The BM-30 Smerch or 9A52 is a Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 heavy multiple rocket launcher
Multiple rocket launcher
A multiple rocket launcher is a type of unguided rocket artillery system. Like other rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers are less accurate and have a much lower rate of fire than batteries of traditional artillery guns...

. The system is designed to defeat personnel, armored, and soft-skinned targets in concentration areas, artillery batteries, command posts and ammunition depots. It was created in the early 1980s and entered service in the Soviet Army
Soviet Army
The Soviet Army is the name given to the main part of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union between 1946 and 1992. Previously, it had been known as the Red Army. Informally, Армия referred to all the MOD armed forces, except, in some cases, the Soviet Navy.This article covers the Soviet Ground...

 in 1989. When first observed by the West in 1983, it received the code MRL 280mm M1983. It is expected to be superseded by the 9A52-4 Smerch-S.


The main components of the RSZO 9K58 "Smerch" system are the following:
  • Rockets 9M55 or 9M528 (in containers);
  • BM 9A52-2 launch vehicle;
  • TZM 9T234-2 transloader with a 850 kg crane and 12 spare rockets;
  • Automated fire control equipment in the command post 1K123 "Vivary";
  • Maintenance vehicle PM-2-70 MTO-V;
  • Set of arsenal equipment 9F819;
  • Training facilities 9F827 and 9F840.

The 300mm rockets with a firing range of 70 and 90 km and various warheads have been developed for the Smerch MLRS.

The 9A52-2 vehicle with the automated system ensures:
  • delivery of fire from an un-surveyed fire position;
  • laying of the launch tube cluster with the crew staying in the cabin and without using aiming points;
  • autonomous determination of an azimuth of the launch tube cluster’s longitudinal axis;
  • visual representation of graphical information for the launch tube cluster laying, the route of vehicle movement and location as well as a point of destination and direction of movement on the video terminal;
  • increase in MLRS survivability owing to reduced time of staying at a fire position;
  • increased comfort for the laying operator, especially in adverse weather conditions and at night;
  • increased independent operation owing to the navigation and survey equipment, which allows the vehicle to rapidly change fire positions and move autonomously;
  • reduction of the combat crew.

General characteristics

  • Chassis: MAZ-543M
    The MAZ-543/MAZ-7310 "Uragan" is a Soviet/Belarusian 8x8 artillery truck designed and developed by MAZ , in what is now Belarus. Designed in the 1960s, the MAZ-543 was presented on November 7, 1965 during the Moscow Red Square military parade as part of SS-1с Scud B system...

     (9A52-1) or MAZ-79111
    The MAZ-543/MAZ-7310 "Uragan" is a Soviet/Belarusian 8x8 artillery truck designed and developed by MAZ , in what is now Belarus. Designed in the 1960s, the MAZ-543 was presented on November 7, 1965 during the Moscow Red Square military parade as part of SS-1с Scud B system...

  • Emplacement Time: 3 min
  • Displacement Time: 2 min
  • Launch Rate
Salvo Time: 12 rounds in 38 seconds
  • Reload Time: 20 min

Rocket projectiles

Variant Rocket Warhead Self-destruct time Range
Name Type Weight Length Weight Submunition Min. Max.
9M55K Cluster munition
Cluster bomb
A cluster munition is a form of air-dropped or ground-launched explosive weapon that releases or ejects smaller sub-munitions. Commonly, this is a cluster bomb that ejects explosive bomblets that are designed to kill enemy personnel and destroy vehicles...

, anti-personnel
800 kg 7.6 m 243 kg 72 × 1.75 kg, each with 96 fragments (4.5 g each) 110 sec 20 km 70 km
9M55K1 Cluster munition, self guided anti-tank 243 kg 5 × 15 kg
9M55K4 Cluster munition, AT minelets
Anti-tank mine
An anti-tank mine, , is a type of land mine designed to damage or destroy vehicles including tanks and armored fighting vehicles....

243 kg 25 × 5 kg mines 24 hour
9M55K5 HEAT/HE-Fragmentation. 243 kg 646 × 0.25 kg (120 mm RHA armor piercing) 260 sec
9M55F separable HE-Fragmentation 258 kg
9M55S Thermobaric
Thermobaric weapon
A thermobaric weapon, which includes the type known as a "fuel-air bomb", is an explosive weapon that produces a blast wave of a significantly longer duration than those produced by condensed explosives. This is useful in military applications where its longer duration increases the numbers of...

243 kg
9M528 HE-Fragmentation 815 kg 243 kg 7.6 m 25 km 90 km


- 18 systems in 1999. - unknown. - 5 systems. - 48 systems in 1990. - 62 Systems in service. Total cost $750 million. - 27 systems in 1996. - Copied as the PHL-03. - 300 in 2001 (100 in 1995). - 6 systems 9A52-2T in 2008/2009. - 99 in 2008, - 6 - 12 ordered to be delivered May 2011.


  • 9A52-4 - Lighter, airmobile version on KamAZ-6350 truck with modular 6-round rocket pack. Demonstrated in 2007.
  • 9A52-2T - Export version, based on the Tatra T816 10x10 truck.
  • PHL96 - Chinese version, based on a Wanshan WS-2400 8x8 truck.
  • PHL03 or Type A100 - Chinese variant.

See also

  • Katyusha, BM-13, BM-8, and BM-31 multiple rocket launchers of World War II
  • BM-14
    The BM-14 , is a Soviet-made 140mm multiple rocket launcher, fielded by the Soviet Union.The BM-14 can fire rockets fitted with chemical , smoke or high-explosive fragmentation warheads...

     140mm multiple rocket launcher
  • BM-21 Grad 122mm multiple rocket launcher
  • BM-27 Uragan 220mm multiple rocket launcher
  • M270
    M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System
    The M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System is an armored, self-propelled, multiple rocket launcher; a type of rocket artillery.Since the first M270s were delivered to the U.S. Army in 1983, the MLRS has been adopted by several NATO countries. Some 1,300 M270 systems have been manufactured in the...

    , U.S. multiple rocket launcher
  • Pinaka Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher
    Pinaka Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher
    Pinaka is a multiple rocket launcher produced in India and developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation for the Indian Army. The system has a maximum range of 39–40 km and can fire a salvo of 12 HE rockets in 44 seconds, neutralizing a target area of 3.9 km2...

    , 214mm Indian multiple rocket launcher
  • TOS-1 Buratino
    TOS-1 is a Soviet 30-barrel or 24-barrel multiple rocket launcher and thermobaric weapon mounted on a T-72 tank chassis. TOS-1 was designed for defeating enemy personnel in fortifications, in open country, and in lightly armoured vehicles and transport...

     Heavy Flame Thrower System (multiple rocket / thermobaric weapon launcher)
  • 9A52-4 Tornado
    9A52-4 Tornado
    The 9A52-4 Tornado multiple launch rocket system will be Russia's newest universal MLRS and is designed as a lightweight and universal version of the BM-30 Smerch MLRS, dubbed 9A52-2. It was first unveiled in 2007 as a more strategically and tactically mobile version at the expense of a slight...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.