Anterior chamber
The anterior chamber is the fluid-filled space inside the eye
Human eye
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light for several purposes. As a conscious sense organ, the eye allows vision. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth...

 between the iris
Iris (anatomy)
The iris is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupils and thus the amount of light reaching the retina. "Eye color" is the color of the iris, which can be green, blue, or brown. In some cases it can be hazel , grey, violet, or even pink...

 and the cornea
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light, with the cornea accounting for approximately two-thirds of the eye's total optical power. In humans, the refractive power of the cornea is...

's innermost surface, the endothelium
The endothelium is the thin layer of cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. These cells are called endothelial cells. Endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from the heart...

. Aqueous humor is the fluid that fills the anterior chamber. Hyphema
Hyphema is blood in the front chamber of the eye. It may appear as a reddish tinge, or it may appear as a small pool of blood at the bottom of the iris or in the cornea.-Causes:...

 and glaucoma
Glaucoma is an eye disorder in which the optic nerve suffers damage, permanently damaging vision in the affected eye and progressing to complete blindness if untreated. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the fluid in the eye...

 are two main pathologies in this area. In hyphema, blood fills the anterior chamber. In glaucoma, blockage of the canal of Schlemm
Schlemm's canal
Schlemm's canal, also known as canal of Schlemm or the scleral venous sinus, is a circular channel in the eye that collects aqueous humor from the anterior chamber and delivers it into the bloodstream via the anterior ciliary veins....

 prevents the normal outflow of aqueous humor, resulting in accumulation of fluid, increased intraocular pressure
Intraocular pressure
Intraocular pressure is the fluid pressure inside the eye. Tonometry is the method eye care professionals use to determine this. IOP is an important aspect in the evaluation of patients at risk from glaucoma...

, and eventually blindness.

One peculiar feature of the anterior chamber is dampened immune response to allogenic grafts. This is called anterior chamber associated immune deviation (ACAID), a term introduced in 1981 by Streilein
J. Wayne Streilein
J. Wayne Streilein was a scientist whose main area of research was the ocular immune system. He is known particularly for studying the mechanisms that keep the cornea avascular despite the inflammatory and other stimuli that usually promote small blood vessel ingrowth; these peculiar corneal...

et al.
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