan-holiness denomination in the world. At the end of 2010, the Church of the...

, sanctification
Sanctification
Sanctity is an ancient concept widespread among religions, a property of a thing or person sacred or set apart within the religion, from totem poles through temple vessels to days of the week, to a human believer who achieves this state. Sanctification is the act or process of acquiring sanctity,...

 is a work of God after regeneration "which transforms believers into the likeness of Christ" and is made possible by "initial sanctification" (which is regeneration and simultaneous with justification
Justification (theology)
Rising out of the Protestant Reformation, Justification is the chief article of faith describing God's act of declaring or making a sinner righteous through Christ's atoning sacrifice....

), entire sanctification, and "the continued perfecting work of the Holy Spirit culminating in glorification
Glorification (theology)
Glorification, as an element of the ordo salutis, is the final stage in the Christian theology of salvation. It refers to the nature of believers after death and judgement....

". Entire sanctification (as opposed to initial sanctification) is an act of God in which a believer is made free from original sin
Original sin
Original sin is, according to a Christian theological doctrine, humanity's state of sin resulting from the Fall of Man. This condition has been characterized in many ways, ranging from something as insignificant as a slight deficiency, or a tendency toward sin yet without collective guilt, referred...

 and able to devote him or herself entirely to God:

Mormonism

In the Latter Day Saint movement
Latter Day Saint movement
The Latter Day Saint movement is a group of independent churches tracing their origin to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. in the late 1820s. Collectively, these churches have over 14 million members...

, the "Baptism of fire and of the Holy Ghost" refers to the experience of one who undergoes the ordinance of confirmation with the laying on of hands to receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. It follows baptism in water and is essential to salvation
Plan of salvation
According to doctrine of the Latter Day Saint movement, the plan of salvation is a plan that God created to save, redeem, and exalt humankind...

. The gift of the Holy Ghost is the privilege of receiving inspiration, divine manifestations, direction, spiritual gifts, and other blessings from the Holy Spirit. It begins the lifetime process of sanctification.

Pentecostal and charismatic

Pentecostal and charismatic Christians
Charismatic Christianity
Charismatic Christianity is a Christian doctrine that maintains that modern-day believers experience miracles, prophecy, speaking in tongues, and other spiritual gifts as described in of the Bible...

 believe that all Christians have the Holy Spirit dwelling in them. However, they believe that the experience commonly called "baptism in the Holy Spirit" is a separate and distinct experience occurring sometime after regeneration. It is an empowering experience, equipping Spirit-filled believers for witness and ministry. Extending from this is the belief that all the spiritual gifts mentioned in the New Testament are to be sought and exercised to build up the Church. It is Spirit baptism that initiates the believer in the use of the spiritual gifts.

Pentecostals and charismatics look to the Bible to support their doctrinal position. According to their biblical interpretation, the Gospel of John
Gospel of John
The Gospel According to John , commonly referred to as the Gospel of John or simply John, and often referred to in New Testament scholarship as the Fourth Gospel, is an account of the public ministry of Jesus...

 20:22 shows that the disciples of Jesus were already born again before the Holy Spirit fell at Pentecost
Pentecost
Pentecost is a prominent feast in the calendar of Ancient Israel celebrating the giving of the Law on Sinai, and also later in the Christian liturgical year commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples of Christ after the Resurrection of Jesus...

. They then cite biblical examples in the Book of Acts 2, 8, 10, and 19 to show that it was common in the New Testament for Spirit baptism to occur after conversion. In following the biblical pattern, they argue, Christians today should also ask Jesus for this baptism which results in greater power for ministry and witness. There are differences between Pentecostal and charismatic Christians' understanding of Spirit baptism.

Classical Pentecostalism

Classical Pentecostalism includes any denomination or group which has origins in the Pentecostal revival that began in 1901 and is most identified with the Azusa Street Mission of Los Angeles. Some Pentecostal denominations teach that speaking in tongues (glossolalia) will always follow Spirit baptism; though this is by no means universally believed or practiced among Pentecostals.

On the subject of Spirit baptism, Donald Gee
Donald Gee
Donald Gee was an English Pentecostal Bible Teacher. Donald wrote the book Wind and Flame, which is the story of Pentecostalism in Europe in the 20th century. He was called "The Apostle of Balance."-Biography:...

 wrote:
The experience of Spirit baptism can be quite dramatic, as shown by William Durham
William Howard Durham
William Howard Durham was an early Pentecostal preacher and theologian, best known for advocating the Finished Work doctrine.-Early life and career:...

's account of his Spirit baptism:

Charismatics

Charismatics trace their historical origins to the charismatic movement
Charismatic movement
The term charismatic movement is used in varying senses to describe 20th century developments in various Christian denominations. It describes an ongoing international, cross-denominational/non-denominational Christian movement in which individual, historically mainstream congregations adopt...

 of the 1960s and 1970s. They are distinguished from Pentecostals because they tend to allow for differing viewpoints on whether Spirit baptism is subsequent to conversion and whether tongues is always a sign of receiving the baptism. Some charismatics remain within existing Protestant and Catholic churches while others have started new denominations.

The Catholic Charismatic Renewal
Catholic Charismatic Renewal
The Catholic Charismatic Renewal is a movement within the Catholic Church. Worship is characterized by vibrant Masses, as well as prayer meetings featuring prophecy, healing and "praying in tongues." This movement is based on the belief that certain charismata , bestowed by the Holy Spirit, such as...

 believes that there is a further experience of empowerment
Empowerment
Empowerment refers to increasing the spiritual, political, social, racial, educational, gender or economic strength of individuals and communities...

 with the Holy Spirit. As stated by Rev. Fr. Raniero Cantalamessa
Raniero Cantalamessa
Raniero Cantalamessa, O.F.M. Cap. is an Italian Catholic priest in the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin. He has served as the Preacher to the Papal Household since 1980, under both Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI....

, "baptism in the Spirit is not a sacrament, but it is related to a sacrament…to the sacraments of Christian initiation. The baptism in the Spirit makes real and in a way renews Christian initiation". Emphasis of the event is on the release of existing spiritual gifts already given to the individual through baptism in water and confirmation.

During the 1980s, another renewal movement emerged called the "Third Wave of the Holy Spirit
Third Wave of the Holy Spirit
The Third Wave of the Holy Spirit is a Christian theological theory first introduced by C. Peter Wagner to describe what he believed to be three historical periods of the activity of the Holy Spirit in the 20th century and beyond...

" (the first wave was Pentecostalism and the second wave was the charismatic movement). Third wave charismatics stress that the preaching of the gospel, following the New Testament pattern, should be accompanied by "signs, wonders, and miracles
Signs and Wonders
Signs and Wonders was a phrase used often by leaders of the Charismatic movement in the late 1980s and early 1990s. It is closely associated with the ministry of John Wimber and the Vineyard Movement...

". They believe that all Christians are baptized with the Holy Spirit at conversion, and prefer to call subsequent experiences as "filling" with the Holy Spirit. John Wimber
John Wimber
John Richard Wimber was a musician, charismatic pastor and one of the founding leaders of the Vineyard Movement, a neocharismatic Evangelical Christian denomination which began in the USA and has now spread to many countries world-wide.-Life and ministry:John Richard Wimber was the son of Basil...

 and the Vineyard churches are most prominently associated with this label.

Bible references

: …He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit…": …He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit…": "He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit…": …stay here in the city until you have been clothed with power from on high." (see fulfillment in ).: …the one who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.": …the Promise of the Father…"; …you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit…": "All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other languages…": …I will pour out my Spirit…" (quoting ).: …they were all filled with the Holy Spirit…": …prayed for them that they might receive the Holy Spirit…"; …as yet the Spirit had not yet come upon any of them…"; …they received the Holy Spirit…"; …the Spirit was given through the laying on of the apostles' hands….": …Jesus…has sent me…that you may…be filled with the Holy Spirit.": "The Holy Spirit fell upon all who heard the word…"; …the gift of the Holy Spirit had been poured out…"; …people who have received the Holy Spirit…": …the Holy Spirit fell upon them…"; …you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit…": "Did you receive the Holy Spirit…?"; …the Holy Spirit came upon them, and they spoke in tongues and prophesied…"
  • 1 Cor 12:13: "For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body--Jews or Greeks, slaves or free..."

Further reading

  • Hayford, Jack W
    Jack W. Hayford
    Jack Williams Hayford is an American author, Pentecostal minister, and Chancellor of The King's University...

    . Baptism with the Holy Spirit. Chosen, May 1, 2004. ISBN 9780800793487. Written from a Pentecostal perspective.
  • McDonnell, Kilian and Montague, George T. Christian Initiation and Baptism in the Holy Spirit: Evidence from the First Eight Centuries. Michael Glazier Books, January 1991. ISBN 9780814650097.
  • Montague, George T. Holy Spirit, Make Your Home in Me: Biblical Meditations on Receiving the Gift of the Spirit. Word Among Us Press, February 2008. ISBN 9781593251284. Written from a Catholic charismatic perspective.
  • Phillips, Ron. An Essential Guide to Baptism in the Holy Spirit: Foundations on the Holy Spirit Book 1. Charisma House, June 7, 2011. ISBN 9781616382391. Ron Phillips, a charismatic Southern Baptist pastor, writes about his own experience of Spirit-baptism and how the power of the Holy Spirit can be present in the lives of Christians today.
  • Torrey, R.A. The Baptism With The Holy Spirit. Kessinger Publishing, LLC, September 10, 2010 (originally published in 1895). ISBN 9781168929457. While evangelical pastor R.A. Torrey distanced himself from the Pentecostal movement, he did believe the baptism with the Holy Spirit was a second work of grace.
  • Yun, Koo Dong. Baptism in the Holy Spirit: An Ecumenical Theology of Spirit Baptism. University Press of America, 2003. ISBN 9780761826361. The author analyzes nine different theologians' views on Spirit baptism from various Christian traditions (Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Dispensational, Pentecostal, and Reformed).

External links


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