Archbishopric of Salzburg
Overview
 
The Archbishopric of Salzburg was an ecclesiastical
Prince-Bishop
A Prince-Bishop is a bishop who is a territorial Prince of the Church on account of one or more secular principalities, usually pre-existent titles of nobility held concurrently with their inherent clerical office...

 State
Imperial State
An Imperial State or Imperial Estate was an entity in the Holy Roman Empire with a vote in the Imperial Diet assemblies. Several territories of the Empire were not represented, while some officials were non-voting members; neither qualified as Imperial States.Rulers of Imperial States were...

 of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

, its territory roughly congruent with the present-day Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

n state
States of Austria
Austria is a federal republic made up of nine states, known in German as Länder . Since Land is also the German word for a country, the term Bundesländer is often used instead to avoid ambiguity. The Constitution of Austria uses both terms...

 of Salzburg
Salzburg (state)
Salzburg is a state or Land of Austria with an area of 7,156 km2, located adjacent to the German border. It is also known as Salzburgerland, to distinguish it from its capital city, also named Salzburg...

.

The diocese arose from St Peter's Abbey, founded in the German stem duchy
Stem duchy
Stem duchies were essentially the domains of the old German tribes of the area, associated with the Frankish Kingdom, especially the East, in the Early Middle Ages. These tribes were originally the Franks, the Saxons, the Alamanni, the Burgundians, the Thuringii, and the Rugii...

 of Bavaria
Duchy of Bavaria
The Duchy of Bavaria was the only one of the stem duchies from the earliest days of East Francia and the Kingdom of Germany to preserve both its name and most of its territorial extent....

 about 696 by St Rupert
Rupert of Salzburg
Rupert of Salzburg is a saint in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches and a founder of the Austrian city of Salzburg...

 at the former Roman
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 city of Iuvavum
Salzburg
-Population development:In 1935, the population significantly increased when Salzburg absorbed adjacent municipalities. After World War II, numerous refugees found a new home in the city. New residential space was created for American soldiers of the postwar Occupation, and could be used for...

(Salzburg). The last Archbishop with princely authority before the secularisation
German Mediatisation
The German Mediatisation was the series of mediatisations and secularisations that occurred in Germany between 1795 and 1814, during the latter part of the era of the French Revolution and then the Napoleonic Era....

 was Count Hieronymus von Colloredo
Count Hieronymus von Colloredo
Count Hieronymus Joseph Franz de Paula Graf Colloredo von Wallsee und Melz was Prince-Bishop of Gurk from 1761 and Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg from 1771 until 1803, when the Archbishopric was secularized.-Life:He was the second son of Count Rudolf Wenzel Joseph Colloredo von Wallsee und Melz , a...

, an early patron of Salzburg native Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , baptismal name Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart , was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. He composed over 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music...

.

Up to today, the Archbishop of Salzburg has also borne the title Primas Germaniae
Primas Germaniae
Primas Germaniae is a historical title of honour for the most important Catholic bishop in Germany.Since at least 965 the Title was held by the Archbishop of Mainz as most important Archbishop and most noble Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire until the See of Mainz was secularized in 1803...

("First [Bishop] of Germany").
Discussions
Encyclopedia
The Archbishopric of Salzburg was an ecclesiastical
Prince-Bishop
A Prince-Bishop is a bishop who is a territorial Prince of the Church on account of one or more secular principalities, usually pre-existent titles of nobility held concurrently with their inherent clerical office...

 State
Imperial State
An Imperial State or Imperial Estate was an entity in the Holy Roman Empire with a vote in the Imperial Diet assemblies. Several territories of the Empire were not represented, while some officials were non-voting members; neither qualified as Imperial States.Rulers of Imperial States were...

 of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

, its territory roughly congruent with the present-day Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

n state
States of Austria
Austria is a federal republic made up of nine states, known in German as Länder . Since Land is also the German word for a country, the term Bundesländer is often used instead to avoid ambiguity. The Constitution of Austria uses both terms...

 of Salzburg
Salzburg (state)
Salzburg is a state or Land of Austria with an area of 7,156 km2, located adjacent to the German border. It is also known as Salzburgerland, to distinguish it from its capital city, also named Salzburg...

.

The diocese arose from St Peter's Abbey, founded in the German stem duchy
Stem duchy
Stem duchies were essentially the domains of the old German tribes of the area, associated with the Frankish Kingdom, especially the East, in the Early Middle Ages. These tribes were originally the Franks, the Saxons, the Alamanni, the Burgundians, the Thuringii, and the Rugii...

 of Bavaria
Duchy of Bavaria
The Duchy of Bavaria was the only one of the stem duchies from the earliest days of East Francia and the Kingdom of Germany to preserve both its name and most of its territorial extent....

 about 696 by St Rupert
Rupert of Salzburg
Rupert of Salzburg is a saint in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches and a founder of the Austrian city of Salzburg...

 at the former Roman
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 city of Iuvavum
Salzburg
-Population development:In 1935, the population significantly increased when Salzburg absorbed adjacent municipalities. After World War II, numerous refugees found a new home in the city. New residential space was created for American soldiers of the postwar Occupation, and could be used for...

(Salzburg). The last Archbishop with princely authority before the secularisation
German Mediatisation
The German Mediatisation was the series of mediatisations and secularisations that occurred in Germany between 1795 and 1814, during the latter part of the era of the French Revolution and then the Napoleonic Era....

 was Count Hieronymus von Colloredo
Count Hieronymus von Colloredo
Count Hieronymus Joseph Franz de Paula Graf Colloredo von Wallsee und Melz was Prince-Bishop of Gurk from 1761 and Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg from 1771 until 1803, when the Archbishopric was secularized.-Life:He was the second son of Count Rudolf Wenzel Joseph Colloredo von Wallsee und Melz , a...

, an early patron of Salzburg native Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , baptismal name Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart , was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. He composed over 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music...

.

Up to today, the Archbishop of Salzburg has also borne the title Primas Germaniae
Primas Germaniae
Primas Germaniae is a historical title of honour for the most important Catholic bishop in Germany.Since at least 965 the Title was held by the Archbishop of Mainz as most important Archbishop and most noble Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire until the See of Mainz was secularized in 1803...

("First [Bishop] of Germany"). The powers of this title – non-jurisdictional – are limited to being the Pope's first correspondent in the German-speaking world, but used to include the right to preside over the Princes of the Holy Roman Empire
Princes of the Holy Roman Empire
The term Prince of the Holy Roman Empire denoted a secular or ecclesiastical Imperial State, who ruled over an immediate fief directly assigned by the Holy Roman Emperor...

. The Archbishop also has the title of Legatus Natus
Papal legate
A papal legate – from the Latin, authentic Roman title Legatus – is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church. He is empowered on matters of Catholic Faith and for the settlement of ecclesiastical matters....

("born legate") to the Pope, which, although not a cardinal
Cardinal (Catholicism)
A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually an ordained bishop, and ecclesiastical prince of the Catholic Church. They are collectively known as the College of Cardinals, which as a body elects a new pope. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and...

, gives the Archbishop the privilege of wearing red vesture (which is much deeper than a cardinal's scarlet), even in Rome.

Previous history

The Vita Sancti Severini by Eugippius
Eugippius
Eugippius was a disciple and the biographer of Saint Severinus of Noricum. After the latter's death in 492, he took the remains to Naples and founded a monastery on the site of a 1st century Roman villa, the Castellum Lucullanum .While at Naples, Eugippius compiled a 1000-page anthology of the...

 reported that during the Decline of the Roman Empire
Decline of the Roman Empire
The decline of the Roman Empire refers to the gradual societal collapse of the Western Roman Empire. Many theories of causality prevail, but most concern the disintegration of political, economic, military, and other social institutions, in tandem with foreign invasions and usurpers from within the...

 about 450 AD Iuvavum was already home to two churches and a monastery. Very little is known of the early bishopric, and the legendary Saint Maximus of Salzburg
Maximus of Salzburg
St. Maximus is the first Archbishop of Salzburg known by name. He was an early Christian martyr....

 is the only abbot-bishop known by name. A disciple of Saint Severinus, he was martyred in the retreat from Noricum
Noricum
Noricum, in ancient geography, was a Celtic kingdom stretching over the area of today's Austria and a part of Slovenia. It became a province of the Roman Empire...

, after King Odoacer of Italia
Odoacer
Flavius Odoacer , also known as Flavius Odovacer, was the first King of Italy. His reign is commonly seen as marking the end of the Western Roman Empire. Though the real power in Italy was in his hands, he represented himself as the client of Julius Nepos and, after Nepos' death in 480, of the...

 had invaded the province in 487/88. Iuvavum had been destroyed in c. 482 and with it the bishopric, six years before the departure of the Roman legions from the region.

Bishopric (c. 543/698 – 798)

In the late 7th century St. Rupert, then Bishop of Worms
Bishopric of Worms
The Bishopric of Worms was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire. Located on both banks of the Rhine around Worms just north of the union of that river with the Neckar, it was largely surrounded by the Palatinate. Worms had been the seat of a bishop from Roman times...

 and later called the apostle of Bavaria
Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

 and Carinthia
Duchy of Carinthia
The Duchy of Carinthia was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. It was separated from the Duchy of Bavaria in 976, then the first newly created Imperial State beside the original German stem duchies....

, came to the region from Regensburg
Regensburg
Regensburg is a city in Bavaria, Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. To the east lies the Bavarian Forest. Regensburg is the capital of the Bavarian administrative region Upper Palatinate...

 and reestablished the diocese. After erecting a church at Seekirchen am Wallersee
Seekirchen am Wallersee
Seekirchen am Wallersee is a town in the district of Salzburg-Umgebung in the state of Salzburg in Austria.-History:The territory was settled 5,000 years ago and is the oldest Austrian settlement that still exists today...

 he discovered the ruins of Iuvavum overgrown with brambles. It appears less likely that he arrived in c. 543 during the time of the unsourced Duke Theodon II of Bavaria
History of Bavaria
The history of Bavaria stretches from its earliest settlement and its formation as a stem duchy in the 6th century through its inclusion in the Holy Roman Empires to its status as an independent kingdom and, finally, as a large and significant Bundesland of the modern Federal Republic of...

 than about 696 during the reign of Duke Theodo II (V)
Theodo of Bavaria
Theodo also known as Theodo V and Theodo II, was the Duke of Bavaria from 670 or, more probably, 680 to his death.It is with Theodo that the well-sourced history of Bavaria begins...

 when the Bavarian stem duchy
Stem duchy
Stem duchies were essentially the domains of the old German tribes of the area, associated with the Frankish Kingdom, especially the East, in the Early Middle Ages. These tribes were originally the Franks, the Saxons, the Alamanni, the Burgundians, the Thuringii, and the Rugii...

 came under Frankish supremacy. In either case, it was not until after 700 that Christian
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 civilisation reemerged in the region. The cathedral monastery was named in honour of St. Peter and Rupert's niece Erentrudis
Saint Erentrude
Saint Erentrude is a virgin saint of the Roman Catholic Church and was the niece of Saint Rupert of Salzburg. Her date and place of birth are unknown, but it may be presumed that she was born in present-day Germany or Austria, in the latter part of the 7th century...

 founded the nunnery at Nonnberg
Nonnberg Abbey
Nonnberg Abbey is a Benedictine monastery in Salzburg, Austria.It was founded ca. 714 by Saint Rupert of Salzburg and is the oldest women's religious house in the German-speaking world...

. In 739 St. Boniface
Saint Boniface
Saint Boniface , the Apostle of the Germans, born Winfrid, Wynfrith, or Wynfryth in the kingdom of Wessex, probably at Crediton , was a missionary who propagated Christianity in the Frankish Empire during the 8th century. He is the patron saint of Germany and the first archbishop of Mainz...

 completed the work of St. Rupert, and placed Salzburg under the primatial see of the Archbishopric of Mainz
Archbishopric of Mainz
The Archbishopric of Mainz or Electorate of Mainz was an influential ecclesiastic and secular prince-bishopric in the Holy Roman Empire between 780–82 and 1802. In the Roman Catholic Church hierarchy, the Archbishop of Mainz was the primas Germaniae, the substitute of the Pope north of the Alps...

. St. Vergilius
Vergilius of Salzburg
Vergilius of Salzburg was an Irish churchman, an early astronomer and bishop of Salzburg. His obituary calls him the geometer.-Biography:...

, abbot of St. Peter's since about 749, had quarelled with St. Boniface over the existence of antipodes
Antipodes
In geography, the antipodes of any place on Earth is the point on the Earth's surface which is diametrically opposite to it. Two points that are antipodal to one another are connected by a straight line running through the centre of the Earth....

. He nevertheless became bishop about 767, had the first cathedral erected in 774 and began the valuable book Liber Confraternitatum (Confraternity Book of St. Peter).

Early Archbishopric (798–1060)

Arno
Arno of Salzburg
Arno, Arn or Aquila was bishop of Salzburg, and afterwards its first archbishop.-Early years:He entered the church at an early age, and after passing some time at Freising became abbot of Elnon, or Saint-Amand Abbey as it was afterwards called, where he made the acquaintance of Alcuin.-Carolingian...

, bishop since 785, enjoyed the respect of the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Charlemagne was King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans from 800 to his death in 814. He expanded the Frankish kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800...

 who assigned to him the missionary territory between the rivers Danube
Danube
The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

 in the north, the Rába
Rába
The Rába is a river in southeastern Austria and western Hungary and a right tributary of the Danube. Its source is in Austria, some kilometres east of Bruck an der Mur below Heubodenhöhe Hill. It flows through the Austrian states of Styria and Burgenland, and the Hungarian counties of Vas and...

 (Raab) in the east and the Drava
Drava
Drava or Drave is a river in southern Central Europe, a tributary of the Danube. It sources in Toblach/Dobbiaco, Italy, and flows east through East Tirol and Carinthia in Austria, into Slovenia , and then southeast, passing through Croatia and forming most of the border between Croatia and...

 in the south, an area which had recently been conquered from the Avars
Eurasian Avars
The Eurasian Avars or Ancient Avars were a highly organized nomadic confederacy of mixed origins. They were ruled by a khagan, who was surrounded by a tight-knit entourage of nomad warriors, an organization characteristic of Turko-Mongol groups...

. Monasteries were founded and all of Carinthia
Duchy of Carinthia
The Duchy of Carinthia was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. It was separated from the Duchy of Bavaria in 976, then the first newly created Imperial State beside the original German stem duchies....

 was slowly Christianised. While Arno was in Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

 attending to some of Charlemagne's business in 798, Pope Leo III
Pope Leo III
Pope Saint Leo III was Pope from 795 to his death in 816. Protected by Charlemagne from his enemies in Rome, he subsequently strengthened Charlemagne's position by crowning him as Roman Emperor....

 appointed him Archbishop over the other bishops in Bavaria
Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

 (Freising, Passau, Regensburg
Bishopric of Regensburg
The Bishopric of Regensburg was a small prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire, located in what is now southern Germany. It was elevated to the Archbishopric of Regensburg in 1803 after the dissolution of the Archbishopric of Mainz, but became a bishopric again in 1817.-History:The diocese...

, and Säben
Bishopric of Brixen
The Bishopric of Brixen is a former Roman Catholic diocese and also a former ecclesiastical state of the Holy Roman Empire in the present province of South Tyrol. The bishopric in the Eisack/Isarco valley was established in the 6th century and gradually received more secular powers...

). When the dispute over the ecclesiastical border between Salzburg and the Patriarchate of Aquileia broke out, Charlemagne declared the Drava to be the border. Arno also began the copying of 150 volumes from the court of Charlemagne, beginning the oldest library in Austria.

Archbishop Adalwin (859-873) suffered great troubles when King Rastislav
Rastislav
Rastislav or Rostislav was the second known ruler of Moravia . Although he started his reign as vassal to Louis the German, king of East Francia, he consolidated his rule to the extent that after 855 he was able to repel a series of Frankish attacks...

 of Great Moravia
Great Moravia
Great Moravia was a Slavic state that existed in Central Europe and lasted for nearly seventy years in the 9th century whose creators were the ancestors of the Czechs and Slovaks. It was a vassal state of the Germanic Frankish kingdom and paid an annual tribute to it. There is some controversy as...

 attempted to remove his realm from the ecclesiastical influence of East Francia. In 870 Pope Adrian II
Pope Adrian II
Pope Adrian II , , pope from December 14, 867 to December 14, 872, was a member of a noble Roman family, and became pope in 867, at an advanced age....

 appointed the "Apostle of the Slavs" St. Methodius
Saints Cyril and Methodius
Saints Cyril and Methodius were two Byzantine Greek brothers born in Thessaloniki in the 9th century. They became missionaries of Christianity among the Slavic peoples of Bulgaria, Great Moravia and Pannonia. Through their work they influenced the cultural development of all Slavs, for which they...

 the Archbishop of Pannonia
Pannonia
Pannonia was an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia....

 and Moravia
Moravia
Moravia is a historical region in Central Europe in the east of the Czech Republic, and one of the former Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Silesia. It takes its name from the Morava River which rises in the northwest of the region...

 at Sirmium
Sirmium
Sirmium was a city in ancient Roman Pannonia. Firstly mentioned in the 4th century BC and originally inhabited by the Illyrians and Celts, it was conquered by the Romans in the 1st century BC and subsequently became the capital of the Roman province of Lower Pannonia. In 294 AD, Sirmium was...

, entrusting him large territories under the overlordship of the Salzburg diocese. It was only when Rastislav and Methodius were captured by King Louis the German
Louis the German
Louis the German , also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian, was a grandson of Charlemagne and the third son of the succeeding Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye.He received the appellation 'Germanicus' shortly after his death in recognition of the fact...

 that Adalwin could adequately protest the invasion of his rights. Methodius appeared at the Synod of Salzburg where he was struck in the face and imprisoned in close confinement for two and a half years. Adalwin attempted to legitimise his imprisonment, but was compelled to release Methodius when ordered by the Pope.

Soon after, the Magyars
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

 ravaged Great Moravia and not a church was left standing in Pannonia. Archbishop Dietmar I fell in battle in 907. It was not until the Battle of Lechfeld
Battle of Lechfeld
The Battle of Lechfeld , often seen as the defining event for holding off the incursions of the Hungarians into Western Europe, was a decisive victory by Otto I the Great, King of the Germans, over the Hungarian leaders, the harka Bulcsú and the chieftains Lél and Súr...

 in 955 that the Magyars suffered a crushing defeat, and ecclesiastical life in Salzburg returned to normal. The following year after Archbishop Herhold allied with Duke Ludolph of Swabia
Swabia
Swabia is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.-Geography:Like many cultural regions of Europe, Swabia's borders are not clearly defined...

 and Duke Conrad the Red of Lorraine
Lower Lorraine
The Duchy of Lower Lorraine or Lower Lotharingia , established in 959 was a stem duchy of the medieval German kingdom, which encompassed part of modern-day Belgium, the Netherlands, the northern part of the German Rhineland and a part of northern France east of the Schelde river.It was created out...

, he was deposed, imprisoned, blinded, and banished. Archbishop Bruno
Bruno I, Archbishop of Cologne
Bruno the Great was Archbishop of Cologne, Germany, from 953 until his death, and Duke of Lotharingia from 954. He was the brother of Otto I, king of Germany and later Holy Roman Emperor....

 of Cologne, called the Bishop-Maker, appointed Frederick I archbishop and declared the Abbacy of St. Peter independent. In 996, Archbishop Hartwig  received the right to mint money.

Investiture Era (1060–1213)

In the era beginning with Pope Gregory VII
Pope Gregory VII
Pope St. Gregory VII , born Hildebrand of Sovana , was Pope from April 22, 1073, until his death. One of the great reforming popes, he is perhaps best known for the part he played in the Investiture Controversy, his dispute with Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor affirming the primacy of the papal...

, the Catholic Church entered an era of santification and righteousness in the church. The first archbishop of the era was Gebhard
Gebhard of Salzburg
Blessed Gebhard of Salzburg , also occasionally known as Gebhard of Helfenstein, was Archbishop of Salzburg from 1060 until his death. He was one of the fiercest opponents of King Henry IV during the Investiture Controversy....

, who during the Investiture Controversy
Investiture Controversy
The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was the most significant conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe. In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of Popes challenged the authority of European monarchies over control of appointments, or investitures, of church officials such...

 remained on the side of the Pope. Gebhard thus suffered a nine year exile, and was allowed to return shortly before his death and was buried in Admont
Admont
Admont is a town in Styria, Austria, with a population of 2775 . It is historically most notable for Admont Abbey, a monastery founded in 1074.-External links:* *...

. His successor Thimo was imprisoned for five years, and suffered a horrible death in 1102. After King Henry IV abdicated and Conrad I of Abensberg was elected Archbishop. Conrad lived in exile until the Calistine Concordat of 1122. Conrad spent the remaining years of his episcopate improving the religious life in the archdiocese.

The Archbishops again took the side of the Pope during the strife between them and the Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
The House of Hohenstaufen was a dynasty of German kings in the High Middle Ages, lasting from 1138 to 1254. Three of these kings were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor. In 1194 the Hohenstaufens also became Kings of Sicily...

s. Archbishop Eberard I of Hilpolstein-Biburg
Eberhard of Salzburg
Eberhard was Archbishop of Salzburg, Austria. Eberhard was born to a noble family of Nuremberg, Germany, he became a Benedictine in 1125 at Pruffening, Germany. Later he was made Abbot of Biburg near Regensburg. Eberhard was later appointed Archbishop of Salzburg in 1146...

 was allowed to reign in peace, but his successor Conrad II of Austria earned the Emperor's wrath and died in 1168 in Admont
Admont
Admont is a town in Styria, Austria, with a population of 2775 . It is historically most notable for Admont Abbey, a monastery founded in 1074.-External links:* *...

 a fugitive. Conrad III of Wittelsbach was appointed the Archbishop of Salzburg in 1177 at the Diet of Venice
Treaty of Venice
The Treaty or Peace of Venice, 1177, was an important peace treaty between the papacy and its allies, the north Italian city-states of the Lombard League, and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor...

, after the partisans of both Pope and Emperor were deposed.

Prince-Archbishopric

Archbishop Eberhard II of Regensberg was made a prince of the Empire in 1213, and created three new sees: Chiemsee
Bishopric of Chiemsee
The Bishopric of Chiemsee was a Roman Catholic diocese based on the islands of the Chiemsee in Bavaria, Germany.-History of the Bishopric :...

 (1216), Seckau (1218) and Lavant (1225). In 1241 at the Council of Regensburg
Regensburg
Regensburg is a city in Bavaria, Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. To the east lies the Bavarian Forest. Regensburg is the capital of the Bavarian administrative region Upper Palatinate...

 he denounced Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti, was pope from March 19, 1227 to August 22, 1241.The successor of Pope Honorius III , he fully inherited the traditions of Pope Gregory VII and of his uncle Pope Innocent III , and zealously continued their policy of Papal supremacy.-Early life:Ugolino was...

 at as "that man of perdition, whom they call Antichrist, who in his extravagant boasting says, I am God, I cannot err." He argued that the ten kingdoms that the Antichrist is involved with were the "Turks, Greeks, Egyptians, Africans, Spaniards, French, English, Germans, Sicilians, and Italians who now occupy the provinces of Rome." He held that the papacy was the "little horn" of Daniel 7:8:
A little horn has grown up with eyes and mouth speaking great things, which is reducing three of these kingdoms--i.e. Sicily, Italy, and Germany--to subserviency, is persecuting the people of Christ and the saints of God with intolerable opposition, is confounding things human and divine, and is attempting things unutterable, execrable.

Eberhard was excommunicated in 1245 after refusing to publish a decree deposing the emperor and died suddenly the next year. During the German Interregnum, Salzburg also suffered confusion. Philip of Spanheim, heir to the Dukedom of Carinthia, refused to take priestly consecrations, and was replaced by Ulrich, Bishop of Seckau.

King Rudolph I of Habsburg quarrelled with the archbishops through the manipulations of Abbot Henry of Admont, and after his death the archbishops and the Habsburgs made peace in 1297. The people and archbishops of Salzburgs remained loyal to the Habsburgs in their struggles against the Wittelsbachs. When the Black Death
Black Death
The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350. Of several competing theories, the dominant explanation for the Black Death is the plague theory, which attributes the outbreak to the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Thought to have...

 reached Salzburg in 1347, the Jews
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

 were accused of poisoning the wells and suffered severe persecution. The Jews were expelled from Salzburg in 1404. Later, the Jews were allowed to return but were forced to wear pointed hats.

Conditions were at their worst during the reign of Bernard II of Rohr. The country was in depression, local authorities were raising their own taxes and the Turks
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 were ravaging the archdiocese. In 1473, he summoned the first provincial diet in the history of the archbishopric, and eventually abdicated. It was only Leonard of Keutschach
Leonhard von Keutschach
Leonhard von Keutschach was Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg from 1495 until his death, the last to rule in the feudal style.- Biography :...

 (reigned 1495–1519) who reversed the situation. He had all the burgomaster
Burgomaster
Burgomaster is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or chairman of the executive council of a sub-national level of administration...

s and town councillors (who were levying unfair taxes) arrested simultaneously and imprisoned in the castle. His last years were spent in bitter struggle against Matthäus Lang of Wellenburg
Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg
Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg was a statesman of the Holy Roman Empire, a Cardinal and Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg from 1519 to his death....

, Bishop of Gurk, who succeeded him in 1519.

Matthäus Lang was largely unnoticed in official circles, although his influence was felt throughout the archbishopric. He brought in Saxon
Saxony
The Free State of Saxony is a landlocked state of Germany, contingent with Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, Bavaria, the Czech Republic and Poland. It is the tenth-largest German state in area, with of Germany's sixteen states....

 miners, which brought with them Protestant
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

 books and teachings. He then attempted to keep the populace Catholic, and during the Latin War
Latin War
The Latin War was a conflict between the Roman Republic and its neighbors the Latin peoples of ancient Italy. It ended in the dissolution of the Latin League, and incorporation of its territory into the Roman sphere of influence, with the Latins gaining partial rights and varying levels of...

 was besieged in the Hohen-Salzburg, declared a "monster" by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
Martin Luther was a German priest, professor of theology and iconic figure of the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. He confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517...

, and two later uprisings by the peasants lead to suffering to the entire archdiocese. Later bishops were wiser in the ruling and spared Salzburg the religious wars and devastations seen elsewhere in Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau
Wolf Dietrich Raitenau
Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau was Prince-Bishop of Salzburg from 1587 to 1612.-Biography:Raitenau was born at Hofen Castle in Lochau near Bregenz in Further Austria, the son of the Habsburg colonel Hans Werner von Raitenau and Helene von Hohenems, a niece of Pope Pius IV, sister of Markus Sitticus...

 gave the Protestants the choice of either to live Catholic or leave. The Cathedral was rebuilt in such splendour that it was unrivalled by all others north of the Alps
Alps
The Alps is one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west....

.

Archbishop Paris of Lodron led Salzburg to peace and prosperity during the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history....

 in which the rest of Germany was thoroughly devastated. During the reign of Leopold Anthony of Firmian, Protestants emerged more vigorously than before in 1731. He invited the Jesuits to Salzburg and asked for help from the emperor, and finally ordered the Protestants to recant or emigrate - about 30,000 people left and settled in Württemberg
Württemberg
Württemberg , formerly known as Wirtemberg or Wurtemberg, is an area and a former state in southwestern Germany, including parts of the regions Swabia and Franconia....

, Hanover
Hanover
Hanover or Hannover, on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony , Germany and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of Great Britain, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg...

 and East Prussia
East Prussia
East Prussia is the main part of the region of Prussia along the southeastern Baltic Coast from the 13th century to the end of World War II in May 1945. From 1772–1829 and 1878–1945, the Province of East Prussia was part of the German state of Prussia. The capital city was Königsberg.East Prussia...

, and a few settled in Ebenezer, Georgia
Ebenezer, Georgia
Ebenezer, also known as New Ebenezer, is a ghost town in Effingham County, Georgia, United States, along the banks of Ebenezer Creek. It was listed on the U.S...

 in what would become the United States of America. The last Prince-Archbishop, Hieronymus von Colloredo, is probably best known for his patronage of Mozart. His reforms of the church and education systems alienated him from the people.

Secularisation

In 1803, Salzburg was secularised as the Electorate of Salzburg
Electorate of Salzburg
The Electorate of Salzburg , occasionally known as the Grand Duchy of Salzburg, was an electoral principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1803–05. Its capital was Salzburg.- History :...

 for the former Grand Duke Ferdinand III
Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1790 to 1801 and, after a period of disenfranchisement, again from 1814 to 1824. He was also the Prince-elector and Grand Duke of Salzburg and Grand Duke of Würzburg .-Biography:Ferdinand was born in Florence, Tuscany, into the...

 of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence. The grand duchy's capital was Florence...

 (brother of Emperor Francis II), who had lost his throne. In 1805 it came to Austria, and in 1809 to Bavaria, who closed the University of Salzburg
University of Salzburg
The University of Salzburg, or Paris Lodron University after its founder, the Prince Archbishop Paris Lodron, is located in the Austrian city of Salzburg, Salzburgerland, home of Mozart. It is divided into 4 faculties: catholic theology, law, humanities and natural science.Founded in 1622, it...

, banned monasteries from accepting novices, and banned pilgrimages and processions. The archdiocese was reestablished as the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Salzburg
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Salzburg
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Salzburg is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Austria. The archdiocese is one of two Austrian archdioceses, serving alongside the Archdiocese of Vienna....

 in 1818 without temporal power.

Abbot-Bishops of Iuvavum c. 300s – c. 482

  • St. Maximus of Salzburg, died 476.

Abandoned after c. 482

Bishops of Iuvavum (from 755, Salzburg)

  • St. Ruprecht, born c. 543 or c. 698 – c. 718.
  • Vitalis
  • Erkenfried
  • Ansologus
  • Ottokar
  • Flobrigis
  • Johann I
  • St. Virgilius
    Vergilius of Salzburg
    Vergilius of Salzburg was an Irish churchman, an early astronomer and bishop of Salzburg. His obituary calls him the geometer.-Biography:...

    , c. 745 or c. 767 – c. 784

Archbishops of Salzburg, 798–1213

  • Arno
    Arno of Salzburg
    Arno, Arn or Aquila was bishop of Salzburg, and afterwards its first archbishop.-Early years:He entered the church at an early age, and after passing some time at Freising became abbot of Elnon, or Saint-Amand Abbey as it was afterwards called, where he made the acquaintance of Alcuin.-Carolingian...

     784–821
  • Adalram
    Adalram
    Adalram was an early 8th-century prelate active in Bavaria. He is known to have been archdeacon of the Salzburg diocese c. 819, and in 821 succeeded Arno as Archbishop of Salzburg...

     821–836
  • Leutram 836–859
  • Adalwin 859–873
  • Adalbert I
    Adalbert I
    Adalbert I* Adalbert I von Saarbrücken* Adalbert I, Count of Vermandois* Adalbert I, Margrave of Tuscany* Adalbert I of Ivrea...

     873
  • Dietmar I 873–907
  • Pilgrim I 907–923
  • Adalbert II 923–935
  • Egilholf 935–939
  • Herhold 939–958
  • Friedrich I 958–991
  • Hartwig 991–1023
  • Günther 1024–1025
  • Dietmar II 1025–1041
  • Baldwin 1041–1060
  • Gebhard
    Gebhard of Salzburg
    Blessed Gebhard of Salzburg , also occasionally known as Gebhard of Helfenstein, was Archbishop of Salzburg from 1060 until his death. He was one of the fiercest opponents of King Henry IV during the Investiture Controversy....

     1060–1088
  • Thiemo
    Thiemo
    Blessed Thiemo was a martyr and Archbishop of Salzburg from 1090 until his death....

     1090–1101
  • (Conradus I) Konrad I von Abensberg 1106–1147
  • Eberhard I von Hilpolstein-Biburg
    Eberhard of Salzburg
    Eberhard was Archbishop of Salzburg, Austria. Eberhard was born to a noble family of Nuremberg, Germany, he became a Benedictine in 1125 at Pruffening, Germany. Later he was made Abbot of Biburg near Regensburg. Eberhard was later appointed Archbishop of Salzburg in 1146...

     1147–1164
  • (Conradus II) Konrad II of Austria 1164–1168
  • Adalbert III of Bohemia 1168–1177
  • Conrad III 1177–1183
  • Adalbert III of Bohemia (restored) 1183–1200

Prince-Archbishops of Salzburg, 1213–1803

  • Eberhard II of Regensburg 1200–1246
  • Bernhard I of Ziegenhain 1247
  • Philipp of Carinthia 1247–1256
  • Ulrich of Sekau 1256–1265
  • Ladislaus of Salzburg 1265–1270
  • Frederick II of Walchen 1270–1284
  • Rudolf of Hoheneck 1284–1290
  • Conrad IV of Breitenfurt 1291–1312
  • Weichard of Pollheim 1312–1315
  • Frederick III of Liebnitz 1315–1338
  • Henry of Pirnbrunn 1338–1343
  • Ordulf of Wiesseneck 1343–1365
  • Pilgrim II of Pucheim 1365–1396
  • Gregor Schenk of Osterwitz 1396–1403
  • Eberhard III of Neuhaus 1403–1427
  • Eberhard IV of Starhemberg 1427–1429
  • John II of Reichensperg 1429–1441
  • Frederick IV Truchseß of Emmerberg 1441–1452
  • Sigismund I of Volkersdorf 1452–1461
  • Cardinal Burchard of Weissbruch 1461–1466
  • Bernhard II of Rohr 1466–1482
  • John III Peckenschlager 1482–1489
  • Friedrich V of Schallenburg 1489–1494
  • Sigismund II of Hollenegg 1494–1495
  • Leonhard von Keutschach
    Leonhard von Keutschach
    Leonhard von Keutschach was Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg from 1495 until his death, the last to rule in the feudal style.- Biography :...

     1495–1519
  • Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg
    Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg
    Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg was a statesman of the Holy Roman Empire, a Cardinal and Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg from 1519 to his death....

     1519–1540
  • Ernest of Bavaria
    Ernest of Bavaria (1500–1560)
    Duke Ernest of Bavaria was Administrator of the dioceses of Passau and Salzburg and pledge Lord of Glatz.- Background and education :Ernest was a member of the Bavarian noble Wittelsbach family...

     1540–1554
  • Michael of Khuenburg 1554–1560
  • John Jacob of Khun-Bellasy 1560–1586
  • George of Kuenburg 1586–1587
  • Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau
    Wolf Dietrich Raitenau
    Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau was Prince-Bishop of Salzburg from 1587 to 1612.-Biography:Raitenau was born at Hofen Castle in Lochau near Bregenz in Further Austria, the son of the Habsburg colonel Hans Werner von Raitenau and Helene von Hohenems, a niece of Pope Pius IV, sister of Markus Sitticus...

     1587–1612
  • Marcus Sittich of Hohenems 1612–1619
  • Paris von Lodron 1619–1653
  • Guidobald of Thun 1654–1668
  • Maximilian Gandalf of Kuenburg 1668–1687
  • Johann Ernst von Thun
    Johann Ernst von Thun
    Johann Ernst von Thun was prince-archbishop of Salzburg, Austria, from 1687 to 1709. He was originally from Tyrol and he displayed a marked antipathy to the Italian designers and tastemakers that were emulated by many Austrians at the time...

     1687–1709
  • Francis Anton od Harrach 1709–1727
  • Leopold Anton von Firmian 1727–1744
  • Jacob Ernest of Liechtenstein-Castelcorno 1744–1747
  • Andreas Jacob of Dietrichstein 1747–1753
  • Sigismund III of Schrattenbach
    Sigismund von Schrattenbach
    Sigismund Graf von Schrattenbach was the Archbishop of Salzburg from 1753 to 1771. He was the son of Otto Heinrich, Graf von Schrattenbach, and Maria Theresa, Countess of Wildenstein, widowed Baroness Gall von Gallenstein.After studying theology, he was ordained a priest in 1723...

     1753–1771
  • Hieronymus von Colloredo 1772–1812 (last prince-archbishop, lost temporal power in 1803 after secularization)


See Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Salzburg
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Salzburg
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Salzburg is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in Austria. The archdiocese is one of two Austrian archdioceses, serving alongside the Archdiocese of Vienna....

 for archbishops since 1812.

See also

  • Alte Residenz
    Alte Residenz
    The Alte Residenz was the city palace of the Archbishops of Salzburg in the Old Town of Salzburg.-Location:It lies in the historic center of Salzburg between Domplatz, Residenzplatz and Sigmund-Haffner-Gasse.-History:...

     – city palace
  • Schloss Hellbrunn
    Schloss Hellbrunn
    Hellbrunn Palace is an early Baroque villa of palatial size, near Morzg, a southern district of the city of Salzburg, Austria. It was built in 1613-19 by Markus Sittikus von Hohenems, Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg, and named for the "clear spring" that supplied it...

     – summer palace with clever fountains

External links

  • Salzburg at the Catholic Encyclopædia.
  • Legate at the Catholic Encyclopædia.
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